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138 terms

Ch 12 & 13: Anatomy, diseases and disorders

Eye and Ear
STUDY
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sclera
outer protective layer of the eye; the portion seen on the anterior portion of the eyeball, referred to as the white of the eye
cornea
transparent anterior part of the sclera, which is anterior to the aqueous humor and lies over the iris. allows light rays to enter the eye
choroid
middle layer of the eye, which is interlaced with many blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye
iris
the pigmented muscular structure that regulates the amount of light entering the eye by controlling the size of the pupil
pupil
opening in the center of the iris
lens
lies directly behind the pupil, function is to focus and bend light
retina
innermost layer of the eye, which contains the vision receptors
aqueous humor
watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye. provides nourishment to nearby structures and maintains shape in the anterior part of the eye
vitreous humor
jellylike substance found behind the lens in the posterior cavity of the eye that maintains the shape
meibomian glands
oil glands found in the upper and lower edges of the eyelids that help lubricate the eye
lacrimal glands and ducts
produce and drain tears
optic nerve
carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain
conjunctiva
mucous membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera
auricle (pinna)
external structure located on both sides of the head. directs sound waves into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal (meatus)
short tube that ends at the tympanic membrane. inner part lies within the temporal bone of the skull and contains the glands that secrete earwax (cerumen)
external ear
auricle (pinna) and external auditory canal (meatus)
middle ear
tympanic membrane (eardrum), eustachian tube, and ossicles
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
semitransparent membrane that separates the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity. transmits sound vibrations to the ossicles
eustachian tube
connects the middle ear and the pharynx. equalizes air pressure on both sides of the eardrum
ossicles
bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations. composed of the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). stapes connects to the oval window, which transmits the sound vibrations to the cochlea of the inner ear
labyrinth (inner ear)
bony spaces within the temporal bone of the skull. contains the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibule
cochlea
snail-shaped and contains the organ of hearing. connects to the oval window in the middle ear
semicircular canals and vestibule
contains receptors and endolymph that help the body maintain its sense of balance (equilibrium)
mastoid bone and cells
located in the skull bone behind the external auditory canal
photoretinitis
hypersensitivity to light
aphakia
condition of without a lens (may be congenital, though often is the result of extraction of a cataract without the placement of an introocular lens)
blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelid
blepharoptosis
drooping of the eyelid
conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva (commonly called pinkeye)
dacryocystitis
inflammation of the tear sac
diplopia
double vision
endophthalmitis
inflammation within the eye
iridoplegia
paralysis of the iris
iritis
inflammation of the iris
keratitis
inflammation of the cornea
keratomalacia
softening of the cornea (usually a bilateral condition associated with vitamin A deficiency)
leukocoria
condition of white pupil
oculomycosis
abnormal condition of the eye caused by a fungus
ophthalmalgia
pain in the eye
ophthalmoplegia
paralysis of the eye (muscle)
phacomalacia
softening of the lens
photophobia
abdnormal fear of (sensitivity to) light
retinoblastoma
tumor arising from a developing retinal cell (a congenital, malignant tumor)
retinopathy
(any noninflammatory) disease of the retina
sclerokeratitis
inflammation of the sclera and the cornea
scleromalacia
softening of the sclera
xerophthalmia
condition of dry eye (conjunctiva and cornea) (caused by vitamin A deficiency)
amblyopia
reduced vision in one eye caused by disease or misuse associated with strabismus, unequal refractive errors, or otherwise impaired vision. the brain suppresses images from teh impaired eye to avoid double vision. also called lazy eye
astigmatism
Ast
astigmatism
defective curvature of the refractive surfaces (cornea or lens) of the eye
cataract
clouding of the lens of the eye
chalazion
obstruction of an oil gland of the eyelid
detached retina
seperation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye
glaucoma
eye disorder characterized by optic nerve damage usually caused by the abnormal increase of intraocular pressure (IOP). if not treated, will lead to blindness
hyperopia
farsightedness
macular degeneration
a progressive deterioration of the portion of the retina called the macula lutea, resulting in the loss of central vision
myopia
nearsightedness
nyctalopia
poor vision at nightor in faint light (also called night blindness)
nystagmus
involuntary, jerking movements of the eye
pinguecula
yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust. can spread onto the cornea and become a pterygium
presbyopia
impaired vision as a result of aging
pterygium
thin tissue growing into the cornea from teh conjuctiva, usually caused from sun exposure
retinitis pigmentosa
hereditary, progressive disease marked by night blindness with atrophy and retinal pigment changes
strabismus
abnormal condition of squint or crossed eyes cuased by the visual axes not meeting at the same point
sty, stye
infection of an oil gland of the eyelid
blepharoplasty
surgical repair of the eyelid
cryoretinopexy
surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold
dacryocystorhinostomy
creation of an artificial opening between the tear (lacrimal) sac and the nose (to restore draining into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct is obstructed or obliterated)
dacryocystotomy
incision of the tear (lacrimal) sac
iridectomy
excision (of part) of the iris
iridotomy
incision of the iris
keratoplasty
surgical repair of the cornea (corneal transplant)
sclerotomy
incision of the sclera
enucleation
surgical removal of the eyeball
laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
LASIK
LASIK
a laser procedure that reshapes the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct astigmatism, hyperopia, and myopia.
