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49. The nurse is admitting a client diagnosed with primary adrenal cortex insufﬁciency
(Addison's disease). Which clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to assess?
1. Moon face, buffalo hump, and hyperglycemia.
2. Hirsutism, fever, and irritability.
3. Bronze pigmentation, hypotension, and anorexia.
4. Tachycardia, bulging eyes, and goiter.
3. Bronze pigmentation of the skin, partic-
ularly of the knuckles and other areas of
skin creases, occurs in Addison's disease.
Hypotension and anorexia also occur
with Addison's disease.
50. The nurse is developing a plan of care for the client diagnosed with acquired
immunodeﬁciency syndrome (AIDS) who has developed an infection in the adrenal
gland. Which client problem is highest priority?
1. Altered body image.
2. Activity intolerance.
3. Impaired coping.
4. Fluid volume deﬁcit.
4. Fluid volume deﬁcit (dehydration)
can lead to circulatory impairment and
51 . The nurse is planning the care of a client diagnosed with Addison's disease. Which
intervention should be included?
1. Administer steroid medications.
2. Place the client on ﬂuid restriction.
3. Provide frequent stimulation.
4. Consult physical therapy for gait training.
51 . 1 . Clients diagnosed with Addison's dis-
ease have adrenal gland hypofunction.
The hormones normally produced by
the gland must be replaced. Steroids
and androgens are produced by the
52. The client is admitted to rule out Cushing's syndrome. Which laboratory tests
should the nurse anticipate being ordered?
1. Plasma drug levels of quinidine, digoxin, and hydralazine.
2. Plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol.
3. A 24-hour urine for metanephrine and catecholamine.
4. Spot urine for creatinine and white blood cells.
2. The adrenal gland secretes cortisol and
the pituitary gland secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a
hormone used by the body to
stimulate the production of cortisol.
53. The client has developed iatrogenic Cushing's disease. Which statement is the
scientiﬁc rationale for the development of this diagnosis?
1. The client has an autoimmune problem causing the destruction of the adrenal
2. The client has been taking steroid medications for an extended period for another
3. The client has a pituitary gland tumor causing the adrenal glands to produce too
4. The client has developed an adrenal gland problem for which the health-care
provider does not have an explanation.
"Iatrogenic" means a problem has been
caused by a medical treatment or
procedure—in this case, treatment with
steroids for another problem. Clients
taking steroids over a period of time
develop the clinical manifestations of
Cushing's disease. Disease processes
for which long-term steroids are
prescribed include chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, cancer, and arthritis.
54. The nurse is performing discharge teaching for a client diagnosed with Cushing's
disease. Which statement by the client demonstrates an understanding of the
1. "I will be sure to notify my health-care provider if I start to run a fever."
2. "Before I stop taking the prednisone, I will be taught how to taper it off."
3. "If I get weak and shaky, I need to eat some hard candy or drink some juice."
4. "It is ﬁne if I continue to participate in weekend games of tackle football."
. Cushing's syndrome/disease predis-
poses the client to develop infections
as a result of the immunosuppressive
nature of the disease.
2. The client has too much cortisol; this
client should not be receiving prednisone,
a steroid medication.
3. These are symptoms of hypoglycemia,
which is not expected in this client be-
cause this client has high glucose levels.
4. The client is predisposed to osteoporosis
and fractures. Contact sports should be
55. The charge nurse of an intensive care unit is making assignments for the night shift.
Which client should be assigned to the most experienced intensive care nurse?
1. The client diagnosed with respiratory failure who is on a ventilator and requires
2. The client diagnosed with lung cancer and iatrogenic Cushing's disease with
ABGs of pH 7.35, PaO2 88, PaCO2 44, and HCO3 22.
3. The client diagnosed with Addison's disease who is lethargic and has a BP of
80/45, P 124, and R 28.
4. The client diagnosed with hyperthyroidism who has undergone a thyroidectomy
two (2) days ago and has a negative Trousseau's sign.
3. This client has a low blood pressure
and tachycardia. This client may be
experiencing an addisonian crisis, a
potentially life-threatening condition.
The most experienced nurse should
care for this client.
56. The nurse writes a problem of "altered body image" for a 34-year-old client
diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Which intervention should be implemented?
