283 terms

APush Midterm Review

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Vasco de Gama
Discovered india
Bartholomeu Dias
Rounded tip of Africa
Bartholomeu de las casas
Against encomienda
Encomienda
Indians were given to christian settlers to convert, early form of slavery
Maize
Indian corn, cultivation of this corresponded to development of civilization
3 sister farming
Beans, corn, squash grown together
Hiawatha
Leader of the Iroquois confederacy
Iroquois Confederacy
Northeastern Indian tribe military alliance
Reasons for expansion
New, cheaper trade routes and exotic goods
Plantation system
Large scale slave labor used in agriculture
Isabella & Ferdinand
Spanish monarchs
Christopher Columbus
Discovered America in 1492
Europe
Markets, capital, and technology
Africa
Slaves
America
Resources
Columbian exchange
Impact of Europeans in America
Treaty of Tordesillas
Treaty that split America between Spain and Portugal
Conquistadores
Spanish conquerors
Vasco Nunez Balboa
Discovered and claimed Pacific Ocean
Ferdinand Magellan
Circumnavigated the globe
Juan Ponce de Leon
Explored Florida, seeking gold
Francisco Coronado
Explored southwest America
Hernando de Soto
Sought gold, mistreated Indians
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered Incas
Hernan Cortes
Conquered Aztecs
Malinche
Female Indian slave who helped conquer the Aztecs
Moctezuma
Aztec king
Noche Triste
"Sad night"
Mestizos
Mixed Indian-European heritage
John Cabot
Explored northeastern North America, sent by England
Giovanni da Verrazano
Sent by France to explore eastern seaboard
Jacques Cartier
French man who explored St. Lawrence River
Don Juan de Onate
Explored west & a used natives
Popes Rebellion
native Americans rebelled against Spanish because of repression of their religions
Robert de la Salle
Frenchman sent to explore Mississippi River
Cabrillo
Explored California coast
Serra
Est. California missions
Black Legend
Spanish conquerors did only bad things
Queen Elizabeth I
English monarch who encouraged expansion and Protestantism
"sea dogs"
Francis Drake was one of these- they promoted Protestantism and captured Spanish ships
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
First English person to attempt colonization
Sir Walter Raleigh
Roanoke founder who failed to colonize Virginia
Philip II
Spanish monarch who supported Catholicism: Spanish Armada
Primogeniture
Only oldest sons inherited parents land, factor in colonization
Jamestown
First English settlement that lasted, led by John Smith and Lord de la Warr, main economy was tobacco
John Smith
Saved Jamestown colony, allied with Indians
Lord de la Warr
Harsh military rule on Jamestown, attacked Indians
Powhatan Confederacy
Led by Powhatan, loose alliance of nearby Virginian tribes
First Anglo-Powhatan War
lord de la Warr declared war on Indians and Englishmen destroyed their homes & crops. Ended with the marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
1644- Indians defeated. Resulted in a peace treaty that separated them from white land and settlements.
3 D's
Disease, disposability, disorganization
House of Burgesses
Virginia governing body distrusted by James I
Maryland
Catholic haven founded by lord Baltimore
Act of Toleration
All Christians had religious freedom
Barbados slave code
Restricted slave freedoms and fundamental rights
Carolina
Main crop rice, slave trade flourished in this colony with religious toleration
North Carolina
Colony that split off
Georgia
Haven for debtors established by James Oglethorpe
John Calvin
established Puritanism and believed in predestination
Predestination
God knew from the first moment of creation who was going to hell and who would be saved
Separatists
Puritans who broke off from the Church of England
Mayflower
Puritan ship
Plymouth Rock
location the puritans landed at
Mayflower compact
Set a precedent for later written constitutions, agreement of the puritans to form a government and submit to the will of the majority
town meetings
Democratic feature of Puritan life
William Bradford
Puritan governor who believed in divine providence
Great Migration
1630s migration of puritans to New England from England
John Winthrop
Governor of Massachusetts bay colony
Freemen
Adult males who belonged to the Puritan church
Blue laws
Repressive laws against sins and immoral behavior
Anne Hutchinson
banished from the colony for believing in antinomianism, or the belief that the saved did not need to obey laws, and for saying that God spoke directly to her
Roger Williams
Est. Rhode Island after being banished
Thomas Hooker
Founded Connecticut colonies
Fundamental orders
CT constitution that established a government controlled by citizens
Sir Ferdinando Gorges
Tried to colonize Maine
Metacom
King Philip, forged Indian alliance and fought English
New England Confederation
alliance formed for defense, contained New England colonies
Dominion of New England
Led by Andros, included New England, New Jersey, and New York. Punishment for ignoring English orders
English Navigation Laws
Laws that sought to prevent American trade with non-English countries or colonies
Glorious Revolution
ended the Dominion of New England
Salutary Neglect
navigation laws were weakly enforced by new English monarchs, william and Mary
Dutch West India Company
Established New Netherland
Patroonships
Estates given to colonists in exchange for their settlement of 50 people on them
Peter Stuyvesant
Led New Netherland