phacoemulsification
PHACO
phacoemulsification
method to remove cataracts in which an ultrasonic needle proble breaks up the lens, which is then aspirated
photorefractive keratectomy
PRK
PRK
a procedure for the treatment of nearsightedness in which an excimer laser is used to reshape (flatten) the corneal surface by removing a portion of the cornea
retinal photocoagulation
an intense beam of light from a laser condenses retinal tissue to seal leaking blood vessels, to destroy abnormal tissue or lesions, or to bond the retina to the back of the eye. used to treat retinal tears and detachment, diabetic retinopath, wet macular degeneration, glaucoma, and introocular tumors
scleral buckling
a procedure to repair a detached retina. a strip of sclera is resected, or a fold is made in teh sclera.
trabeculectomy
surgical creation of a drain to reduce intraocular pressure (used to treat glaucoma)
vitrectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the vitreous humor (used to treat diabetic retinopathy)
optometer
measures visual acuity
fluorescein angiography
process of recording blood vessels (of the eye with fluorescing dye)
keratometer
instrument used to measure (the curvature of) the cornea (used for fitting contact lenses)
tonometer
instrument used to measure pressure (within the eye, used to diagnose glaucoma)
anisocoria
condition of absense of equal pupil (unequal size of pupils)
binocular
pertaining to two or both eyes
corneal
pertaining to the cornea
intraocular
pertaining to within the eye
isocoria
condition of equal pupil (size)
lacrimal
pertaining to tears
ophthalmology
Ophth
ophthalmology
study of the eye
pseudophakia
condition of false lens (placement of an intraocular lens during surgery to treat cataracts)
emmetropia
normal refractive condition of the eye
intraocular lens
IOL
intraocular lens
an artifical lens implanted within the eye during cataract surgery
miotic
agent that constricts the pupil
mydriatic
agent that dilates the pupil
optician
a specialist who fills presciptions for lenses (cannot prescribe lenses)
optometrist
a health profession who prescribes corrective lenses and/or eye exercises
visual acuity
VA
visual acuity
sharpness of vision for either distance or near
age-related macular degeneration
ARMD
emmetropia
Em
intraocular pressure
IOP
acoustic neuroma
benign tumor within the internal auditory canal growing from teh acoustic nerve, may cause hearing loss and may damage structures of the cerebellum as it grows
ceruminoma
tumor of a gland that secretes earwax (cerumen)
cholesteatoma
cystlike mass composed of epithelia cells and cholesterol occurring in the middle ear; may be associated with chronic otitis media
Meniere disease
chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by a sensation of spinning motion (vertigo), rining in the ear (tinnitus), aural fullness, and fluctuating hearing loss; symtoms are related to a change in volume or composition of the fluid withing the labyrinth
otitis externa
inflammation of the outer ear
otitis media
OM
otitis media
inflammation of the inner ear
presbycusis
hearing impairment in old age
tinnitus
ringing in the ears
vertigo
a sense that either one's own body (subjective) or the environment (objective) is revolving; may indicate inner ear disease
cochlear implant
pertaining to the cochlea implant (surgically inserted prosthetic device that uses electrical currents to stimulate the auditory nerve and provide hearing)
stapedectomy
excision of the stapes (performed to restore hearing in cases of otosclerosis; the stapes is replaces by a prosthesis)
audiogram
graphic record of hearing
electrocochleography
process of recording the electrical activity in the cochlea (in response to sound)
audiologist
one who studies and specializes in hearing
otologist
physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear
otorhinolaryngologist
physician who studies and treats diseases of the ear, nose and throat
eyes, ears, nose, and throat
EENT
ears, nose, throat
ENT
oculus dexter
right eye
oculus sinister
left eye
uterque
both eyes
Snellen Chart
chart used to test visual acuity
rapid eye movement
REM
otopyorrhea
discharge of pus from the ear
otorrhea
discharge from the ear (may be serous, bloody, consisting of pus, or containing cerebrospinal fluid)
otosclerosis
hardening of the ear (stapes) (caused by irregular bone development and resulting in hearing loss)
otomastoiditis
inflammation of the ear and mastoid bone
myringitis
inflammation of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)