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outer protective layer of the eye; the portion seen on the anterior portion of the eyeball, referred to as the white of the eye
transparent anterior part of the sclera, which is anterior to the aqueous humor and lies over the iris. allows light rays to enter the eye
middle layer of the eye, which is interlaced with many blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye
the pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil
watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye. provides nourishment to nearby structures and maintains shape in the anterior part of the eye
jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains the shape
oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids that help lubricate the eye
external structure located on both sides of the head. directs sound waves into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal (meatus)
short tube that ends at the tympanic membrane. inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that secrete earwax (cerumen)
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
semitransparent membrane that separates the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity. transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles
connects the middle ear and the pharynx. equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations. composed of the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). stapes connects to the oval window, which transmits the sound vibrations to the cochlea of the inner ear
labyrinth (inner ear)
bony spaces within the temporal bone of the skull. contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule
snail-shaped and contains the organ of hearing. connects to the oval window in the middle ear
semicircular canals and vestibule
contains receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its sense of balance (equilibrium)
condition of without a lens (may be congenital, though often is the result of extraction of a cataract without the placement of an introocular lens)
softening of the cornea (usually a bilateral condition associated with vitamin A deficiency)
reduced vision in one eye caused by disease or misuse associated with strabismus, unequal refractive errors, or otherwise impaired vision. the brain suppresses images from teh impaired eye to avoid double vision. also called lazy eye
eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abnormal increase of intraocular pressure (IOP). if not treated, will lead to blindness
a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in the loss of central vision
yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust. can spread onto the cornea and become a pterygium
hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes cuased by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and the nose (to restore draining into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated)
a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.
method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle proble breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
a procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which an excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea
an intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels, to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions, or to bond the retina to the back of the eye. used to treat retinal tears and detachment, diabetic retinopath, wet macular degeneration, glaucoma, and introocular tumors
a procedure to repair a detached retina. a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in teh sclera.
surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor (used to treat diabetic retinopathy)
instrument used to measure (the curvature of) the cornea (used for fitting contact lenses)
condition of false lens (placement of an intraocular lens during surgery to treat cataracts)
benign tumor within the internal auditory canal growing from teh acoustic nerve, may cause hearing loss and may damage structures of the cerebellum as it grows
cystlike mass composed of epithelia cells and cholesterol occurring in the middle ear; may be associated with chronic otitis media
chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by a sensation of spinning motion (vertigo), rining in the ear (tinnitus), aural fullness, and fluctuating hearing loss; symtoms are related to a change in volume or composition of the fluid withing the labyrinth
a sense that either one's own body (subjective) or the environment (objective) is revolving; may indicate inner ear disease
pertaining to the cochlea implant (surgically inserted prosthetic device that uses electrical currents to stimulate the auditory nerve and provide hearing)
excision of the stapes (performed to restore hearing in cases of otosclerosis; the stapes is replaces by a prosthesis)
process of recording the electrical activity in the cochlea (in response to sound)
discharge from the ear (may be serous, bloody, consisting of pus, or containing cerebrospinal fluid)
hardening of the ear (stapes) (caused by irregular bone development and resulting in hearing loss)
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