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5th grade science chapter 16 stars and galaxies


a large group of stars in the universe

Spiral Galaxy

galaxy that is pinwheel shaped with a thin disk with long arms; gas and dust rotate around the central hub of the galaxy

Elliptical Galaxy

huge galaxy that is round or oval in shape

Irregular Galaxy

huge galaxy with no regular shape


huge, hot body made of different gases; radiates energy (light)


an immense cloud of gas (mainly hydrogen) and dust in space; where stars form

Huge Stars

Use up their fuel faster than sun-sized stars; go on to become a super red giant, then explode in a supernova then collapse into a neutron star

Giant Stars

Use up their fuel even faster than huge stars; go on to become a super red giant, then explode in a supernova then collapse into a black hole

White Dwarf

what a sun-sized star becomes after its red giant stage

Black Dwarf

what a white dwarf becomes after it has given off all its heat


when the core of a super giant star collapses causing an explosion

Neutron Star

dense core of neutrons left after a supernova explosionstar

Black Hole

dense region where gravity is so great that not even light can escape

Absolute Magnitude

the amount of light a star ACTUALLY gives off

Apparent Magnitude

the amount of a star's light we see from Earth

black hole

a point in space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape it


an area of the sky and all the stars seen in that area


a huge system of planets, stars, dust, and gas held together by gravity


the distance light travels in one year, about nine trillion kilometers


a cloud of gas and dust in which stars may form


a huge explosion that occurs when a very large star collapses


the partial or total blocking of one object in space by another


any celestial body visible (as a point of light) from the Earth at night

solar flare

a sudden eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface

milky way

the name of our galaxy, a spiral galaxy that contains about 400 billion stars

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