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1,234 terms

AP US History: From the Beginning to the Great Depression (Real)

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Federal Farm Board (Agriculture Marketing Act 1929)
created in 1929, before the stock market crash on Black Tuesday, 1929, but its powers were later enlarged to meet the economic crisis farmers faced during the Great Depression. It was established by the Agricultural Marketing Act to stabilize prices and to promote the sale of agricultural products; would help farmers stabilize prices by holding surplus grain and cotton in storage.
Emergency Committee for Employment, 1930
...
Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916
a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers. It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan banks and tens of farm loan associations. The act was signed into law by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson.
Federal Emergency Relief Act, 1932
created Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) in 1932
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1932
created by Hoover in 1932; gave federal money to businesses to rebuild economy
Direct relief
refers to relief that comes from the federal government to citizens (?)
Voluntarism
the use of, or reliance on voluntary action to maintain an institution, carry out a policy, or achieve an end.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act, 1930
an act, sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Stopped circular flow of money; made Great Depression worse
Farmers' Holiday Association
a movement of Midwestern United States farmers who, during the Great Depression, endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market, in essence creating a farmers' strike.
"Hoovervilles"
the popular name for shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. They were named after the President of the United States at the time, Herbert Hoover, because he allegedly let the nation slide into depression.
Dust Bowl
a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation, fallow fields, cover crops or other techniques to prevent wind erosion. Deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains had displaced the natural deep-rooted grasses that normally kept the soil in place and trapped moisture even during periods of drought and high winds.
"Okies"
a term dating from as early as 1907, originally denoting residents or natives of Oklahoma.
In the 1930s in California, the term (often used in contempt) came to refer to very poor migrants from Oklahoma (and nearby states). Jobs were very scarce in the 1930s but after the defense boom began in 1940 there were plenty of high paying jobs in in the shipyards and defense factories.
"Bonus Army", 1932
the popular name of an assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand immediate cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
Many of the war veterans had been out of work since the beginning of the Great Depression. The World War Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 had awarded them bonuses in the form of certificates they could not redeem until 1945. Each service certificate, issued to a qualified veteran soldier, bore a face value equal to the soldier's promised payment plus compound interest. The principal demand of the _________ was the immediate cash payment of their certificates.
Douglas MacArthur
an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign.
Involved in breaking up the Bonus Army
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
the 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover in November 1932, at the depth of the Great Depression.
Eleanor Roosevelt
the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, distant cousin Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, she continued to be an international author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.
"New Deal"
a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
First 100 Days
a sample of the first 100 days of a first term presidency of a president of the United States. It is used to measure the successes and accomplishments of a president during the time that their power and influence is at its greatest.
(set by FDR)
"Fireside Chats"
a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944.
Bank Holiday
declared on March 5th, 1932; took place from the 6th to the 13th; prevented banks from failing along with the Emergency Banking Relief Act, March 9th
"Brain Trust"
refers to the smart people that FDR kept around him to help him deal with the Great Depression
Harold Ickes
Secretary of the Interior for FDR from 1933-46
Henry Moregenthau, Jr.
Treasury Secretary for FDR from 1934-45
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
The 3 R's that were the goals of the 2 New Deals
Emergency Banking Relief Act
an act passed on March 9th, 1933 to encourage the Federal Reserve to provide emergency cash to failing banks; restores public confidence in financial system
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA), May 1933
an act that created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, which, under Hoover gave loans to the states to operate relief programs; the main goal of the administration created by this act was alleviating household unemployment by creating new unskilled jobs in local and state government.
Harry L. Hopkins
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
(also did work with FERA)
Reforestation Relief Act, March 1933
an act that created the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
a public work relief program (created by the Reforestation Relief Act) that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 17-23. A part of the New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments; designed to provide employment for young men in relief families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. Maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000; in nine years 2.5 million young men participated.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), May 1933
an act that created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, which put mandatory restrictions on crop production, gave compensation/subsidies for non-production, and even gave compensation for destroying crops and livestock; later declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court
Farm Credit Act, June 1933
an act that made it possible for many farmers to keep their farms and survive the Great Depression. It did so by offering short-term loans for agricultural production as well as extended low interest rates for farmers threatened by foreclosure. Small farmers were able to refinance their mortgages with the aid of twelve district banks, called Banks for Cooperatives. A thirteenth bank served larger farming operations. Local Production Credit Associations provided short and intermediate term loans for seasonal production, insuring that farmers would not lose out on essential crop yields.
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), June 1933
an act that marked the close of the first Hundred Days of FDR's first term; created the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which made industry, labor, and government collaborate and sponsored boards for each industry; this act also strengthened union bargaining power in Section 7(a)
Public Works Administration (PWA)
part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, and again in 1938.
Blue Eagle: "We Do Our Part"
the logo and slogan of the NIRA symbol
structures built during the Great Depression (?)
Hoover Dam, Triborough Bridge (New York), Lincoln Tunnel (New York), Grand Coulee Dam (Washington)
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), May 1933
a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. The enterprise was a result of the efforts of Senator George W. Norris of Nebraska.
(Federal) Securities Act, May 1933
An act that regulated marketing and disclosure of securities by the FTC (Federal Trade Commission); was strengthened by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the SEC
Securities Exchange Act, June 1934
a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America. It was a sweeping piece of legislation. The Act and related statutes form the basis of regulation of the financial markets and their participants in the United States. The 1934 Act also established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the agency primarily responsible for enforcement of United States federal securities law.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
a federal agency which holds primary responsibility for enforcing the federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry, the nation's stock and options exchanges, and other electronic securities markets in the United States. In addition to the 1934 Act that created it, the ___ enforces the Securities Act of 1933, the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and other statutes.
Joseph P. Kennedy
a prominent American businessman, investor, and government official; father of JFK and all of his siblings; first chairman of the SEC; may have made fortune from bootlegging liquor
Home Owners Refinancing Act, June 1933
an Act of Congress of the United States passed as part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal during the Great Depression to help those in danger of losing their homes. The act, which went into effect on June 13, 1933, provided mortgage assistance to homeowners or would-be homeowners by providing them money or refinancing mortgages.
Sponsored by Senate Majority leader Joe Robinson of Arkansas, it also created the Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), building off of Herbert Hoover's Federal Loan Bank Board. The Corporation lent low-interest money to families in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. By the mid 1930s, the HOLC had refinanced nearly 20% of urban homes in the country.
Banking ((second) Glass-Steagall) Act of 1933, June 1933
an act that separated investment and commercial banking (repealed in 1999); created FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation); Increased Federal Reserve's oversight of banking practices
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. It provides deposit insurance, which guarantees the safety of deposits in member banks, up to $250,000 per depositor per bank as of January 2012.
Civil Works Administration (CWA), November 1933
an administration that built and repaired infrastructure, hired skilled labor; employed 4 million in 5 months; Roosevelt canceled it in 1934 because he was afraid over how much it was costing; returned a year later (May 1935) as WPA
Harry Hopkins
one of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's closest advisers. He was one of the architects of the New Deal, especially the relief programs of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which he directed and built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter and was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies.
