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Chapter 3

1) Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of
A) reproduction.
B) cellular structure.
C) metabolism.
D) growth.
E) responsiveness.
2) Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?
A) flagellin
B) basal body
C) tubulin
D) filament
E) hook
3) Which of the following statements concerning the characteristics of life is FALSE?
A) Reproduction is defined as an increase in the size of an organism.
B) Viruses have some, but not all, of the characteristics of living things.
C) Organisms may not exhibit all of the characteristics of life at all times.
D) Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually in living things.
E) Living things store metabolic energy in the form of chemicals such as ATP.
4) Bacterial pili can be described as
A) composed of tubulin.
B) solid, rigid protein structures.
C) composed of peptidoglycan.
D) specialized fimbriae.
E) a means of locomotion.
5) Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the creation of biofilms?
A) glycocalyces
B) flagella
C) fimbriae
D) pili
E) both fimbriae and glycocalyces
6) Short, hairlike structures used only by eukaryotic cells for movement are called
A) pili.
B) flagella.
C) fimbriae.
D) pseudopodia.
E) cilia.
7) A bacterial cell moving toward light would be an example of
A) tumbles.
B) positive phototaxis.
C) negative phototaxis.
D) positive chemotaxis.
E) negative chemotaxis.
8) Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic flagella is FALSE?
A) Prokaryotic flagella can rotate 360 degrees.
B) A "run" results from counterclockwise movement of the flagellum.
C) Prokaryotic flagella are composed of tubulin.
D) Treponema is an example of a bacterium that has an endoflagellum.
E) Prokaryotic flagella are anchored to the cell wall by means of the basal body
9) Which of the following statements concerning pili is FALSE?
A) Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella.
B) Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells.
C) Pili are long, hollow tubules.
D) Not all bacteria have pili.
E) A bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili.
10) Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial cell walls?
A) peptidoglycan
B) lipoteichoic acids
C) mycolic acid
D) tetrapeptide
E) tubulin
11) Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain
A) carbohydrates.
B) amino acids.
C) lipopolysaccharide.
D) tubulin.
E) waxes.
12) Lipid A is also known as
A) endotoxin.
B) teichoic acid.
C) tetrapeptide.
D) mycolic acid.
E) lipopolysaccharide.
13) Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by
A) unique ribosomes.
B) the presence of mycolic acid in their cell walls.
C) the absence of a cell wall.
D) cell walls composed solely of amino acids.
E) the absence of a cytoplasmic membrane.
14) Lipid-soluble molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane by which of the following processes?
A) osmosis
B) facilitated diffusion
C) diffusion
D) active transport
E) group translocation
15) ATP is expended in which of the following processes?
A) facilitated diffusion
B) diffusion
C) group translocation
D) active transport
E) both active transport and group translocation
16) Which of the following statements concerning osmosis is FALSE?
A) Osmosis requires a selectively permeable membrane.
B) During osmosis, water crosses to the side of the membrane with a lower solute concentration.
C) Cells placed in hypotonic solutions will gain water.
D) Crenation results when cells are placed in a hypertonic solution.
E) Osmosis stops when the system reaches equilibrium.
17) Endospores survive a variety of harsh conditions in part because of the presence of
A) mycolic acid.
B) lipopolysaccharide.
C) hopanoids.
D) dipicolinic acid.
E) glycoproteins.
18) The glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions EXCEPT
A) protection against dehydration.
B) anchoring cells to each other.
C) cellular recognition and communication.
D) transfer of genetic material between cells.
E) strengthening the cell surface.
19) Which of the following is unique to archaea?
B) peptidoglycan
C) hami
D) fimbriae
E) pili
20) When cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they lose water and shrivel. This process is called
A) crenation.
B) endocytosis.
C) passive transport.
D) periplasm.
E) plasmalemma.
21) Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT?
A) These processes occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
B) Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell.
C) Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle.
D) Waste products and secretions are exported from the cell during endocytosis.
E) Endocytosis is a form of passive transport, whereas exocytosis is a form of active transport.
22) One lipid found in eukaryotes but NOT in prokaryotes is
A) hopanoid.
B) lipopolysaccharide.
C) phospholipid.
D) fatty acid.
E) steroid.
23) Which of the following statements concerning centrioles is FALSE?
A) The structure of centrioles is similar to that of eukaryotic flagella and cilia.
B) Centrioles are believed to play a role in cellular processes such as mitosis and cytokinesis.
C) Centrioles are found in a region of the cell called the centrosome.
D) Centrioles are found in all organisms except prokaryotes.
E) Centrioles are composed of microtubules.
24) Which of the following is classified as a membranous organelle of eukaryotic cells?
A) endoplasmic reticulum
B) ribosome
C) cytoskeleton
D) centriole
E) both ribosomes and centrioles
25) Which of the following is NOT associated with the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?
A) chromatin
B) cristae
C) histones
D) nucleoplasm
E) nucleolus
26) Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is CORRECT?
A) The rough ER is the site of lipid synthesis.
B) The smooth ER has ribosomes associated with it.
C) The ER is a lipid storage organelle.
D) The ER is a transport system within the cytoplasm.
E) The smooth ER is a site of ATP synthesis.
27) Which of the following organelles is responsible for producing most of the ATP in a eukaryotic cell?
A) lysosome
B) Golgi body
C) mitochondrion
D) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E) nucleus
28) Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that they have
B) two lipid bilayers.
C) 70S ribosomes.
