Which of the following statements is false regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?
Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring
The human body typically absorbs less than 20 % of the iron consumed in the diet
Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body
Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of _________________
The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in _________________________
Irregular heartbeat and heart failure
What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?
The Nutrition Services Incentive Program provides all of the following except
Coupons to use to purchase foods in the grocery store
All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging except decreased
The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________________ plate
Hormones released during pregnancy constrict smooth muscle cells and increase the likelihood of developing heartburn
Why are newborn infants given a single injection of vitamin K?
The infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________________
Mother's weight before becoming pregnant
Which of the following is not a maternal benefit of breastfeeding?
Shortens the intervals between pregnancies
Macrocytic anemia results from a deficiency of __________________
Which of the following is not a risk factor for metabolic syndrome?
Low Trigylceride levels
Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers
An eating disorder is a psychiatric condition
Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy
All of the following statements are true except
All supplements sold in the U.S. must contain a U.S.P (U.S. Pharmacopoeia) symbol
Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males
The loss of the menstrual cycle among female athletes is a harmless, but common, side effect of intense training
At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birth?
A low birth weight infant is one that weighs less than __________ pounds
In the U.S. the federal government regulated school lunches
All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad except
Which of the following is not associated with binge-eating disorder?
Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss
The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.
Children under the age of 1 should not be given cow's milk
Well planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for pregnant women
Which of the following is false concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather and war related famines in Africa?
Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Engaging in at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity can promote longevity
Antioxidant supplements are not necessary and may actually be harmful
The development of the ___________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years
The RDA for __________ decreases with age
Growth acceleration in adolescence is primarily driven by
Diets rich in vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 are associated with reduced blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine
Because the absorption of dietary iron varies greatly, the RDA for iron is not adequate for most people
Which of the following is not an effective long term treatment for obesity?
Non heme iron is found in both animal and plant based foods
Without adequate vitamin K, blood does not clot properly and bleeding problems can develop
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ___________
With the exception of ______________, most of a pregnant woman's nutrient needs can be met by consuming a nutrient dense diet
The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________________
The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the __________________________ theory
All of the following are risk factors for Metabolic Syndrome except
Lower than normal bone density
Appoximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie Restricted diet until the age of 55 years?
Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?
The manufacturer of the supplement
Sodium needs during pregnancy are the same as for a non pregnant adult woman
Once the placenta has formed, the fetus's and mother's blood supplies will co-circulate
Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys
Adolescents need to consume four servings of dairy foods or calcium fortified products daily to obtain the necessary calcium intake
Currently, the best known treatment of eating disorders is
A team management approach
In the elderly a ___________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell
The absorption of vitamin ___________ increases in older adults
Substances that lead to birth defects are called __________
The only thing that will cure ecalmpsia is ______________
Delivery of the infant
Obesity is not associated with an increased risk of
Type 1 diabetes
Which of the following best describes disordered eating?
General term that describes a variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors
Which of the following family characteristics is not associated with anorexia nervosa?
Angry and disruptive family environment
Iodine is natural found in many foods and beverages
The B-Complex vitamins provide a good source of energy for the body
For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume _________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat
Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than _______ percent of the total calories from saturated fat
Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ___________ of the 1989 RDA's for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy
During pregnancy it is difficult for many women to obtain adequate iron from diet alone
Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in ________ adults
Frequent purging can result in rapid weight loss
Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and _____ years
Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity
The nutrient needs of a young boys and girls do not differ until about the age of 8 or 9 years
Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ______ percentile
All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals except
Perspiration increases as we age
The offspring of mothers who experienced low pregnancy weight gain have an increased risk of obesity in adulthood
Which of the following is not a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?
The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest
Why is it strongly recommended that infants not consume honey?
Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium Botulinum
In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?
From the third month of pregnancy until birth the developing human is called a/n _________
The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium
Excessive vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy is associated with birth defects
Research studies indicate that consuming ____________ supplements can cause gastrointestinal upset
The energy needs of older adults are higher than those of younger adults
Maria is a 3 year old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?
What is a multifactorial disease?
A disease that has many different causes
Which of the following hormones is referred to as the let down hormone?
The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is
Which of the following birth defects has not been linked to maternal obesity?
Which of the following best explains why individuals with anorexia nervosa have an increased risk for developing osteoporosis?
Decreased estrogen production
It is advised that all women with HIV not breastfeed
During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels
Which of the following foods would be the best source of dietary calcium for a young toddler?
Which of the following is not a recommendation to avoid allergies in children?
If a child has a negative reaction to a food, never offer it to that child again
Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these except
If a toddler is overweight, a practical approach would be to place him or her on a low fat diet
Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.
Thiamin, consumed in excess, is toxic
Men are at a greater risk for iron deficiency than women
Which of the following will not help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors
Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following except
Increased energy expenditure
Due to oxidative stress, older adults need to increase their consumption of both vitamin C and vitamin E
Which of the following is not a symptom of preeclampsia?
Raw bean sprouts
Which of the following individuals may benefit from dietary supplementation?
People who eat a balanced diet
The loss of tooth enamel seen in bulimia nervosa is due to the insufficient intake of calcium
Which of the following enhances the absorption of iron?
Which of the following statements is false regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures
The leading cause of death among high school youths is __________________
Which of the following best describes the milk matters campaign?
Government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy food
The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the __________
Which of the following is not a reason infants are at higher risk of dehydration than adults?
Infants have kidneys that produce highly concentrated urine
Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
High zinc intakes can inhibit the absorption of copper
What are dental caries?
The let down hormone, oxytocin is activated by the stress response
All of the following are characteristics of adolescent eating habits except
Regular consumption of three meals per day
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets
Inadequate intakes of ____________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus
Which of the following is not a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?
Taking megadoses of beta carotene while pregnant is associated with birth defects in the infant
Which of the following best explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the perfect body than are adults?
Adolescents are developing their personal identity
Which of the following does not describe a characteristic associated with muscle dysmorphia?
Purging by the use of laxative and/or vomiting at least two times a day
Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?
Reduced Activity Level
A dietary supplement would not contain
Which of the following psychiatric disorders causes the most deaths among women?
Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ____________ in the adult offspring
If a pregnant woman is overweight, she should restrict her caloric intake and attempt to lose some weight before delivery
Rich dietary sources of DHA include ____________________
Mackerel and Salmon
Snacking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers
Which of the following is not related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?
Iron utilization slows down
As compared to infancy, growth rates increase during the preschool years
High intake of fiber may be harmful in young children, as it may interfere with the absorption of nutrients
Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders