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process you use to assign meaning to data about yourself or the world around you

3 steps of the perception process

1. sensory perception
2. selective perception
3. personal perception

selective perception

the mental process of choosing which data or stimuli to focus on from all that are available to you at any given time

factors that influence selections

1. intensity
2. repetition
3. uniqueness
4. relevance

personal perception

your own understanding of reality

factors that influence personal perception

1. values
2. beliefs
3. culture
4. bias
5. prejudice
6. attitudes
7. expectations
8. knowledge
9. communication skills

perception check

question that helps you determine the accuracy and validity of your perceptions


the view you have of yourself

factors that influence self-concept

1. how you perceive that you are seen and treated by others
2. your own expectations and the standards that you set for yourself
3. how you compare yourself to others

self-fulfilling prophecy

prediction or expectation of an event that shapes your behavior, making the outcome more likely to occur; 2 kinds:
1. comes from own self-concept and the expectations you establish for yourself
2. comes from what you think others expect of you


the deliberate revelation of significant information about yourself that is not readily apparent to others

Johari window

diagram that communicators use to identify what they know about themselves and others

areas of the Johari window

1. open
2. blind
3. hidden
4. unknown

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