Medical Terminology-Chapters 1-4
Hondros Nursing School
Terms in this set (188)
Based on Greek and Latin words.
Visual examination using a scope.
against (ex: antihistamine)
--one or more roots
--provides meaning & is foundation of word
--joins roots or root to a suffix
--any vowel (most common is "o")
--root plus combining vowel creates a combining form
--an element added to end of a root or combining form to give a new beginning
--begins with consonant, must follow a combining vowel
--if suffix begins with a vowel, no combining vowel needed
Pneum (lung/air), o (comb. vowel), thorax (chest)
Study of the lungs.
Pulmon (lung), o (comb. vowel), logy (suffix)
Specialist of the skin.
Dermat (skin), o (comb. vowel), logist (specialist)
Inflammation of the skin.
Dermat (skin), itis (inflammation)
Pertaining to the lung.
pulmon (lung), ary (pertaining to)
Condition of the lung.
pneumon (lung/air), ia (condition of)
A process of breathing.
respir (breathing), ation (process of)
--an element added to beginning of a root or combining form to continue to expand the meaning
--never needs a combining vowel
--not every term has prefix
--may occasionally have two prefix's
--(ex: pre, post)
Before the normal pregnancy
pre (before), mature (normal pregnancy)
After the normal pregnancy
post (after), mature (normal pregnancy)
One side of the body.
uni (one), lateral (side of body)
Two (both) sides of the body.
bi (two/both), lateral (side of body)
Around the time of birth.
peri (around), natal (time of birth)
Above the stomach.
epi (above), gastric (stomach)
Below the stomach.
hypo (below), gastric (stomach)
Small red blood cell.
micro (small), cyte (red blood cell)
Large red blood cell.
macro (large), cyte (red blood cell)
Pertaining to around the birth.
peri (around), nat (birth), al (pertaining to)
Pertaining to below the stomach.
hypo (below), gastr (stomach), ic (pertaining to)
--unfamiliar medical term, first identify suffix
ex: cardiologist (cardi=heart, logist=specialist)
Pertaining to the heart muscle.
my (muscle), o (comb. vowel), cardi (heart), al (pertaining to)
Disease of the heart muscle.
cardio (heart), cncnbvcvn vncf" as combining form)
Some words are pronounced the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings.
Pertaining to a bone in pelvic.
Pertaining to the intestines.
Means mucus membrane.
Refers to the gland at the base of the male bladder.
Means to be physically weak or exhausted or to lie flat on the ground.
--medical terms do not simply involve adding an "s"
--plural endings must be memorized
-a (single), -ae (plural)
ex: single=axilla (armpit), plural=axillae (armpits)
-is (single), -es (plural)
ex: diagnosis (single), diagnoses (plural)
-on (single), -a (plural)
ex: ganglion (single), ganglia (plural)
-um (single), -a (plural)
ex: septum (single), septa (plural)
Low blood pressure.
hypo (low), tens (pressure), ion (action/condition)
High blood pressure.
hyper (high), tens (pressure), ion (action/condition)
acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Specialist of woman.
gyne (woman), logist (specialist)
Study of stomach and intestine.
gastro (stomach/intestine), logy (study of)
Standing erect, feet flat, face & eyes forward, arms at side w/palms facing forward.
Lying on back with palms up.
Lying on belly with palms facing floor.
Superior (cephalic) (directional term)
Situated above, head
Inferior (caudal) (directional term)
Situated below, tail
Proximal (directional term)
Vertically situated nearest to center of the body.
Distal (directional term)
Vertically situated away from center of the body.
Medial (directional term)
Toward the middle of the body.
Lateral (directional term)
Situated at the side of a structure.
Anterior (ventral) (directional term)
Situated in front, belly.
Posterior (dorsal) (directional term)
Situated in back.
Transverse (horizontal) (anatomical plane)
Divides body into superior and inferior portions.
Sagittal Plane (anatomical plane)
Divides body into left and right portions.
Frontal (coronal) (anatomical plane)
Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
5 major body cavities
separates thoracic & abdominal cavities.
RUQ (abdominal quadrant)
Right Upper Quadrant
RLQ (abdominal quadrant)
Right Lower Quadrant
LUQ (abdominal quadrant)
Left Upper Quadrant
LLQ (abdominal quadrant)
Left Lower Quadrant
--Epigastric region (top)
--Umbilical region (middle)
--hypogastric region (bottom
Abdominal Quadrant Lines
--subcostal line (top line)
--intertubercular line (bottom line)
Body Composed of:
--cells (smallest unit of the body capable of independent existence)
Single, fertilized cell and the beginning of a human being. This cell is the origin of every cell in the body (cell divides and multiplies to develop every tissue in the body).