Gold Reserve Act, January 1934
required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury; outlawed most private possession of gold, forcing individuals to sell it to the Treasury, after which it was stored in United States Bullion Depository at Fort Knox and other locations. The act also changed the nominal price of gold from $20.67 per troy ounce to $35.
John Maynard Keynes
a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as (namesake) economics, as well as its various offshoots.
New Deal followed some of his ideas; not entirely; promoted deficit spending
Communications Act, June 1934
a United States federal law signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Act replaced the Federal Radio Commission with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). It also transferred regulation of interstate telephone services from the Interstate Commerce Commission to the FCC.
Silver Purchase Act, June 1934
required the U.S. Treasury Secretary to purchase silver in large quantities and allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all private silver holdings. The act greatly disrupted the world's silver markets and ultimately was repealed in the 1960s.
allowed President Roosevelt to nationalize all silver that was owned by American citizens (with a few exceptions including silver coins, jewelry or industrial materials). Americans had to sell their silver to the government for 50 cents an ounce.
increased price of silver
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934
U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.
Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor
the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman appointed to the U.S. Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency.
(against child labor?)
"Pin Money"
1. An allowance of money given by a husband to his wife for private and personal expenditures.
2. Money for incidental expenses.
3. A trivial sum.
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, April 1935
passed on April 8 during the "Second Hundred Days" as a part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. It was a "large-scale public works program for the jobless" which included the Works Progress Administration.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unskilled workers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads, and operated large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
It fed children and redistributed food, clothing, and housing. Almost every community in the United States had a park, bridge or school constructed by the agency, which especially benefited rural and Western areas.
National Youth Administration's Division of Negro Affairs
oversaw the participation of black youth in the National Youth Administration; headed by Mary McLeod Bethune
Resettlement Association (RA), May 1935
a U.S. federal agency that, between April 1935 and December 1936, relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government.
Rural Electrification Administration (REA), May 1935
an administration that provided electricity to rural areas that had never had it before; it gave low interest loans to utilities to facilitate extension of service (sort of a nationwide application of TVA)
National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act, July 1935
an act that was an attempt to restore labor guarantees from NIRA (such as collective bargaining); NLRB (National Labor Relations Board) was created as a result of the passing of this act; mandates good faith bargaining
Social Security Act, August 1935
a legislative act which created the Social Security system in the United States.
was an attempt to limit what were seen as dangers in the modern American life, including old age, poverty, unemployment, and the burdens of widows and fatherless children.
provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to current retirees are financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
Revenue Act of 1935 (Wealth Tax Act)
an act that was directed at large incomes; raised United States taxes on higher income levels, gifts, estates and corporations, by introducing the "Wealth Tax". It was a new graduated tax that took up to 75 percent of the highest incomes in taxes, starting at incomes above $50,000.; also raised gift tax
Liberty League
an American political organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats to oppose the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was active for just two years. Following the landslide re-election of Roosevelt in 1936, it sharply reduced its activities and disbanded in 1940.
Rev. Charles E. Coughlin
a controversial Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigan's National Shrine of the Little Flower church. He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience, as more than thirty million tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 1930s.
Created National Union for Social Justice, a nationalistic worker's rights organization which grew impatient with what it viewed as the President's unconstitutional and pseudo-capitalistic monetary policies.
He at first supported FDR, but then disliked him after some of New Deal legislation. Also hated Federal Reserve and was antisemitic
American Socialist Movement
refers to the Socialist Movement that occurred in America...(opposed FDR?)
Dr. Francis Townsend
an American physician who was best known for his revolving old-age pension proposal during the Great Depression. Known as the "________ Plan," this proposal influenced the establishment of the Roosevelt administration's Social Security system.
Huey P. Long
nicknamed The Kingfish, served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928-1932 and as a U.S. Senator from 1932 to 1935. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, he split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and planned to mount his own presidential bid for 1936.
created the Share Our Wealth program in 1934 with the motto "Every Man a King", proposing new wealth redistribution measures in the form of a net asset tax on corporations and individuals to curb the poverty and homelessness endemic nationwide during the Great Depression.
A leftist populist, he was preparing to challenge FDR's reelection in 1936 in alliance with radio's influential Catholic priest Charles Coughlin, or run for president in 1940 when Franklin Roosevelt was expected to retire. However, he was assassinated in 1935; his national movement faded, while his state organization continued in Louisiana.
Alf Landon
an American Republican politician, who served as the 26th Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937. He was best known for having been the Republican Party's (GOP) nominee for President of the United States, defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election.
Schechter Poultry v. US (1935)
a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States that invalidated regulations of the poultry industry according to the nondelegation doctrine and as an invalid use of Congress's power under the commerce clause. This was a unanimous decision that rendered the National Industrial Recovery Act, a main component of President Roosevelt's New Deal, unconstitutional.
US v. Butler (1936)
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the processing taxes instituted under the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act were unconstitutional. Justice Owen Roberts argued that the tax was "but a means to an unconstitutional end" that violated the Tenth Amendment.
National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp (1936)
a United States Supreme Court case that declared that the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (commonly known as the Wagner Act) was constitutional. It effectively spelled the end to the Court's striking down of New Deal economic legislation, and greatly increased Congress's power under the Commerce Clause.
Judiciary Reorganization Bill
a bill that was attempted to be passed by FDR to increase the number of Supreme Court Justices and allow courtpacking; it was a political miscalculation by FDR, and people did not trust him as much after that
Supreme Court Retirement Act, March 1937
an act that permitted Supreme Court Justices to retire at age 70 with full pay, after 10 years of service
National Housing (Wagner-Steagall) Act, September 1937
provided for subsidies to be paid from the U.S. government to local public housing agencies (LHA's) to improve living conditions for low-income families.
The act created the United States Housing Authority within the United States Department of the Interior. The act builds on the National Housing Act of 1934, which created the Federal Housing Administration. Both the 1934 Act and the 1937 Act were influenced by American housing reformers of the period, with Catherine Bauer chief among them. Bauer drafted much of this legislation and served as a Director in the United States Housing Authority, the agency created by the 1937 Act to control the payment of subsidies, for two years.
(created Federal Housing Authority?)
Fair Labor Standards (Wages and Hour) Act, 1938
a federal statute of the United States; established a national minimum wage, guaranteed 'time-and-a-half' for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term that is defined in the statute. It applies to employees engaged in interstate commerce or employed by an enterprise engaged in commerce or in the production of goods for commerce, unless the employer can claim an exemption from coverage.
According to the Act, workers must be paid minimum wage and overtime pay must be 1 1/2 times regular pay. Children under the age of 18 cannot do certain dangerous jobs and children under the age of 16 cannot work.
helped combat child labor and provided many low-income wage earners the ability to support themselves working less hours.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 1937
originated as the Committee for Industrial Organization in 1935; changed its name in 1937; umbrella union for unskilled labor
John L. Lewis
an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Sit-Down Strikes
strikes in which people appear at work but simply do nothing
Roosevelt Recession, 1937-1938
a brief recession that occurred when FDR started reducing the economic relief; a temporary reversal of the economic recovery from the Great Depression in the United States.