Pennslyvania
Penn's woodland, founded by William Penn, inhabited by Quakers with good relations with Indians
Middle Colonies
Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania also called the "bread colonies"
Disease
Caused the Chesapeake colonies to grow slowly
Freedom Dues
Land and passage given to indentured servants in exchange for their work
Head right system
A colonist who paid for an indentured servant's passage received land
Bacons Rebellion
Led by Nathaniel Bacon, caused by discontented freemen and William Berkeley's refusal to strike against Indians, also caused planters to seek out a less unpredictable source of labor (black slaves)
William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia who refused to strike against Indians
New England
Little disease, family oriented, large population, town meetings
Jeremiads
Sermons given in which preachers scolded settlers for immoral behavior and waning piety
Halfway Covenant
Children of existing church members could be baptized & join the church, weakened distinction between the saved and other settlers
Salem Witch Trials
A period of time in which many young women were accused of witchcraft and hanged
Leisler's Rebellion
New York City revolution between rich land holders and middle class merchants
Jayle Birds
Paupers and convicts brought to America by English authorities
Triangular trade
Trade from New England to Africa to the West Indies (rum to Africa, slave to the West Indies, molasses to New England)
Molasses Act
Aimed to stop North American trade with the West Indies, caused smuggling and bribes
Established churches
Tax supported churches
Great Awakening
A period of religious revival that featured preachers such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards
Delivered the sermon Sinners in the hands of an angry God
Ben Franklin
Wrote Poor Richard's Almanac
John Peter Zenger
Accused of libel by the Royal governor, defended by Alexander Hamilton who was found not guilty
Similarities between colonies
Spoke English, Protestant, self-governed
Samuel de Champlain
"Father of New France" established Quebec
New France
French colonies in Canada, main resources were beaver furs
Antoine Cadillac
Founded Detroit
De La Salle
Founded Louisiana
King William's War/ Queen Anne's War
Guerilla War between fur trappers and British colonists, peace treaty resulted in Britain receiving Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay and trade rights in Spanish North America
King George's War
Also called war of jenkin's ear, British vs Spanish, British captured Louisburg and then gave it back to France in the peace treaty
Ohio Valley
Main point of contention between France and Britain
Fort Duquesne
Fort on the Ohio River that George Washington attacked
French and Indian War
War between the French and their Indian allies and the British, increased tensions between Britain and the colonies and reduced disunity between colonies
Fort Necessity
George Washington's fort on the Ohio River
William Pitt
British statesmen who helped win the French and Indian war
Albany Congress
Congress of the colonies to try to unite to be successful and keep the Iroquois loyal to the British led by Ben Franklin
General Braddock
Incompetent British general
Buckskins
Name for the colonial militiamen
James Wolfe
General who led the British army on the plains of Abraham
Marquis de Montcalm
General who led the French army on the plains of Abraham
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the French and Indian War and ejected France from North America
Factors of colonial disunity
Geographical boundaries, conflicting religions, varied nationalities, different governments, class resentment
Pontiac's Uprising
Violent attempt by native Americans to drive Americans out of Ohio, quashed by British and resulted in the Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
Issued by British, prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians, outraged colonists
Republicanism
all citizens should put the needs of their country ahead of their own
Mercantilism
Colonies exist for their country's benefit
Navigation Laws
Laws that regulated the commerce of the colonies (ex: colonies could only ship goods in British ships, colonies could export certain products only to England, and colonists could only ship products to other countries if they went through Britain first)
Sugar act
Increased tax on sugar, caused American outrage
Quartering Act
Required colonists to provide food and quarters for English troops
Stamp Act
Mandated use of British stamps with a tax on them to raise revenue for the military
Admiralty courts
Courts with no juries
virtual representation
The idea that all British citizens (including colonists) were represented by parliament
Stamp Act Congress
congress in which delegates declared their grievances and rights and asked for the stamp act to be repealed
Nonimportation agreements
Colonists refused to import British goods
Sons and daughters of liberty
Groups that harassed British officials and enforced the nonimportation agreements
Declaratory Act
Parliament had the right to bind the colonists in all cases
Townshend Acts
Taxes on glass, lead, paper, paint, tea that paid the salaries of British officials in the colonies
Boston massacre
Event in which British troops opened fire on colonists after they taunted them
Committees of correspondence
Letter exchanges that spread resistance against the British
Thomas Hutchinson