Study of the cell.
cyto (cell), logy (study of)
A specialist of the cell.
Specialist in the structure, chemistry, and pathology of the cell.
cyto (cell), logist (specialist)
Union of a male sperm and a female egg.
fertiliz (to make fruitful), ation (process)
Primary tissue groups and functions:
bind, supprt, protect, fill spaces, and store fat
*hardest connective tissue is bone
protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete
control movement, stabilize, and allow movement of joints
*muscle controls movement
Transmit impulses for coordination, sensory reception, and motor actions.
*found in spinal cord and the nerves
Connective Tissue in Knee Joint
--tibia (lower-larger)--technically not part of knee joint
(cartilage is a shock absorber)
non-vascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints; has a rubbery, flexible substance
Strips or bands of tough connective tissue that connects two structures
Fibrous band that attaches muscle to the bone.
Maintaining the stability of a system or the body's internal environment.
homeo (the same), stasis (stand still, control)
The coordinated response of all the organs to maintain the internal physiologic stability of an organism.
Pertaining to head.
coron (head), al (pertaining to)
Ventral (aka anterior)
Pertaining to belly.
ventr (belly), al (pertaining to)
Pertaining to back.
dors (back), al (pertaining to)
Anatomical Directional Terms
Left, right, superior (cephalic), inferior (caudal), proximal, distal, medial, lateral, anterior, posterior
Skin (integrumentary system)
--vitamin D synthesis
--excretion & secretion
vaso (blood vessel), dila (widen/open up), tion (action)
vaso (blood vessel), constric (narrow), tion (action)
Largest and most vulnerable organ in the body.
Top layer of the skin, superficial
epi (above), dermis (skin)
Thick connective tissue layer of the skin beneath the epidermis
Below the skin, also called subcutaneous fat or adipose tissue
hypo (below), dermis (skin)
*same as adipose
Full of fat
adip (fat), ose (full of)
*same as hypodermis
Pertaining to the epidermis.
Pertaining to the hypodemis.
Pertaining to the skin
cutane (skin), ous (pertaining to)
--stratum corneum-dead keratinocytes (upper) (lower is living)
--keratin = hard protein
--dandruff = keratin + sebum
melanin = black pigment
Protein present in skin, hair, and nails.
kerat (hard protein), in (substance)
--black pigment found in the skin, hair and retina.
--determines color of skin, protects from UV light.
melan (black pigment), in (substance)
Tallow or was or oil=waxy secretion of the sebaceous glands
ID (injection route)
Within the epidermis.
Intra (within), dermal (skin)
Subcutaneous (subcut) (injection route)
Below the skin.
*45 degree angle, insulin
IM (injection route)
Within the muscle
intra (within) muscul (muscle), ar (pertaining to)
*90 degree angle, antibiotics
Going across or through the skin
Substance that reduces or relieves the response to pain without producing loss of consciousness
an (without), alges (sensation of pain), ic (pertaining to)
Inflammation of the skin
dermat (skin), itis (inflammation)
--pruritus = itching
--oxcoriate = to scratch
--excoriation = scratch marks
--allergen == substance producing a hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction
--basal cell carcinoma
--squamous cell carcinoma
malign (harmful), ant (bad)
melan (black pigment), oma (tumor/mass)
Sore caused by lying down for long periods of time.
Types of Infections of the Skin
--HPV causes warts (verrucas)
--Varicella -- zoster virus causes chickenpox and herpes zoster or shingles
*can be dormant for decades
*contact & respiratory contagious
Tinea (worm) -- general term for a group of related skin infections caused by different species of fungi
*can be anywhere on body
Candida albicans (thrush) -- can produce recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes
1) parasite -- organism that attaches itself to, lives on or in, and derives its nutrition from another species
2) periculosis -- infestation w/lice (plural)
3) scabies -- infestation w/itch mites
Staphylococcus aureus, or "staph"
*MRSA -- methicillin resistant
Partial or complete loss of hair, naturally or from medication.
Onychomycosis (nail disease)
Condition of a fungal infection in a nail.
onych (nail), omyc (fungas), osis (condition)
Paronychia (nail disease)
Infection alongside the nail
par (along side), onych (nail), ia (condition)
*nails can also reflect illness or conditions such as hypoxia (low oxygen) and malnutrition.