Popular Culture of the 1930's
swing music; film; sports...
Hays Code
AKA The Motion Picture Production Code; was the set of industry moral censorship guidelines that governed the production of most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968.
21st Amendment
a Constitutional Amendment that repealed 18th and prohibition of alcohol
Hindenburg Explosion
took place on Thursday, May 6, 1937, as the namesake German passenger caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, which is located adjacent to the borough of Lakehurst, New Jersey. Of the 97 people on board (36 passengers, 61 crew), there were 36 fatalities, including one death among the ground crew.
Scottsboro Boys 1931-1938
nine black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. The landmark set of legal cases from this incident dealt with racism and the right to a fair trial. The case includes a frameup, all-white jury, rushed trials, an attempted lynching, angry mob, and miscarriage of justice.
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938)
a United States Supreme Court decision holding that states that provide a school to white students must provide in-state education to blacks as well. States can satisfy this requirement by allowing blacks and whites to attend the same school or creating a second school for blacks.
Walter White
a civil rights activist who led the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for almost a quarter of a century and directed a broad program of legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement. He was also a journalist, novelist, and essayist. He graduated from Atlanta University in 1916 (now Clark Atlanta University). In 1918 he joined the small national staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in New York at the invitation of James Weldon Johnson, where he acted as Johnson's assistant national secretary. He later succeeded Johnson as the head of the NAACP, serving from 1931 to 1955.
He oversaw the plans and organizational structure of the fight against public segregation. Under his leadership, the NAACP set up the Legal Defense Fund, which raised numerous legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement, and achieved many successes. Among these was the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which determined that segregated education was inherently unequal.
Charles Hamilton Houston
a prominent African American lawyer, Dean of Howard University Law School, and NAACP Litigation Director who played a significant role in dismantling the Jim Crow laws, which earned him the title The Man Who Killed Jim Crow. He is also well known for having trained future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall.
1935 NYC (Harlem) Race Riot
sparked off by rumors of the beating of a teenage shoplifter. Three died, hundreds were wounded and an estimated $2 million in damages were sustained to properties throughout the district, with African-American owned homes and businesses spared the worst of the destruction.
Great War or the War to End All Wars
a war that broke out in multiple countries between the years 1914 and 1918; some people thought it would be the last war due to the fact that it involved so many countries and caused so much destruction
WWI roots
the causes of WWI: Nationalism, Imperialism, Military Alliances, & Militarism
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was a grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Crowned in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Prince Otto von Bismarck, in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led to World War I. Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers. He was humiliated by the Daily Telegraph affair in 1908 and lost most of his power. His generals dictated policy during World War I with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands.
Allies
the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I; included the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on the Entente in 1915. Japan, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and the Czechoslovak legions were minor members of this force
Central Powers
composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria; fought against Allied Powers
Poison Gas
dangerous gas that was used during WWI; mustard gas and chlorine were two types
Neutral Shipping Rights
refers to a law created during the London Naval Conference of 1909 that states that belligerents must warn passenger ships before firing (?); Germany's breach of this law was one of the reasons why the US went to war
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
refers to warfare in which submarines attack all ships regardless of whether the ships are simply passenger ships; The US cut off diplomatic relations with Germany and eventually went to war because they practiced this type of warfare
R.M.S. Lusitania
a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New York City, which included a port of call at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland on westbound crossings and Fishguard, Wales on eastbound crossings.
During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes. The vessel went down eleven miles (18 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, leaving 764 survivors. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the American entry into World War I and became an iconic symbol in military recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.
Propaganda
a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position; usually repeated and dispersed over a wide variety of media in order to create the desired result in audience attitudes.
(for example: used by U.S. in both WWI and WWII)
Sussex Pledge
a pledge by Germany in 1916 to renounce unrestricted submarine warfare; later broken; named after a ship that was sunk
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Pancho Villa
one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.
Watchful Waiting
refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address
Peace Without Victory
refers to Woodrow Wilson's policy on WWI; he wanted to fight the war not to win but to create world peace; he wanted WWI to end all wars
Zimmerman Note (Telegram)
a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence. Revelation of the contents outraged American public opinion and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
Also promised American land for war efforts
Jeannette Rankin
the first woman in the US Congress. A Republican, she was elected statewide in Montana in 1916 and again in 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she is the only member of Congress to have voted against the entry of the United States into both World War I in 1917 and World War II in 1941. She is the only woman to be elected to Congress from Montana.
"Making the world safe for democracy"
a reason promoted by Wilson to go to war: to make the world a safer place for democracies
Selective Service Act
a mandatory draft that was issued in 1917 for males from ages 21 - 30; not really necessary
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the ___ fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces. The ___ helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive (at Château-Thierry and Belleau Wood) in June 1918, and fought its major actions in the Saint-Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne Offensives in late 1918.
Gen. Pershing was a commander of these forces.
General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing
a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. He is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies (a retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority); holds the first United States officer service number (O-1). He was regarded as a mentor by the generation of American generals who led the United States Army in Europe during World War II, including George C. Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar N. Bradley, and George S. Patton.
War Industries Board
a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs.
(anti-trust laws suspended during the time this organization was in power; changes Wilson's policy to New Nationalism (Roosevelt) out of necessity)
War Labor Board, April 1918
a federal agency created in April 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson. It was composed of twelve representatives from business and labor, and co-chaired by Former President William Howard Taft. Its purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers in order to ensure labor reliability and productivity during the war. It was disbanded after the war in May, 1919.
Ludlow Massacre, 1917
an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914; resulted in the violent deaths of between 19 and 25 people; sources vary but all sources include two women and eleven children, asphyxiated and burned to death under a single tent. The deaths occurred after a day-long fight between strikers and the Guard.
Wobblies
refers to members of the IWW; they were scorned during this time because they were thought to be Anti-American since they did not want to support the war effort; many were arrested during the time the US participated in WWI
Food Administration
was the responsible agency for the administration of the allies' food reserves. One of its important tasks was the stabilization of the price of wheat on the U. S. market. It was established by Executive Order 2679-A of August 10, 1917 pursuant to the Food and Fuel Control Act.
Under the direction of Herbert Hoover it employed its Grain Corporation, organized under the provisions of the Food Control Act of August 10, 1917, as an agency for the purchase and sale of foodstuff. Having done transactions in the size of $ 7 billion it was rendered obsolete by the armistice in Europe. President Woodrow Wilson promoted its transition in a new agency for the support of the reconstruction of Europe. It became the American Relief Administration, approved by an Act (Public, No. 274, 65th Congress) on February 25, 1919.
Smith-Lever Act (Cooperative Extension Service Act), 1914
a United States federal law that established a system of cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects. It helped farmers learn new agricultural techniques by the introduction of home instruction.
Lever Act (Food and Fuel Control Act), 1917
a World War I era US law that among other things created the United States Food Administration and the Federal Fuel Administration.
Smith-Hughes Act (Vocational Education Act), 1917
an act of the United States Congress that promoted vocational agriculture to train people "who have entered upon or who are preparing to enter upon the work of the farm," and provided federal funds for this purpose. As such, it is the basis both for the promotion of vocational education, and for its isolation from the rest of the curriculum in most school settings. The act is an expansion and modification of the 1914 Smith-Lever Act and both where based largely on a report and recommendation from Charles Allen Prosser's Report of the National Commission on Aid to Vocational Education. Woodlawn High School (Woodlawn, Virginia) became the first public secondary school in the United States to offer agricultural education classes under the Smith-Hughes Act.
Victory Garden
also called a war garden or a food garden for defense, was a vegetable, fruit and herb garden planted at a private residence or public park in United States, United Kingdom, Canada and Germany during World War I and World War II to reduce the pressure on the public food supply brought on by the war effort. In addition to indirectly aiding the war effort such gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" — in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made such gardens become a part of daily life on the home front.
Committee on Public Information (Creel Committee)
an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. (i.e. propaganda)
Federal Highways Act, 1916
enacted on July 11, 1916, and was the first federal highway funding legislation in the United States. It was introduced by Rep. Dorsey W. Shackleford of Missouri, then amended by Sen. John H. Bankhead of Alabama to conform with model legislation written by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). President Woodrow Wilson signed the Federal Aid Road Act at a ceremony attended by members of AASHO, American Automobile Association, and various farm organizations.
Under the Act, federal funding was provided for rural post roads on the condition that they be open to the public at no charge. Funding was to be distributed to the states based on a formula incorporating each state's geographic area, population, and existing road network. To obtain the funding, states were required to submit project plans, surveys, specifications and estimates to the United States Secretary of Agriculture.
(federal money to state departments of transportation; rural routes and trunk lines created)
Liberty Loan Drives (War Bonds)
drives in which the federal government campaigned for people to buy war bonds to help with the war effort
Adamson Act, 1916
a United States federal law passed in 1916 that established an eight-hour workday, with additional pay for overtime work, for interstate railroad workers.
Espionage Act, 1917
a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.
It originally prohibited any attempt to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with military recruitment; later added on Sedition Act of 1918
Sedition Act, 1918
an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds. One historian of American civil liberties has called it "the nation's most extreme antispeech legislation."
Schenck v. United States, 1919
a United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to express freedom of speech against the draft during World War I.
Eugene V. Debs
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
Bolshevik Revolution
a political revolution, mass insurrection and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd traditionally dated to 25 October 1917 Old Style Julian Calendar (O.S.), which corresponds with 7 November 1917 New Style (N.S.).Gregorian Calendar.
overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. As the revolution was not universally recognized outside of Petrograd there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918 at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between Russia (the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic) and the Central Powers marking Russia's exit from World War I.
While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, who were tied up in fighting the Russian Civil War, and it affirmed the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania. In Poland, which was not mentioned in the treaty, its signing caused riots, protests and an end to any support for the Central Powers.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
an agreement in which the Japanese recognized the US Open Door Policy while the US recognized the Japanese right to extend influence in China; causes problems later as the last part is mistranslated as Japan's "paramount" power in China
Armistice Day, Nov. 11, 1918
the date that WWI ended
Versailles Peace Conference
the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities. They met, discussed various options and developed a series of treaties ("Paris Peace Treaties") for the post-war world. These treaties reshaped the map of Europe with new borders and countries, and imposed war guilt and stiff financial penalties on Germany. The defeated Central Powers' colonial empires in Africa, southwest Asia, and the Pacific, would be parceled between and mandated to the victorious colonial empires, based on the different levels of previous development and the creation of the League of Nations.
The Big Four
refers to Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau (Fr), David Lloyd George (GB), and Vittorio Orlando (It)
(Wilson's) Fourteen Points
a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918.
Also refers to the goals that Wilson wanted to make as part of the Treaty of Versailles
League of Nations
was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other issues in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members.
(not supported by Congress)
Treaty of Versailles 6/28/1919
one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties.[1] Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series.
Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war (along with Austria and Hungary, according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon) and, under the terms of articles 231-248 (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers.
Self-determination
the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference. The principle does not state how the decision is to be made, or what the outcome should be, whether it be independence, federation, protection, some form of autonomy or even full assimilation. Neither does it state what the delimitation between nations should be — or even what constitutes a nation. In fact, there are conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to ____________. Moreover, ____________ is just one of many principles applied to determining international borders.
Mandates
after WWI required the creation of the League of Nations...(?)
Reparations ($33 billion)
refers to the money Germany had to pay for "causing the war"
Soviet Communism
refers to communism that occurred in the Soviet Union
Democratic Capitalism
refers to capitalism that occurs in Democracies...opposite of Soviet Communism
Collective Security
a security arrangement, regional or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and agrees to join in a collective response to threats to, and breaches of, the peace.
Was attempted to be created in the League of Nations
Irreconcilables
refers to people (like Hiram Johnson & Robert La Follette) who did not want to ratify the Treaty of Versailles
Moderates
refers to people (like Henry Cabot Lodge) who were on the edge about ratifying the Treaty of Versailles
1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic
an epidemic that hit multiple parts of the world and killed many people
Great Migration (African-American)
the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest, and West from 1910 to 1970.
1919 Strikes
refers to strikes that happened in 1919...(Boston Police Force strike?)
1919-20 Depression
an extremely sharp deflationary recession in the United States, shortly after the end of World War I. It lasted from January 1920 to July 1921. The extent of the deflation was not only large, but large relative to the accompanying decline in real product.
Eighteenth Amendment
established prohibition in the United States. The separate Volstead Act set down methods of enforcing this, and defined which "intoxicating liquors" were prohibited, and which were excluded from prohibition (e.g., for medical and religious purposes).
Nineteenth Amendment
Amendment that gave women the right to vote
The Election of 1920
election in which James M. Cox ran for the Democrats and Warren G. Harding was nominated by the "smoke-filled room" to run for Republicans, mainly because he was handsome and didn't really have any views; also ran on "return to normalcy" platform; Harding won; his presidency became riddled with corruption
Harding Administration
a presidential administration that was involved with more scandals and corruption than Grant's administration; the president died while scandals were being made public;
Calvin Coolidge was vice-president; "return to normalcy"
Teapot Dome Scandal
scandal in which Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall was selling oil leases people without competitive bidding; possibly most famous scandal under Harding Administration
Veteran's Bureau Scandal
scandal in which Charles Forbes, who was head of the namesake bureau, was accepting bribes from contractors in return for selling government property;
as a result, Charles F. Cramer (attorney for the namesake bureau) committed suicide; made Harding Administration look bad
Volstead Act
the enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew ________, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation.
Treasury (or Revenue) Agents
members of the police force involved with the money supply and employed by the U.S. treasury (?)
Palmer Raids
attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists, from the United States. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of the namesake attorney general. Though more than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders, his efforts were largely frustrated by officials at the U.S. Department of Labor who had responsibility for deportations and who objected to his methods.
Red Scare
the term given to fear of and reaction against political radicals in the U.S. in the years immediately following World War I.
Those years were marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism. Concerns over the effects of radical political agitation in American society and alleged spread in the American labor movement fueled the paranoia that defined the period.
Red Baiting
the act of accusing, denouncing, attacking or persecuting an individual or group as communist, socialist, or anarchist, or sympathetic toward communism, socialism, or anarchism.
It was well established in the U.S. during the decade before World War I. In the post-war period of 1919-1921 the U.S. government employed it as a central tactic in dealing with labor radicals, anarchists, communists, and foreign agents.
J. Edgar Hoover
the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972 aged 77. He is credited with building the FBI into a large and efficient crime-fighting agency, and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories.
He was one of the most powerful men in America during his time as a part of the Bureau
Sacco and Venzetti
two Italian anarchists who were charged with murder and robbing an office and executed; the former was guilty but there was (or at least today there is) evidence that the latter was not guilty; the latter also had an alibi; executed anyways; showed that the U.S. was still prejudiced and that anarchists did not have basic constitutional rights
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
restricted immigration into the United States. Although intended as temporary legislation, the Act "proved in the long run the most important turning-point in American immigration policy" because it added 2 new features to American immigration law: numerical limits on immigration from Europe and the use of a quota system for establishing those limits.
The Act restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3% of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States as of the U.S. Census of 1910. Based on that formula, the number of new immigrants admitted fell from 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22.
The act meant that only people of Northern Europe who had similar cultures to that of America, were likely to get in. The American government wanted to protect its culture when this act was introduced.
1924 Indian Citizenship Act
also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to America's indigenous peoples, called "Indians" in this Act. (The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees citizenship to persons born in the U.S., but only if "subject to the jurisdiction thereof"; this latter clause excludes certain indigenous peoples.) The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924.
Immigration Act of 1924
a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians and Asian Indians.
National Origins Act, 1929
an act that allowed 150,000 immigrants per year; used a quota system to preserve the existing percentage of national groups; used to preserve Anglo-Saxon population; quota systems remained in place until 1965
Jazz Age
a movement that took place during the 1920s, or the Roaring Twenties, from which jazz music and dance emerged with the introduction of mainstream radio and the end of the war. This era ended in the 1930s with the beginning of The Great Depression but has lived on in American pop culture for decades. With the introduction of jazz came an entirely new cultural movement in places like the United States, France and England.
Expatriates
refers to Americans who changed their citizenship; many did in the years after WWI; many moved to Paris
Lost Generation
a term used to refer to the generation, actually a cohort, that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron.
New Woman
a feminist ideal that emerged in the late 19th century; pushed the limits set by male-dominated society, especially as modeled in the plays of Norwegian Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906); active in the Suffragette movement and were disappointed by the emergence of the frivolous flapper in the 1920s.
Modernism
modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement in the arts, its set of cultural tendencies and associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In particular the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I, were among the factors that shaped ________.
Two Americas
a catch phrase referring to social stratification in American society, made famous in a speech by former US Senator and former presidential candidate John Edwards, originally referring to haves and have-nots.
"New Negro"
a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation.
W.E.B. DuBois
an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, he grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University. He was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Opponent of Booker T. Washington and his "Atlanta" Compromise.
Edited the NAACP's monthly magazine The Crisis
Marcus Garvey
lead a Back-to-Africa movement; created the Universal Negro Improvement Association; also created the Black Star Line to try to get blacks to Africa, but he ran into money troubles
Harlem Renaissance
a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, many French-speaking black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by it.
Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes were prominent figures of this movement
"Scientific" Child Rearing
refers to decreasing the amount of children that one had to focus on each individual child rather than focusing on the whole group; became popular during the 1920s
Consumer Culture
refers to mass-production of consumer goods, such as the Model T, plastics and synthetic fibers, and advertising; installment buying also started during the 1920s
Installment plans
refers to paying for a product with multiple payments over time; started during 1920s
Spectator Sports
refers to sports in which people can watch...
1912 Olympics (Jim Thorpe), Prize Fighting (Jack Dempsey, Gene Tunney), College and Professional Football, Tennis (Bill Tilden, Helen Wills), Golf (Bobby Jones), Swimming (Gertrude Ederle), Baseball (Babe Ruth)
The Man Nobody Knows
a book written by Bruce Barton in 1925; presents Jesus as "the founder of modern business," in an effort to make the Christian story accessible to businessmen of the time.
Frederick W. Taylor (and Taylorization)
an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants. He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Scientific Management
also called Taylorism, was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management.
Henry Ford
an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry. As owner of the Ford Motor Company, he became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled with high wages for workers.
(was anti-Semitic)
Assembly Line
a manufacturing process (sometimes called progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner using optimally planned logistics to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods. The division of labour was initially discussed by Adam Smith, regarding the manufacture of pins, in his book The Wealth of Nations (published in 1776).
Used heavily by Henry Ford for making Model T's
Charles Lindbergh
the man who flew across the Atlantic Ocean in the Spirit of St. Louis in 1927
Birth of a Nation
the first full-length film produced by D.W. Griffith in 1915; controversial today because it glorified the Ku Klux Klan and made African-Americans appear evil
The Jazz Singer
the first full-length film with audio; created in 1927; films were known as "Talkies" after the creation of this film
"Silver Screen" stars
black-and-white film stars (?)
Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, Mary Pickford, Theda Bara, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino
Ku Klux Klan
a hate group at first started against African-Americans; turned in recent years to hate Jews as well; numbers were dwindling during Reconstruction but rebounded during the early 1900's
Nativism
favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture.
Scopes "Monkey" Trial, 1925
A trial that occurred in Tennessee due to a teacher planning to teach evolution to his students; Clarence Darrow (on defense's side) debated William Jennings Bryan (on prosecuting side)
Scopes found guilty but he was turned away free
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act, 1921
a U.S. Act of Congress providing federal funding for maternity and child care. It was sponsored by Senator Morris Sheppard (D) of Texas and Representative Horace Mann Towner (R) of Iowa, and signed by President Warren G. Harding on November 23, 1921.
The act provided for federally-financed instruction in maternal and infant health care and gave 50-50 matching funds to individual US states to build women's health care clinics. It was one of the most significant achievements of Progressive-era maternalist reformers.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
raised American tariffs in order to protect factories and farms. Congress displayed a pro-business attitude in passing the ad valorem tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to Europe, which in turn bought more American goods. The Roaring Twenties brought a period of sustained economic prosperity with an end to the Depression of 1920-21.
Isolationism
the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, foreign trade, international agreements, etc., seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.
Done often by the United States prior to WWI and after the War of 1812
Washington Naval Conference, 1921
a military conference called by President Warren G. Harding and held in Washington from 12 November 1921 to 6 February 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal, having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the first international conference held in the United States and the first disarmament conference in history, and as Kaufman, 1990 shows, it is studied by political scientists as a model for a successful disarmament movement.
Held at Memorial Continental Hall in downtown Washington, it resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty), the Nine-Power Treaty, and a number of smaller agreements. These treaties preserved peace during the 1920s but are also credited with enabling the rise of the Japanese Empire as a naval power leading up to World War II.
Dawes Plan, 1924
an attempt in 1924 to solve the reparations problem, which had bedevilled international politics, in the wake of the Ruhr occupation and the hyperinflation crisis. It provided for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. Intended as an interim measure, the Young Plan was adopted in 1929 to replace it.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
an agreement signed on August 27, 1928, by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy.
After negotiations, the pact was signed in Paris at the French Foreign Ministry by the representatives from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, British India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States. It was provided that it would come into effect on July 24, 1929. By that date, the following nations had deposited instruments of definitive adherence to the pact: Afghanistan, Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Romania, the Soviet Union, the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, Siam, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Eight further states joined after that date: Persia, Greece, Honduras, Chile, Luxembourg, Danzig, Costa Rica and Venezuela.
In the United States, the Senate approved the treaty overwhelmingly, 85-1, with only Wisconsin Republican John J. Blaine voting against. While the U.S. Senate did not add any reservation to the treaty, it did pass a measure "interpreting" the treaty which included the statement that the treaty must not infringe upon America's right of self defense and that the United States was not obliged to enforce the treaty by taking action against those who violated it.
Young Plan, 1929
a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I written in 1929 and formally adopted in 1930. It was presented by the committee headed (1929-30) by American Owen D. Young.
Replaced Dawes Plan
Stimson Doctrine, 1931
a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. The doctrine was an application of the principle of ex injuria jus non oritur. While some analysts have applied the doctrine in opposition to governments established by revolution, this usage is not widespread, and its invocation usually involves treaty violations.
Clark Memorandum, 1930
rejected the view that the Roosevelt Corollary was based on the Monroe Doctrine. However, it was not a complete repudiation of the Roosevelt Corollary but was rather a statement that any intervention by the U.S. was not sanctioned by the Monroe Doctrine but rather was the right of America as a state. This separated the Roosevelt Corollary from the Monroe Doctrine by noting that the Monroe Doctrine only applied to situations involving European countries. One main point in the _____________ was to note that the Monroe Doctrine was based on conflicts of interest only between the United States and European nations, rather than between the United States and Latin American nations.
Good Neighbor Policy
the foreign policy of the administration of United States President Franklin Roosevelt toward the countries of Latin America. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a "good neighbor" and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in Latin America, however many Latin American governments were not convinced.
Coolidge Prosperity
refers to the prosperity that abounded during the Coolidge presidency...
Andrew Mellon
an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
In 1872 he was set up in a lumber and coal business by his father and soon turned it into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years later and had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, he helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction.
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by new President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He served for ten years and eleven months; the third-longest tenure of a Secretary of the Treasury. His service continued through the Coolidge and Hoover administrations. Along with James Wilson and James J. Davis, he is one of only three Cabinet members to serve under three consecutive Presidents.
namesake plan had four main points:
Cut the top income tax rate from 77 to 24 percent
Cut taxes on low incomes from 4 to 1/2 percent
Reduce the Federal Estate tax
Efficiency in government
Became unpopular during Great Depression
Herbert Hoover
becomes president after Coolidge; wins 1928 election against Al Smith; Stock Market Crash occurs after he is 7 months in office
Election of 1928
election in which Herbert Hoover ran against Al Smith; Smith's Tammany Hall reputation hurt him (also the fact that he was Catholic); political realignment starts to occur; "a chicken in every pot" was a slogan used by Hoover
Bull Market
characterized by optimism, investor confidence and expectations that strong results will continue.
opposite of bear market
Margin Trading
borrowing money from a broker to purchase stock;
contributed to stock market crash
Black Thursday
Another name for October 24, 1929, the start of the Wall Street Crash of 1929 at the New York Stock Exchange.
Black Tuesday
when the Wall Street Crash of 1929 really hit (?)
week after Black Thursday
Federal Reserve
the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the ____________ have expanded and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system.
Hague Convention of 1899 (Arms Limitation Talks)
a peace conference that was proposed on August 29, 1898 by Russian Tsar Nicholas II. Nicholas and Count Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov, his foreign minister, were instrumental in initiating the conference. It was held from _______ and signed on July 29 of that year, and entered into force on September 4, 1900. ___________ consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration):
I: Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
II: Laws and Customs of War on Land
III: Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
IV: Prohibiting Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
Declaration I: On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
Declaration II: On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
Declaration III: On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body
The main effect of the ______ was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: bombing from the air, chemical warfare, and hollow point bullets. The Convention also set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Another was held in 1907 to continue the debates and focused more on naval warfare
1907 Gentlemen's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
Albert Beveridge
an American historian and United States Senator from Indiana.
known as one of the great American imperialists. He supported the annexation of the Philippines and along with Republican leader Henry Cabot Lodge he campaigned for the construction of a new navy. After his re-election in 1905 to a second term, he became identified with the reform-minded faction of the GOP. He championed national child labor legislation, broke with President William Howard Taft over the Payne-Aldrich tariff, and sponsored the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906, adopted in the wake of the publication of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.
Alfred Nobel
a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. He is the inventor of dynamite. He also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to institute namesake prizes.
American Exceptionalism
refers to the theory that the United States is qualitatively different from other countries.
Although the term does not necessarily imply superiority, many neoconservative and American conservative writers have promoted its use in that sense. To them, the United States is like the biblical "shining city on a hill," and exempt from historical forces that have affected other countries.
(also used by imperialists to justify expansion)
Andrew Mellon
an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.
In 1872 he was set up in a lumber and coal business by his father and soon turned it into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his father's banking firm, T. Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years later and had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, he helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh. He also branched into industrial activities: oil, steel, shipbuilding, and construction.
appointed Secretary of the Treasury by new President Warren G. Harding in 1921. He served for ten years and eleven months; the third-longest tenure of a Secretary of the Treasury. His service continued through the Coolidge and Hoover administrations. Along with James Wilson and James J. Davis, he is one of only three Cabinet members to serve under three consecutive Presidents.
namesake plan had four main points:
Cut the top income tax rate from 77 to 24 percent
Cut taxes on low incomes from 4 to 1/2 percent
Reduce the Federal Estate tax
Efficiency in government
Became unpopular during Great Depression
Anti-Imperialist League, 1899
an organization established in the United States on June 15, 1898, to battle the American annexation of the Philippines as an insular area. They opposed the expansion because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed." They did not oppose expansion on commercial, constitutional, religious, or humanitarian grounds; rather they believed that annexation and administration of backward tropical areas would mean the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and isolation—ideals expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence, George Washington's Farewell Address and Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. This group represented an older generation and were rooted in an earlier era; they were defeated in terms of public opinion, the 1900 election, and the actions of Congress and the President because most of the younger Progressives who were just coming to power supported imperialism.
Battle of San Juan Hill
a decisive battle of the Spanish-American War. The San Juan heights was a north-south running elevation about two kilometers east of Santiago de Cuba. The names San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were names given by the Americans. This fight for the heights was the bloodiest and most famous battle of the War. It was also the location of the greatest victory for the Rough Riders as claimed by the press and its new commander, the future Vice-President and later President, Theodore Roosevelt, who was (posthumously) awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions in Cuba. Overlooked then by the American Press, much of the heaviest fighting was done by African-American troops.
Battleship U.S.S. Maine
was the United States Navy's second commissioned pre-dreadnought battleship
best known for her catastrophic loss in Havana harbor on the evening of 15 February 1898. Sent to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban revolt against Spain, she exploded suddenly without warning and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of her crew. The cause and responsibility for her sinking remained unclear after a board of inquiry. Nevertheless, popular opinion in the U.S., fanned by inflammatory articles printed in the "Yellow Press" by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, blamed Spain.
One of the reasons for Spanish American War
Boxer Rebellion, 1900
a proto-nationalist movement by the "Righteous Harmony Society" in China between 1898 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place in response to foreign "spheres of influence" in China, with grievances ranging from opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, to missionary evangelism. In China, popular sentiment remained resistant to foreign influences, and anger rose over the "unequal treaties", which the weak Qing state could not resist. Concerns grew that missionaries and Chinese Christians could use this decline to their advantage, appropriating lands and property of unwilling Chinese peasants to give to the church. This sentiment resulted in violent revolts against foreign interests.
In June 1900 in Beijing, ______ threatened foreigners and forced them to seek refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi, urged by the conservatives of the Imperial Court, supported the _____ and declared war on foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers, and Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days. The Chinese government was split between destroying the foreigners in the Legation Quarter and extending olive branches. Clashes were reported between Chinese factions favoring war and those favoring conciliation, the latter led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, Ronglu, claimed three years later that he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. The siege was ended when the Eight-Nation Alliance brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing.
Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, 1914
signed on August 5, 1914 under the approval of the Taft administration. The Wilson administration changed the treaty by adding a provision similar in language to that of the Platt Amendment, which would have authorized U.S. military intervention in Nicaragua. The United States Senate opposed the new provision; in response, it was dropped and the treaty was formally ratified on June 19, 1916.
By the terms of the Treaty, the United States acquired the rights to any canal built in Nicaragua in perpetuity, a renewable ninety-nine year option to establish a naval base in the Gulf of Fonseca, and a renewable ninety-nine year lease to the Great and Little Corn Islands in the Caribbean. For these concessions, Nicaragua received three million dollars.
Abolished in 1970
Buffalo Soldiers
members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
The nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought; the term eventually became synonymous with all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850
a treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, later Lord Dalling. It was negotiated in response to attempts to build the Nicaragua Canal, a canal in Nicaragua that would connect the Pacific and the Atlantic.
Said that countries would share Central American Canal if one was built (England and US)
Commodore George Dewey
an admiral of the United States Navy. He is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. He was also the only person in the history of the United States to have attained the rank of Admiral of the Navy, the most senior rank in the United States Navy.
Cuban Insurrection 1868-78
began on October 10, 1868 when sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed Cuba's independence from Spain. It was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879-1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895-1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated to become the Spanish-American War.
Cuban War for Independence 1895-99
the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868-1878) and the Little War (1879-1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish-American War.
began on 24 February 1895 with uprisings all across the island. In Oriente, the most important ones took place in Santiago, Guantánamo, Jiguaní, San Luis, El Cobre, El Caney, Alto Songo, Bayate and Baire. The uprisings in the central part of the island, such as Ibarra, Jagüey Grande and Aguada suffered from poor co-ordination and failed; the leaders were captured, some of them deported and some executed. In the province of Havana, the insurrection was discovered before it got off and the leaders were detained. Thus, the insurgents further west in Pinar del Río were ordered to wait.
de Lome letter
set off an 1898 diplomatic incident; was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Minister with the Portfolio of Cuba. In the personal letter, which was stolen despite being under diplomatic protection, he referred to the President William McKinley as "weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party." On February 9, 1898, the letter was published in William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. One week later, the USS Maine sunk in Havana Harbor. Both helped stir public sentiment in favor of the Cuban Junta and against the Spanish and are seen as two of the principal triggers of the Spanish-American War of 1898.
Dollar Diplomacy
term used to describe the effort of the United States—particularly under President William Howard Taft—to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt. It was also used in Liberia, where American loans were given in 1913. It was then known as a dollar diplomacy because of the money that made it possible to pay soldiers without having to fight; most would agree it was a considerably meager wage.
Drago Doctrine
announced in 1902 by the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs Luis María Drago. Extending the Monroe Doctrine, it set forth the policy that no foreign power, including the United States, could use force against an American nation to collect debt. It was supplanted in 1904 by the Roosevelt Corollary.
Emilio Aguinaldo
a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation.
He became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, the longest-lived president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors.
Filipino Rebels
refers to rebels during the Philippine Insurrection...
Foraker Act, 1900
officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (albeit limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently become a possession of the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War. Section VII of the ________ also established Puerto Rican citizenship. President William McKinley signed the act on April 12, 1900
Francisco Madero
politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. As a respectable upper-class politician, he supplied a center around which opposition to the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz could coalesce. However, once Díaz was deposed, this man proved to be ineffective, and the Mexican Revolution quickly spun out of his control. He was deposed and executed by the Porfirista military and his aides, which he had neglected to replace with revolutionary supporters. His assassination was followed by the most violent period of the revolution in Mexico (1913-1917), lasting until the Constitution of 1917 and revolutionary president Venustiano Carranza achieved some degree of stability.
Gen. Valeriano Weyler
a Spanish political and military noble, Marquis of Tenerife and Duke of Ruby, Grandee of Spain, captain general of Cuba during the independence uprising of Jose Marti and Maximo Gomez. He was famous for his maligned Reconcentración policy.
Great White Fleet, 1907-09
the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada its nickname
Gunboat Diplomacy
refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power — implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
(usually with a Navy; part of Big Stick Policy)
Hawaiian Reciprocity Agreement, 1875
a free trade agreement signed and ratified in 1875 that is generally known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.
The treaty gave free access to the United States market for sugar and other products grown in the Kingdom of Hawaii starting in September 1876. In return, the US gained lands in the area known as Puʻu Loa for what became known as the Pearl Harbor naval base. The treaty led to large investment by Americans in sugar plantations in Hawaii.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903
a treaty signed on November 18, 1903, by the United States and Panama, that established the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal.
The terms of the treaty stated that the United States was to receive rights to a canal zone which was to extend five miles on either side of the canal route in perpetuity, and Panama was to receive a payment from US up to $10 million and an annual rental payment of $250,000.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901
a treaty signed by the United States and the United Kingdom on 18 November 1901, as a preliminary to the creation of the Panama Canal. The Treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across the Central American isthmus to connect the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, both nations had renounced building such a canal under the sole control of one nation.
