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AP Psych Ch 8: Social Psychology
Terms in this set (49)
deals with how people influence and relate to other people, and with the relationship between an individual and a group
explain someone's behavior by saying that it is caused either by their personality or by the situation
created the attribution theory
fundamental attribution error
overestimate personality as a cause of behavior and underestimate the influence of the situation. behavior is caused by the situation, but you incorrectly assume it is caused by the individual's personality.
ex: someone cuts you off super nasty. you yell at them and think they suck at driving instead of thinking maybe they're driving someone to the hospital.
do well on something because its easy, not personal
personal (dispositional) attribution
do well on something because you have a good work ethic, take personal credit for
when someone else does something you don't like, you blame their personality. when you do the same thing, you attribute it to the situation.
ex: someone driving slowly is a fcking idiot and can't drive. but if you drive slowly it's because you're texting or looking for an address
a feeling or belief that predisposes you to behave in a particular way
ex: if you feel that a course you're taking is interesting, you'll pay attention and work harder.
ask for something small that's easy to agree to, then make the larger request that you really want. "start small and build". once people say yes, they are more likely to continue saying yes.
ask for much more than you actually want. when you drop down to what you really want, it seems like much less.
norms of reciprocity
because someone does something for you, they expect you to do something for them in return
ex: a charity sends you "free" mailing labels and wants a donation
how a person in a particular position is expected to behave
when you have 2 impeding thoughts, you have to change one of them to make it more congruent
change your behavior based on what everyone else is doing. change one's actions and/or beliefs to agree with a group. always involved a group's standards
did the famous study of conformity and length of lines
behaviors a group wants and expects from its members. violating them will bring anger, antagonism, and rejection.
did the famous study on obedience that caused a furor about ethical standards in research
1. authority figure is giving orders
2. the location is prestigious
3. can't see the victim (more likely to do bad things)
4. cannot see someone else disobeying
5. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
performing better in the presence of a group. occurs when you're good at a task
opposite of social facilitation
the opposite occurs when you're bad at a task. does worse when people are watching
exerting less effort when in a group than you would as an individual because you expect other group members to pick up the slack
doing bad things in a large group because you feel anonymous and don't have to live up to your usual standards
opposite of deindividuation
make them feel like an individual. talk about their appearances so they are no longer in the group
all members of a group agree about something. the more they discuss it, the more extreme they get because they never hear opposing viewpoints.
a few members of the group disagree with the majority but are afraid to speak up. the group leader mistakenly assumes that the group is unanimous and makes the wrong decision.
because you believe something is true, you unconsciously behave in way that make it come true. you create a situation for someone else, cause someone else to do something.
a goal that can only be achieved if everyone in the group works toward that goal
an unjustifiable, and usually negative, belief/feeling/attitude toward a group and its members
an incorrect belief that all members of a group are the same in some way
performing below your level of ability because you believe a negative stereotype about yourself, don't believe you can do something because you don't believe you fall into that category
some rich people feel guilty about their wealth. so they believe that the poor deserve to be poor and everyone gets what he/she deserves. aka the just-world phenomenon
ingroups and outgroups
whenever there are two or more groups, it's tempting to have the prejudice that "my group is better than your group"
blame someone else for one's own weaknesses
think about one striking incident when a minority person did something bad, decide "they're all bad"
any physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt someone or something
heredity and genes
some people inherit a tendency to be more aggressive, as shown by identical/fraternal twin studies
neural systems in the brain
certain areas of the brain (in amygdala) cause aggression when stimulated. certain areas of the brain (in amygdala) cause passivity when stimulated
hormones and chemicals
more testosterone increases aggression. prolonged aggressive behavior also increases testosterone levels. alcohol makes aggressive people more likely to behave aggressively, especially when frustrated
being prevented from reaching a goal creates anger, which causes some people to be more aggressive
positively reinforced for aggressive behavior increases aggressiveness
belonging to a group that expects and encourages aggressive behavior increases such behavior
observational learning and aggression
watching aggressive behavior increases such behavior, especially when you see it pay off
intensely aroused, being "in lust" not in love. LOVE DOES NOT LAST LONG! people who keep ending relationships because it wears off and will continue to be disappointed
deep affection, liking, respect. does include sexual desire "my spouse is my best friend" lasts long
revealing important things about yourself to someone else. helps a close relationship. good communication is essential to marriage
people are less likely to help someone in trouble (help out in a crisis) if other people are present
Darley Latane Study
participants were in separate cubicles connected only by intercoms. a confederate/actor faked an epileptic seizure over the intercom. 80% of the time participants who thought they were alone helped, 30% of the time they believed others heard it they would help.
bystander/diffusion of responsibility
people are less likely to help when others are present because responsibility is spread out among others so they feel someone else will do something
bystander more likely to help
1. if you're alone
2. if you observe others helping
3. more likely to help if you're feeling good
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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