1st degree (superficial) -- sunburn
2nd degree (partial thickness) -- medical attention and may produce scaring
3rd degree (full thickness) -- medical attention and skin grafting
4th degree -- destroys all layers of the skin, can be involve tendons, muscles and bones, skin grafting required
*burns to lungs -- heat & smoke causes 60% of fatalities
Graft removed from the patient's own skin
auto (self/same), graft (transplant)
Graft from another person or cadaver (same as allograft)
homo (same/like), graft (transplant)
Graft from another person or cadaver (same as homograft)
allo (other), graft (transplant)
Graft from non-human species (same as heterograft)
xeno (foreign), graft (transplant)
Graft from non-human species (same as xenograft)
hetero (different), graft (transplant)
Surgical repair of the tummy.
abdomino (tummy), plasty (surgical repair)
Surgical repair of the eyelid.
blepharo (eyelid), plasty (surgical repair)
Surgical repair of the breast.
mammo (breast), plasty (surgical repair)
Surgical repair of the nose.
rhino (nose), plasty (surgical repair)
Orthopedic surgeons (orthopedists) -- MD
Osteopathic physicians -- DO
Chiropractors (DC) -- doctoral degree
Physical therapists (PT) -- doctoral degree
Podiatrists (DPM) -- podiatric medicine
Components of Skeletal System
Classifications of Bones
--long (most common)
*bones heal because of blood supply
Condition in which the bones become more porous, brittle, & fragile -- likely to fraction
osteo (bone), poro (opening), sis (condition)
Decreased calcification of bone; low bone density
osteo (bone), penia (deficient)
Bone mineral density
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (a measuring device that uses low energy radiation beams)
Soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium.
osteo (bone), malacia (abnormal softness)
Malignant tumor originating in bone-producing cells
osteo (bone), gen (creation), ic (pertaining to), sarc (flesh), oma (tumor/mass)
Inflammation of the bone tissue
osteomyel (bone marrow), itis (inflammation)
Types of Bone Fractures
--Close (simple) -- bone is broken, but skin is not
--Open (compound) -- bone edge breaks through the skin
--Complete -- bone is broken in at least two fragments
--Incomplete -- fracture does not extend across the bone
--Comminuted -- bone is broken into pieces
--Pathologic -- occurs at a site already weakened by a disease process
Procedures for Fractures
--External fixation -- casts, splints, traction
--Internal fixation -- wires, plates, rods, screws, and pins
Nonunion (broken bones)
Fracture fails to heal
Malunion (broken bones)
Fracture fails to heal correctly.
Cervical (vertebral column)
Pertaining to the neck region or cervix (lower part of uterus)
cervic (neck), al (pertaining to)
Thoracic (vertebral column)
Pertaining to chest.
thorac (chest), ic (pertaining to)
Lumbar (vertebral column)
Region of the back & sides between the ribs and pelvis.
Sacral (vertebral column)
Pertaining to the sacrum
sacr (sacrum), al (pertaining to)
Coccyx (vertebral column)
Space between vertebra
inter (between), vertebr (vertebra), al (pertaining to)
Normal posterior curve of the spine that can be exaggerated in disease, usually thoracic region
kyph (bent/humpback), osis (condition)
Abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column, usually thoracic region.
scoli (crooked), osis (condition)
Normal forward curve of the lumbar spine that can be exaggerated in disease.
lord (curve/swayback), osis (condition)
--Temporal bone = tempor (time)
--Occipital bone (back of skull)
--Parietal bone (side of skull) = pariet (wall) -- 2 bones forming sidewalls & cranium
--Frontal bone (front)
--Sphenoid bone = sphen (wedge) oid (resemble) -- wedge shaped bone at base
--Ethmoid bone (nasal) = ethm (sieve) -- bone that forms back of nose & encloses air cells
Shoulder Girdle & Upper Arm
--Clavicle (collar bone)
--Scapula (shoulder blade)
--Humerus (arm bone)
--Head of humerus (ball & socket joint)
Forearm, wrist, and hand bones
--Metacarpals (after wrist)
--Phalanges (fingers & toes)
Wrist & Hand Disorders
--colles fracture -- facture of the distal radius at the wrist
--osteoarthritis (OA) -- chronic inflammatory disease of joints
--rheumatoid arthritis (RA) -- systemic disease affecting many joints
--Ilium (wing shaped bone)
--Pubis (pubic bone)
--femur (thigh bone)
--Tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
--Fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
Treat and diagnose disorders & injuries of the foot and toenails.
Lower Leg, Ankle & Foot
--metatarsal (meta=after) -- 5 bones between tarsus & toes
Flexion (arm up)
Extension (arm down)
-ic, -al, -ary, -ar
Time of birth
Red blood cell
Stand still, control