D) light-harvesting pigments.
E) cristae.
29) Which of the following is paired INCORRECTLY?
A) plants: cellulose cell wall
B) algae: glycocalyx present
C) bacteria: peptidoglycan cell wall
D) fungi: cellulose, chitin, and/or glucomannan cell wall
E) archaea: polysaccharide cell wall
30) Which of the following statements concerning the endosymbiotic theory is FALSE?
A) Eukaryotes were formed from the union of small anaerobic cells by larger aerobic cells.
B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts can divide independently of the cell.
C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and ribosomes.
D) The cristae of mitochondria evolved from the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes.
E) The endosymbiotic theory is not universally accepted.
31) Which of the following is NOT a function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton?
A) anchors organelles
B) gives shape to the cell
C) packages cellular secretions
D) performs endocytosis
E) aids in contraction of the cell
32) The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) group translocation.
C) osmosis.
D) plasmolysis.
E) diffusion.
33) Which of the following molecules would be expected to cross the cytoplasmic membrane rapidly and without the use of transport proteins?
A) large molecules
B) ions
C) small hydrophobic molecules
D) small hydrophilic molecules
E) both ions and hydrophilic molecules
34) Which of the following processes requires a carrier protein?
A) diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport
D) endocytosis
E) both facilitated diffusion and active transport
35) Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria?
A) N-acetylglucosamine
B) peptidoglycan
C) lipoteichoic acid
D) endotoxin
E) mycolic acid
36) The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain phospholipids and proteins.
A) archaeal cells
B) bacterial cells
C) eukaryotic cells
D) both bacterial and eukaryotic cells
E) archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic cells
37) Membrane rafts are found in the cytoplasmic membranes of
A) archaea.
B) bacteria.
C) eukaryotes.
D) both archaea and bacteria.
E) both archaea and eukaryotes.
38) Endocytosis and exocytosis are means of transport used by
A) bacteria.
B) eukaryotes.
C) archaea.
D) all prokaryotes.
E) No cells use both processes.
39) Some __________ use group translocation as a means of transport.
A) eukaryotes
B) bacteria
C) archaea
D) prokaryotes
E) eukaryotes and prokaryotes
40) Hopanoids are found in __________ cytoplasmic membranes.
A) eukaryotic
B) bacterial
C) archaeal
D) prokaryotic
E) no
41) The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan.
A) archaea
B) bacteria
C) eukaryotes
D) prokaryotes
E) bacteria and eukaryotes
42) Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids.
A) bacteria
B) eukaryotes
C) archaea
D) prokaryotes
E) both bacteria and eukaryotes
43) Some members of __________ have hami.
A) archaea
B) bacteria
C) eukaryotes
D) both archaea and bacteria
E) both bacteria and eukaryotes
44) __________ may have pili.
A) Eukaryotes
B) Archaea
C) Bacteria
D) Prokaryotes
E) Eukaryotes and bacteria
45) __________ may have flagella.
A) Archaea
B) Bacteria
C) Eukaryotes
D) Prokaryotes
E) Archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes
46) Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) archaea
D) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
E) all prokaryotes
47) The cell walls of __________ contain tetrapeptides.
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) all prokaryotes
48) Which of the following have external structures containing a periplasmic space?
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) eukaryotes
49) Which of the following prokaryotic cells contain an outer membrane?
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) all prokaryotes
50) The cytoplasmic membranes of __________ contain lipids.
A) Gram-negative bacteria
B) Gram-positive bacteria
C) both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
D) archaea
E) all prokaryotes
1) Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.
2) Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis.
3) Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.
4) All cell membranes contain phospholipids and a wide variety of proteins.
5) The process of facilitated diffusion requires an input of energy.
6) Eukaryotic ribosomes are composed of 60S and 40S subunits.
7) Lysosomes result from the endocytosis of food particles by eukaryotic cells.
8) Formation of a biofilm may contribute to bacteria's ability to cause disease.
9) Chromatin is composed of DNA and special packaging proteins called hopanoids.
10) The Golgi body prepares cellular products for export.
1) In a(n) __________ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water that it may burst.
Answer: hypotonic
2) The presence of a cell __________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.
Answer: wall
3) A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a __________ (higher/lower) concentration of water in a given solution.
Answer: lower
4) A(n) __________ is a carrier protein that transports two substances in the same direction across a membrane.
Answer: symport
5) The __________ body anchors the bacterial flagellum in the cell wall.
Answer: basal
6) The reserve deposits of starch or other compounds found in many prokaryotic cells are called __________.
Answer: inclusions
7) Eukaryotic cells use a process known as __________ to obtain liquids from their environment.
Answer: pinocytosis
8) Lipid __________ is a part of the Gram-negative cell wall that can produce fever, inflammation, and shock when it is released into the bloodstream. (Be sure to use capital letters.)
a (thats wat the thing sais dont blame meeh)
9) Paired structures composed of tubulin that play a role in eukaryotic mitosis are known as __________.
Answer: centrioles
10) Fibrous structures some archaea use for attachment to surfaces are __________.
Answer: hami
11) A(n) __________ is a type of glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell.
Answer: capsule
12) The type of organelles found only in eukaryotic cells are described as __________.
Answer: membranous
13) The semiliquid matrix of the nucleus is called the __________.
Answer: nucleoplasm
14) A structural molecule found in eukaryotic cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles is __________.
Answer: tubulin
15) Another name for a channel protein in the cell membrane is __________.
Answer: permease