1. Monitor blood glucose levels prior to meals and at bedtime.
2. Perform a head-to-toe assessment on the client every shift.
3. Use therapeutic communication to allow the client to discuss feelings.
4. Assess bowel sounds and temperature every four (4) hours.
3. Allowing the client to ventilate feelings
about the altered body image is the
most appropriate intervention. The
nurse cannot do anything to help the
client's buffalo hump or moon face.
57. The client diagnosed with Addison's disease is admitted to the emergency department
after a day at the lake. The client is lethargic, forgetful, and weak. Which intervention
should the nurse implement?
1. Start an IV with an 18-gauge needle and infuse NS rapidly.
2. Have the client wait in the waiting room until a bed is available.
3. Obtain a permit for the client to receive a blood transfusion.
4. Collect urinalysis and blood samples for a CBC and calcium level.
1 . The client was exposed to wind and sun
at the lake during the hours prior to
being admitted to the emergency
department. This predisposes the
client to dehydration and an addisonian
crisis. Rapid IV ﬂuid replacement is
58. The client diagnosed with Cushing's disease has developed 1 peripheral edema. The
client has received intravenous ﬂuids at 100 mL/hr via IV pump for the past 79 hours.
The client received IVPB medication in 50 mL of ﬂuid every 6 hours for 15 doses.
How many mL of ﬂuid did the client receive? ________
The client has received 8,650 mL of
59. The nurse manager of a medical-surgical unit is asked to determine if the unit should
adopt a new care delivery system. Which behavior is an example of an autocratic
style of leadership?
1. Call a meeting and educate the staff on the new delivery system being used.
2. Organize a committee to investigate the various types of delivery systems.
3. Wait until another unit has implemented the new system and see if it works out.
4. Discuss with the nursing staff if a new delivery system should be adopted.
. An autocratic style is one in which the
person in charge makes the decision
without consulting anyone else.
60. The client diagnosed with Cushing's disease has undergone a unilateral adrenalectomy.
Which discharge instructions should the nurse discuss with the client?
1. Instruct the client to take the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid medications as
2. Teach the client regarding sexual functioning and androgen replacement therapy.
3. Explain the signs and symptoms of infection and when to call the health-care
4. Demonstrate turn, cough, and deep-breathing exercises the client should perform
every (2) hours.
3. Notifying the HCP if signs/symptoms
of infection develop is an instruction
given to all surgical clients on
61 . The client diagnosed with a pituitary tumor developed syndrome of inappropriate
antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Which interventions should the nurse implement?
1. Assess for dehydration and monitor blood glucose levels.
2. Assess for nausea and vomiting and weigh daily.
3. Monitor potassium levels and encourage ﬂuid intake.
4. Administer vasopressin IV and conduct a ﬂuid deprivation test.
2. Early signs and symptoms are nausea
and vomiting. The client has the syn-
drome of inappropriate secretion of
antidiuretic (against allowing the body
to urinate) hormone. In other words,
the client is producing a hormone that
will not allow the client to urinate.
62. The nurse is admitting a client to the neurological intensive care unit who is
postoperative transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Which data warrant immediate
1. The client is alert to name but is unable to tell the nurse the location.
2. The client has an output of 2,500 mL since surgery and an intake of 1,000 mL.
3. The client's vital signs are T 97.6ºF, P 88, R 20, and BP 130/80.
4. The client has a 3-cm amount of dark-red drainage on the turban dressing.
2. The output is more than double the
intake in a short time. This client
could be developing diabetes insipidus,
a complication of trauma to the head.
73. The client is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Which signs/symptoms should the nurse expect the client to exhibit?
1. Complaints of extreme fatigue and hair loss.
2. Exophthalmos and complaints of nervousness.
3. Complaints of profuse sweating and ﬂushed skin.
4. Tetany and complaints of stiffness of the hands.
1 . A decrease in thyroid hormone causes
decreased metabolism, which leads to
fatigue and hair loss.
74. The nurse identiﬁes the client problem "risk for imbalanced body temperature" for
the client diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Which intervention should be included in
the plan of care?
1. Discourage the use of an electric blanket.
2. Assess the client's temperature every two (2) hours.
3. Keep the room temperature cool.
4. Space activities to promote rest.
1 . External heat sources (heating pads,
electric or warming blankets) should
be discouraged because they increase
the risk of peripheral vasodilation and
75. The client diagnosed with hypothyroidism is prescribed the thyroid hormone
levothyroxine (Synthroid). Which assessment data indicate the medication has been
1. The client has a three (3)-pound weight gain.
2. The client has a decreased pulse rate.
3. The client's temperature is WNL.
4. The client denies any diaphoresis.
3. The client with hypothyroidism frequently has a subnormal temperature,
so a temperature WNL indicates the
medication is effective.
76. Which nursing intervention should be included in the plan of care for the client
diagnosed with hyperthyroidism?
1. Increase the amount of ﬁber in the diet.
2. Encourage a low-calorie, low-protein diet.
3. Decrease the client's ﬂuid intake to 1,000 mL/day.
4. Provide six (6) small, well-balanced meals a day.
4. The client with hyperthyroidism has an
increased appetite; therefore, well-
balanced meals served several times
throughout the day will help with the
client's constant hunger.
77. The client is admitted to the intensive care department diagnosed with myxedema
coma. Which assessment data warrant immediate intervention by the nurse?
1. Serum blood glucose level of 74 mg/dL.
2. Pulse oximeter reading of 90%.
3. Telemetry reading showing sinus bradycardia.
4. The client is lethargic and sleeps all the time.
2. A pulse oximeter reading of less
than 93% is signiﬁcant. A 90% pulseoximeter reading indicates a PaO2 of
approximately 60 on an arterial blood
gas test; this is severe hypoxemia and
requires immediate intervention.
78. Which medication order should the nurse question in the client diagnosed with
1. Thyroid hormones.
Untreated hypothyroidism is characterized by an increased susceptibility to
the effects of most hypnotic and sedative agents; therefore, the nurse should
question this medication.
79. Which statement made by the client makes the nurse suspect the client is
1. "I just don't seem to have any appetite anymore."
2. "I have a bowel movement about every 3 to 4 days."
3. "My skin is really becoming dry and coarse."
4. "I have noticed all my collars are getting tighter."
4. The thyroid gland (in the neck) en-
larges as a result of the increased need
for thyroid hormone production; an
enlarged gland is called a goiter.
80. The 68-year-old client diagnosed with hyperthyroidism is being treated with radioactive iodine therapy. Which interventions should the nurse discuss with the client?
1. Explain it will take up to a month for symptoms of hyperthyroidism to subside.
2. Teach the iodine therapy will have to be tapered slowly over one (1) week.
3. Discuss the client will have to be hospitalized during the radioactive therapy.
4. Inform the client after therapy the client will not have to take any medication.
1 . Radioactive iodine therapy is used to
destroy the overactive thyroid cells.
After treatment, the client is followed
closely for three (3) to four (4) weeks
until the euthyroid state is reached.
81 . The nurse is teaching the client diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Which information
should be taught to the client? Select all that apply.
1. Notify the HCP if a three (3)-pound weight loss occurs in two (2) days.
2. Discuss ways to cope with the emotional lability.
3. Notify the HCP if taking over-the-counter medication.
4. Carry a medical identiﬁcation card or bracelet.
5. Teach how to take thyroid medications correctly.
1. Notify the HCP if a three (3)-pound weight loss occurs in two (2) days.
2. Discuss ways to cope with the emotional lability.
3. Notify the HCP if taking over-the-counter medication.
4. Carry a medical identiﬁcation card or bracelet.
82. The nurse is providing an in-service on thyroid disorders. One of the attendees asks
the nurse, "Why don't the people in the United States get goiters as often?" Which
statement by the nurse is the best response?
1. "It is because of the screening techniques used in the United States."
2. "It is a genetic predisposition rare in North Americans."
3. "The medications available in the United States decrease goiters."
4. "Iodized salt helps prevent the development of goiters in the United States."
4. Almost all of the iodine entering the
body is retained in the thyroid gland.
A deﬁciency in iodine will cause the
thyroid gland to work hard and
enlarge, which is called a goiter.
Goiters are commonly seen in
geographical regions having an iodine
deﬁciency. Most table salt in the
United States has iodine added.
83. The nurse is preparing to administer the following medications. Which medication
should the nurse question administering?
1. The thyroid hormone to the client who does not have a T3, T4 level.
2. The regular insulin to the client with a blood glucose level of 210 mg/dL.
3. The loop diuretic to the client with a potassium level of 3.3 mEq/L.
4. The cardiac glycoside to the client who has a digoxin level of 1.4 mg/dL.
3. This potassium level is below normal,
which is 3.5 to 5.5 mEq/L. Therefore,
the nurse should question administer-
ing this medication because loop
diuretics cause potassium loss in the
84. Which signs/symptoms should make the nurse suspect the client is experiencing a
1. Obstipation and hypoactive bowel sounds.
2. Hyperpyrexia and extreme tachycardia.
3. Hypotension and bradycardia.
4. Decreased respirations and hypoxia.
2. Hyperpyrexia (high fever) and heart
rate above 130 beats per minute are
signs of thyroid storm, a severely
5. Which sign/symptom indicates to the nurse the client is experiencing
1. A negative Trousseau's sign.
2. A positive Chvostek's sign.
3. Nocturnal muscle cramps.
4. Tented skin turgor.
2. When a sharp tapping over the facial
nerve elicits a spasm or twitching of the
mouth, nose, or eyes, the client is
hypocalcemic, which occurs in clients
with hyperparathyroidism. This is
known as a positive Chvostek's sign.
6. Which laboratory data make the nurse suspect the client with primary
hyperparathyroidism is experiencing a complication?
1. A serum creatinine level of 2.8 mg/dL.
2. A calcium level of 9.2 mg/dL.
3. A serum triglyceride level of 130 mg/dL.
4. A sodium level of 135 mEq/L.
6. 1 . A serum creatinine level of 2.8 mg/dL
indicates the client is in renal failure,
which is a complication of hyperparathy-
roidism. The formation of stones in the
kidneys related to the increased urinary
excretion of calcium and phosphorus
occurs in about 55% of clients with
primary hyperparathyroidism and can
lead to renal failure.
7. The nurse is assessing a client in an outpatient clinic. Which assessment data are a
risk factor for developing pheochromocytoma?
1. A history of skin cancer.
2. A history of high blood pressure.
3. A family history of adrenal tumors.
4. A family history of migraine headaches.
3. There is a high incidence of pheochromocytomas in family members with
adrenal tumors, and the von Hippel
Lindau gene is thought to be a primary
8. The client is three (3) days postoperative unilateral adrenalectomy. Which discharge
instructions should the nurse teach?
1. Discuss the need for lifelong steroid replacement.
2. Instruct the client on administration of vasopressin.
3. Teach the client to care for the suprapubic Foley catheter.
4. Tell the client to notify the HCP if the incision is inﬂamed.
4. Any inﬂammation of the incision indi-
cates an infection and the client will
need to receive antibiotics, so the HCP
must be notiﬁed.
9. Which psychosocial problem should be included in the plan of care for a female
client diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome?
1. Altered glucose metabolism.
2. Body image disturbance.
3. Risk for suicide.
4. Impaired wound healing.
2. The client with Cushing's syndrome
has body changes, including moon face,
buffalo hump, truncal obesity, hir-
sutism, and striae and bruising, all of
which affect the client's body image.
1 0. The nurse is admitting a client to rule out aldosteronism. Which assessment data
support the client's diagnosis?
4. Blood pressure.
4. Blood pressure is affected by aldosteronism, with hypertension being the most prominent and universal sign of aldosteronism.
1 1 . Which client history is most signiﬁcant in the development of symptoms for a client
who has iatrogenic Cushing's disease?
1. Long-term use of anabolic steroids.
2. Extended use of inhaled steroids for asthma.
3. History of long-term glucocorticoid use.
4. Family history of increased cortisol production.
3. Iatrogenic Cushing's disease is
Cushing's disease caused by medical
treatment—in this case, by taking
excessive steroids resulting in the
symptoms of moon face, buffalo hump,
and other associated symptoms.
1 2. The client is one (1) hour postoperative thyroidectomy. Which intervention should
the nurse implement?
1. Check the posterior neck for bleeding.
2. Assess the client for the Chvostek's sign.
3. Monitor the client's serum calcium level.
4. Change the client's surgical dressing.
1 . The incision for a thyroidectomy
allows the blood to drain dependently
by gravity to the back of the client's
neck. Therefore, the nurse should
check this area for hemorrhaging,
which is a possible complication of
1 3. Which signs/symptoms indicate the client with hypothyroidism is not taking enough
1. Complaints of weight loss and ﬁne tremors.
2. Complaints of excessive thirst and urination.
3. Complaints of constipation and being cold.
4. Complaints of delayed wound healing and belching.
If the client were not taking enough
thyroid hormone, the client would
exhibit symptoms of hypothyroidism
such as constipation and being cold.
1 4. Which client problem is the nurse's priority concern for the client diagnosed with
1. Impaired nutrition.
2. Skin integrity.
4. Pain relief.
4. The client with pancreatitis is in excru-
ciating pain because the enzymes are
autodigesting the pancreas; severe
abdominal pain is the hallmark
symptom of pancreatitis.
1 5. Which laboratory data indicate to the nurse the client's pancreatitis is improving?
1. The amylase and lipase serum levels are decreased.
2. The white blood cell count (WBC) is decreased.
3. The conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin levels are decreased.
4. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) serum level is decreased.
1 5. 1 . These laboratory data are used to diag-
nose and monitor pancreatitis because
amylase and lipase are the enzymes
produced by the pancreas.
1 6. The client diagnosed with acute pancreatitis has a ruptured pseudocyst. Which
procedure should the nurse anticipate the HCP prescribing?
2. Chest tube insertion.
3. Lumbar puncture.
4. Biopsy of the pancreas.
2. The pancreas lies immediately below
the diaphragm. When the cyst
ruptures, alkaline substances in the
abdomen cause ﬂuid leaks at the
esophageal diaphragmatic opening into
the thorax. The ﬂuid must be removed
to prevent lung collapse.
1 8. Which risk factor should the nurse expect to ﬁnd in the client diagnosed with
1. Chewing tobacco.
2. Low-fat diet.
3. Chronic alcoholism.
4. Exposure to industrial chemicals.
4. Exposure to industrial chemicals or
environmental toxins is a risk factor
for pancreatic cancer.
Chronic alcoholism is not a risk factor, but
chronic pancreatitis is a risk factor.
19. The nurse is discussing the endocrine system with the client. Which endocrine gland
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine?
1. The pancreas.
2. The adrenal cortex.
3. The adrenal medulla.
4. The anterior pituitary gland.
3. The adrenal medulla secretes the
catecholamines epinephrine and
20. Which question should the nurse ask when assessing the client for an endocrine
1. "Have you noticed any pain in your legs when walking?"
2. "Have you had any unexplained weight loss?"
3. "Have you noticed any change in your bowel movements?"
4. "Have you experienced any joint pain or discomfort?"
2. Weight loss with normal appetite may
21 . Which nursing instruction should the nurse discuss with the client who is receiving
glucocorticoids for Addison's disease?
1. Discuss the importance of tapering medications when discontinuing medication.
2. Explain the dose may need to be increased during times of stress or infection.
3. Instruct the client to take medication on an empty stomach with a glass of water.
4. Encourage the client to wear clean white socks when wearing tennis shoes.
2. During times of stress, the medication
may need to be increased to prevent
The client will have to receive this medication the rest of his or her life, so this
should not be discussed with the client.
22. The client with chronic alcoholism has chronic pancreatitis and hypomagnesemia.
Which data should the nurse assess when administering magnesium sulfate to the
1. Deep tendon reﬂexes.
2. Arterial blood gases.
3. Skin turgor.
4. Capillary reﬁll time.
1 . If deep tendon reﬂexes are hypoactive
or absent, the nurse should hold the
magnesium and notify the health-care
23. Which endocrine disorder should the nurse assess for in the client who has a closed
head injury with increased intracranial pressure?
2. Diabetes insipidus.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
2. Diabetes insipidus can be caused by
brain tumors or infections, pituitary
surgery, cerebrovascular accidents,
or renal and organ failure, or it may
be a complication of a closed head
injury with increased intracranial
pressure. Diabetes insipidus is a
result of antidiuretic hormone
1 5. The client diagnosed with inﬂammatory bowel disease has a serum potassium level of
3.4 mEq/L. Which action should the nurse implement ﬁrst?
1. Notify the health-care provider.
2. Assess the client for muscle weakness.
3. Request telemetry for the client.
4. Prepare to administer potassium IV.
2. Muscle weakness may be a sign of
hypokalemia; hypokalemia can lead to
cardiac dysrhythmias and can be life
threatening. Assessment is priority for
a potassium level just below normal
level, which is 3.5 to 5.5 mEq/L.
1 6. The client is diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. Which
intervention should the nurse implement?
1. Provide a low-residue diet.
2. Rest the client's bowel.
3. Assess vital signs daily.
4. Administer antacids orally.
2. Whenever a client has an acute exacer-
bation of a gastrointestinal disorder,
the ﬁrst intervention is to place the
bowel on rest. The client should be
NPO with intravenous ﬂuids to
1 7. The client diagnosed with IBD is prescribed total parental nutrition (TPN). Which
intervention should the nurse implement?
1. Check the client's glucose level.
2. Administer an oral hypoglycemic.
3. Assess the peripheral intravenous site.
4. Monitor the client's oral food intake.
1 . TPN is high in dextrose, which is
glucose; therefore, the client's blood
glucose level must be monitored
The TPN must be administered via a sub-
clavian line because of the high glucose
1 8. The client is diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of IBD. Which priority
intervention should the nurse implement ﬁrst?
1. Weigh the client daily and document in the client's chart.
2. Teach coping strategies such as dietary modiﬁcations.
3. Record the frequency, amount, and color of stools.
4. Monitor the client's oral ﬂuid intake every shift.
3. The severity of the diarrhea helps
determine the need for ﬂuid replace-
ment. The liquid stool should be
measured as part of the total output.
1 9. The client diagnosed with Crohn's disease is crying and tells the nurse, "I can't take
it anymore. I never know when I will get sick and end up here in the hospital."
Which statement is the nurse's best response?
1. "I understand how frustrating this must be for you."
2. "You must keep thinking about the good things in your life."
3. "I can see you are very upset. I'll sit down and we can talk."
4. "Are you thinking about doing anything like committing suicide?"
3. The client is crying and is expressing
feelings of powerlessness; therefore, the
nurse should allow the client to talk.
20. The client diagnosed with ulcerative colitis has an ileostomy. Which statement
indicates the client needs more teaching concerning the ileostomy?
1. "My stoma should be pink and moist."
2. "I will irrigate my ileostomy every morning."
3. "If I get a red, bumpy, itchy rash I will call my HCP."
4. "I will change my pouch if it starts leaking."
2. An ileostomy will drain liquid all the
time and should not routinely be irri-
gated. A sigmoid colostomy may need
daily irrigation to evacuate feces.
21 . The client diagnosed with IBD is prescribed sulfasalazine (Asulﬁdine), a sulfonamide
antibiotic. Which statement best describes the rationale for administering this
1. It is administered rectally to help decrease colon inﬂammation.
2. This medication slows gastrointestinal motility and reduces diarrhea.
3. This medication kills the bacteria causing the exacerbation.
4. It acts topically on the colon mucosa to decrease inﬂammation.
4. Asulﬁdine is poorly absorbed from the
gastrointestinal tract and acts topically
on the colonic mucosa to inhibit the
22. The client is diagnosed with Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis. Which
statement by the client supports this diagnosis?
1. "My pain goes away when I have a bowel movement."
2. "I have bright red blood in my stool all the time."
3. "I have episodes of diarrhea and constipation."
4. "My abdomen is hard and rigid and I have a fever.
1 . The terminal ileum is the most com-
mon site for regional enteritis, which
causes right lower quadrant pain that is
relieved by defecation.
23. The client diagnosed with ulcerative colitis is prescribed a low-residue diet. Which
meal selection indicates the client understands the diet teaching?
1. Grilled hamburger on a wheat bun and fried potatoes.
2. A chicken salad sandwich and lettuce and tomato salad.
3. Roast pork, white rice, and plain custard.
4. Fried ﬁsh, whole grain pasta, and fruit salad.
3. A low-residue diet is a low-ﬁber diet.
Products made of reﬁned ﬂour or
ﬁnely milled grains, along with
roasted, baked, or broiled meats,
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