Massachusetts governor who enforced tea laws
Boston Tea Party
Bostonians disguised themselves as Indian and dumped tea in the harbor
Intolerable Acts
Acts that stripped Massachusetts of their rights in response to their revolts (ex: town meetings were restricted, officials who killed colonists in the line of duty could be tried in England, new quartering act)
Boston Port Act
Closed Boston Harbor to trade until damages were paid and order was restored
Quebec Act
Determined how French subjects in Canada could be governed
First Continental Congress
Met in 1774 in Philadelphia to discuss the issues with Britain
Lexington & concord
First battles of the revolutionary war, fought after British troops attempted to seize gunpowder and a rebel leader and shots were fired
Weaknesses of Britain
Disorganized government, soldiers did not want to fight colonists, bad generals and provisions, and too much distance between Britain and America, did not know the country as well as the militia
Strengths of Britain
Good navy and army, wealthier, allied with Indians, mercenaries, and loyalists
Strengths of America
Good leadership, French allies, colonies on the defense, moral advantage
Weaknesses of America
Disorganized army, colonies resented congress, economic troubles, scanty supplies
Lord Dunmore
Virginia governor, promised black slaves their freedom in return for their service
minutemen
American militia
Second Continental Congress
All 13 colonies met at this 1775 congress, George Washington picked as leader of the army
Green Mountain Boys
Led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, conquered fort Ticonderoga
Olive Branch Petition
Professed American loyalty to the crown and asked for a stop to the war, was ignored by British
Hessians
German mercenaries
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense and the Crisis papers and urged America to declare independence
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson, declared independence from Britain
Loyalists
Also called Tories, loyal to Britain
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty or give me death"
Benedict Arnold
American traitor
Saratoga
Turning point of the wat
Nathaniel Greene
Fighting quaker
Cornwallis
British general
Joseph Brant
Mohawk chief who sided with the British
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
First treaty between United States and Indians
George Rogers Clark
Frontiersmen who seized British forts in the Ohio River Valley
John Paul Jones
A member of the American navy who destroyed British ships
Yorktown
Battle that ended the war (British General Cornwallis surrendered here after being cornered by the Americans and French)
Admiral de grasse
French admiral who helped defeat the British at Yorktown
Peace of Paris
Treaty that ended the revolutionary war, negotiated by John Jay, John Adams, and Ben Franklin, that recognized America as an independent country and gave it lots of land
Civic virtue
Democracy depended on the unselfish commitment of each citizen to the common good
Republican motherhood
Mothers had the responsibility to turn their sons into good citizens who upheld the republic
Articles of Confederation
First constitution of the United States that limited the powers of the federal government
Northwest Ordinance
Land would be governed as territories until they had a certain number of inhabitants and then they would be made a state
Land ordinance
Old northwest land should be sold to pay off the debts from the war
Easy states
States that lowered tariffs in order to attract more trade
Rag money
Depreciated paper money
Shay's Rebellion
Led by Daniel Shays, uprising caused by loss of farmers' land, that demanded lighter taxes, more money, and no takeovers of property
Constitutional Convention
Convention held to improve constitution in 1787
Virginia plan
Large state plan, proposed that representation in the legislature would be based on state population
New Jersey plan
Small state plan, proposed one legislative house with equal representation of all states under the articles of confederation
Great Compromise
House of Representatives representation would be by population, senate would have equal representation regardless of state size, also gave house the ability to determine undecided elections
3/5 compromjse
Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person
Executive, judicial, legislative
3 branches of government
Federalists
Group of people who favored a strong central government
Anti federalists
Favored strong state governments and a less strong central government
Bill of Rights
List of guaranteed rights of American citizens added to the constitution in order to appease anti federalists, drafted by James Madison (included freedom of speech, freedom of press, and freedom of religion)
The Federalist Papers
Series of writings by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton that supported the Constitution
George Washington
First president of the United States
Thomas Jefferson
George Washington's Secretary of State and later president, anti federalist, rivals with Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton
George Washington's secretary of the treasury, Thomas Jefferson's rival, later killed in a duel by Aaron Burr, "father of the national debt", federalist
Funding at par
Government would pay off its debts at face value plus interest
Henry Knox
George Washington's secretary of war
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized courts and court offices
John Jay
First Chief Justice of the supreme court
Assumption
The act of congress taking on state debts
Bank of the United States
Hamilton wanted one of these and argued against Jefferson that it was constitutional using the elastic clause
Strict Construction
Constitution should be interpreted literally
Whiskey Rebellion
Resulted from tariff on whiskey, ended when state militias were sent in on Washington's orders
Democratic Republicans
Led by Madison and Jefferson, this party favored rule of the people, strict construction, was mainly comprised of common people, and did not want an overbearing central government
Federalists
Led by Hamilton, favored loose construction and a very strong national government
Neutrality Proclamation
Proclaimed that America and its citizens were neutral in the conflict between the British and French
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Battle between the Americans and the Miami Confederacy of native Americans
Treaty of Greenville
In exchange for money, hunting rights, and recognition of sovereignty the Indians gave America large amounts of Midwestern land
Jay's Treaty
Badly negotiated treaty between America and Britain after British began to seize American ships
Pinckney's Treaty
Between the United States and Spain, treaty gave Americans territory north of Florida and navigation of the Mississippi
John Adams
2nd US president, nicknamed "his rotundity"
High Federalists
Led by Hamilton, a war faction of the Federalists that plotted against Adams
XYZ affair
Occurred after French started to attack American ships. Adams sent 3 men to talk to the French foreign minister & the men were approached by Frenchmen who demanded money in order to see the foreign minister. "Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute"
Convention of 1800
America and France met, alliance treaty ended
Alien Acts
Federalists laws that allowed immigrants to be more easily deported or jailed, and raised the requirements for voting
Sedition Acts
Federalist laws that allowed anyone who spoke against the government to be jailed or fined
Virginia/ Kentucky Resolutions
Written by Jefferson and Madison against the alien and sedition acts that proposed the idea of nullification within states
Election of 1800
First election with political parties, Jefferson vs Adams, also called the revolution of 1800
Aaron Burr
Jefferson's Vice President, later killed Hamilton in a duel and committed treason
Albert Gallatin
Jefferson's secretary of the treasury
Judiciary Act of 1801
John Adams created 16 new judicial positions and appointed "midnight judges" with this act
John Marshall
Chief Justice, federalist
Marbury vs Madison
Established that only the Supreme Court can declare things unconstitutional (judicial review)
Samuel Chase
Supreme Court justice Jeffersonians attempted to impeach
Louisiana Purchase
The purchase of Louisiana for 15 million dollars from France, negotiated by Robert Livingston and James Monroe
Lewis and Clark
Explored Louisiana purchase as members of the corps of discovery with the help of Sacajawea
Zebulon Pike
Explored purchase and discovered Pikes Peak
French and British
The _______ and ________ closed their ports to shipping and seized American trading ships, causing conflict, in the early 1800s
Impressment
The forcible enlistment of sailors into the military, especially by the British, and seizure of ships
Chesapeake (ship)
Attacked by British in 1807 when they sought deserters
Embargo Act
Law forbade export of all US goods, "peaceful coercion", was more harmful to Americans than the British and French
Non-Intercourse Act
re-opened trade with all countries except for Britain and France
James Madison
Followed Jefferson as president
Macon's Bill No. 2
Promised that if either Britain or France repealed their trading restrictions and stopped attacking ships America would re-embargo the country that did not
War Hawks
Congress members who pushed for war
Tecumseh
Leader of a huge Indian confederacy along with Tenskwatawa
Tenskwatawa
Helped lead the huge Indian confederacy, called the "prophet"
William Henry Harrison
Governor of Indiana Territory, later president
Battle of Tippecanoe
Made William Henry Harrison a national hero and crushed the confederacy
War of 1812
Called "mr Madison's war", hated by Federalists, Britain versus America, ended with the treaty of Ghent
Main causes of the war of 1812
War would unify America, impressment, the Chesapeake attack, the British aid to Native Americans
Oliver Perry
Naval officer who defeated the British at lake erie
The constitution
"Old Ironsides", notable war ship
Fort McHenry
Site of the battle that inspired "the star spangled banner" by Francis Scott kdy
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the war of 1812- "not one inch of territory ceded or lost"
Outcomes of the war of 1812
Increased nationalism, boosted economy, self sufficiency, America recognized as a growing world power, control of fromtier
Hartford Convention
Convention of Federalists that demanded financial compensation from the government and a new amendment requiring a 2/3 rule before an embargo could be imposed, war declared, or new states added. Also wanted to end 3/5 comp., limit presidency to one term, and ban two consecutive presidents from the same state. After the war ended, convention's grievances were dropped. The convention marked the end of the Federalist Party.
