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8 terms

Cell Bio Chapter 7

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secondary metabolism
synthesis of molecules that are not essential for cell structure and growth
phenolic compounds
compounds that contain a benzene ring linked to a single hydroxyl group
flavonoids
phenolic compound that create flavors and smells in plants. have antioxidant properties and play a key role in pigmentation
tannins
large polymeric phenolic compound that typically act as a deterrent in plants due to bitter taste or toxic effects, can inhibit digestive enzymes in animals, used in tanning process
lignins
large phenolic polymers found in plant cell walls that strengthen plant cells and enable them to better withstand a harsh environment
alkaloids
group of molecules that contain nitrogen and have a cyclic ring like structures, include caffeine, nicotine, and morphine, can be bitter or toxic
terpenoids
molecules synthesized from five carbon isoprene units, responsible for odors and pigmentation, ex: carotenoids, cinnamon, spices
polyketides
secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, and more. Synthesized by polymerization of acetyl and propionyl. Secreted by organism that makes them and are highly toxic to other organisms. inhibit growth of cancer cells