Rush-Bagot Agreement
Agreement that limited Great Lakes military action on the parts of America and Britain
Nationalism
Pride in one's country
Better military and industries, America strong and united
Why was there an increase in nationalism after the war of 1812?
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff
American system
Proposed by Henry Clay, suggested strong banks, protective tariffs, and better infrastructure (roads and canals), encouraged country wide economic growth and regional cooperation
James Monroe
President after Madison, his administration was an "era of good feelings"
1819 economic depression
The first depression that resulted from over speculation in the frontier
Cheap, fertile land and peace with Indians
Why did more and more settlers want to settle in the west?
Missouri Compromise
Comp. proposed by Henry Clay that admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and ended slavery above the southern border of Missouri, showed that different regions of the country could work together
Corrupt Bargain
Henry Clay being offered the position of John Quincy Adams' Secretary of State in exchange for his support in the House of Representatives when the election of 1824 was decided by it
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams vs Andrew Jackson
Tallmadge Amendment
No more slaves brought into Missouri, children of slaves freed
Marshall court rulings
Increased nationalism in America- reinforced the strength of the federal government over the state governments
John Quincy Adams
Monroe's Secretary of State, later an unpopular president
Florida Purchase Treaty
Also called the Adams-onis treaty, Americans got Florida and Spain's claims to Oregon, Spain got Texas
Monroe Doctrine
European nations could not interfere in the Americas or colonize the, anymore, expression of nationalism and isolationism
Economic nationalism
The American system was an example of what
Political nationalism
The one party system was an example of what
Judicial Nationalism
The Marshall court rulings were an example of what
Nationalism through expansion
The Missouri compromise, growing settlement on the frontier, and Monroe doctrine are examples of what
Election of 1828
John Quincy Adams vs Andrew Jackson, part 2
Spoils system
The practice of rewarding political supporters with public office
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of 1828, hated by southerners because it forced them to pay higher prices for northern goods and because they were scared the government would interfere in other matters such as slavery
Nullification Crisis
Conflict that erupted when South Carolina nullified the tariff of abominations, eventually ended when Henry Clay compromised: the government would gradually reduce the tariff but it would establish the force bill
Force Bill
The president could use military action to collect taxes or tariffs
Trail of Tears
The forcible removing of Indian tribes from their homelands by Andrew Jackson and the subsequent journey to Indian reservations during which many Indians died
The Bank War
Jackson distrusted the national bank, hated paper money, and believed the bank was harmful to common people and had too much power, so he vetoed an extension of its charter. The economy was later strongly affected by this.
Biddle
President of the national bank
Election of 1832
Clay vs Jackson for the presidency
Whig Party
Political party that hated Jackson and believed in nationalism and a new bank, also supported the American system and a strong central government to reform the country, included Henry Clay
Martin Van Buren
Andrew Jackson's successor
Panic of 1837
Second economic depression caused by speculation and the bank war
Sam Houston
Texan leader
Santa anna
Mexican dictator
Battle of the Alamo
Famous part of the Texan battle for independence from Mexico
William Henry Harrison
Successor of Van Buren
Jacksonian Democracy
System in which the common man had as much power as an aristocrat
Charles Talleyrand
French foreign minister
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