Henry Cabot Lodge
an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. He had the role (but not the title) of Senate Majority leader. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. Lodge demanded Congressional control of declarations of war; Wilson refused and the United States Senate never ratified the Treaty nor joined the League of Nations.
early on associated with the conservative faction of the Republican Party. He was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the left-wing Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States to do so
came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. He maintained that the United States needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs.
Supported immigration restrictions
Insular Cases 1901-22
several U.S. Supreme Court cases concerning the status of territories acquired by the U.S. in the Spanish-American War (1898).
The cases were in essence the court's response to a major issue of the 1900 presidential election and the American Anti-Imperialist League, summarized by the phrase "Does the Constitution follow the flag?"
Downes v. Bidwell, 1901
a case in which the United States Supreme Court decided whether United States territories were subject to the provisions and protections of the United States Constitution. This question is sometimes stated as "does the Constitution follow the flag?". The resulting decision narrowly held that the U.S. Constitution did not necessarily apply to territories. Instead, the United States Congress had jurisdiction to create law within territories in certain circumstances, particularly dealing with revenue, that would not be allowed by the U.S. Constitution for proper states within the union.
(stemmed from people not being forced to pay import duties on fruit from Puerto Rico)
Internationalism
a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation among nations for the theoretical benefit of all. Partisans of this movement, such as supporters of the World Federalist Movement, claim that nations should cooperate because their long-term mutual interests are of greater value than their individual short term needs.
by nature opposed to ultranationalism, jingoism, realism and national chauvinism.
Jones Act of 1916 (Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916)
an organic act passed by the United States Congress which replaced the Philippine Organic Act of 1902. The Jones Law acted like a constitution for the Philippines until 1934 when the Tydings-McDuffie Act creating of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. It established for the first time an elected upper house, which would eventually become the Philippine Senate.
framework for a "more autonomous government" in preparation for the grant of independence by the United States.
Jones Act of 1917 (Jones-Shafroth Act)
an Act of the United States Congress and President Woodrow Wilson that replaced the Foraker Act of 1900 and established civilian government on the island of Puerto Rico.
The people of Puerto Rico were empowered to have a popularly-elected Senate, established a bill of rights, Puerto Ricans were collectively made U.S. citizens, and authorized the election of a Resident Commissioner to a four year term.
José Martí
a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. He was also a part of the Cuban Freemasons. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence." He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.
The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet, Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet, Gabriela Mistral.
Kanagawa Treaty
concluded between Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy and the Tokugawa shogunate.
The treaty opened the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to United States trade and guaranteed the safety of shipwrecked U.S. sailors; however, the treaty did not create a basis for establishing a permanent residence in these locations. The treaty did establish a foundation for the Americans to maintain a permanent consul in Shimoda. The arrival of the fleet would trigger the end of Japan's 200 year policy of seclusion (Sakoku).
Klondike Gold Rush
an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold.
Some miners discovered very rich deposits of gold and became immensely wealthy. However, the majority arrived after the best of the gold fields had been claimed and only around 4,000 miners ultimately struck gold.
ended in 1899, after gold was discovered in Nome, prompting an exodus from the Klondike.
"Little Brown Brother"
a term used by Americans to refer to native Filipinos during the period of U.S. colonial rule over the Philippines, following the Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States, and the Philippine-American War. The term was coined by William Howard Taft, the first American Governor-General of the Philippines (1901-1904) and later the 27th President of the United States. U.S. military men in the Philippines greeted the term with scorn.[1][2] The book Benevolent Assimilation recounts that Taft "assured President McKinley that 'our___________' would need 'fifty or one hundred years' of close supervision 'to develop anything resembling Anglo-Saxon political principles and skills.'", and reports that the military greeted Taft's assertion "that 'Filipinos are moved by similar considerations to those which move other men' with utter scorn".
not originally intended to be derogatory, nor an ethnic slur; instead, it is a reflection of "paternalist racism", shared also by Theodore Roosevelt.
London Naval Conference of 1909
a continuation of the debates of the Hague Conference of 1907, with the United Kingdom hoping for the formation of an International Prize Court. Ten nations sent representatives, the main naval powers of Europe and the United States and Japan. The conference met from December 4, 1908 to February 26, 1909. The agreements were issued as the Declaration of London, containing seventy-one articles it restated much existing international maritime law.
The signatories' governments did not all ratify the Declaration and it never went into effect.
R.M.S. Lusitania
a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. The ship entered passenger service with the Cunard Line on 26 August 1907 and continued on the line's heavily-traveled passenger service between Liverpool, England and New York City, which included a port of call at Queenstown (now Cobh) Ireland on westbound crossings and Fishguard, Wales on eastbound crossings.
During the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against Britain, the ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915 and sank in eighteen minutes. The vessel went down eleven miles (18 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people aboard, leaving 764 survivors. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany, contributed to the American entry into World War I and became an iconic symbol in military recruiting campaigns of why the war was being fought.
Meiji (Restoration?)
a chain of events that restored imperial rule to Japan in 1868; led to enormous changes in Japan's political and social structure
Midway Islands
atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago, about one-third of the way between Honolulu, Hawaii, and Tokyo, Japan.
atoll was sighted on July 5, 1859, by Captain N.C. Middlebrooks, though he was most commonly known as Captain Brooks, of the sealing ship Gambia. The islands were named the "Middlebrook Islands" or the "Brook Islands". Brooks claimed these islands for the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, which authorized Americans to occupy uninhabited islands temporarily to obtain guano. On 28 August 1867, Captain William Reynolds of the USS Lackawanna formally took possession of the atoll for the United States; the name changed to ______ some time after this. The atoll became the first Pacific islands annexed by the U.S. government, as the Unincorporated Territory of _______, and administered by the United States Navy. _______ is the only island in the entire Hawaiian archipelago that was not later part of the State of Hawaii.
Newlands Resolution, 1898
a joint resolution written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands. It was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii.
established a five-member commission to study which laws were needed in Hawaii. The commission included: Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole (R-Hawaii Territory), Senators Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) and John T. Morgan (D-AL), Representative Robert R. Hitt (R-IL) and former Hawaii Chief Justice and later Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (R-Hawaii Territory).
Open Door Note(s), 1899
a set of notes that pushed for the Open Door Policy (?)
Pan-Americanism
a movement which, through diplomatic, political, economic and social means, seeks to create, encourage and organize relationships, associations and cooperation between the states of the Americas in common interests.
Panama Canal Zone
a 553-square-mile (1,430 km2) unorganized U.S. territory located within the Republic of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending five miles (8.0 km) on each side of the centerline, but excluding Panama City and Colón, which otherwise would have been partly within the limits of the Canal Zone. Its border spanned two of Panama's provinces and was created on November 18, 1903 with the signing of the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty. When reservoirs were created to assure a steady supply of water for the locks, those lakes were included within the Zone.
From 1903 to 1979 the territory was controlled by the United States (mainly to build and control canal there)
Philippine Insurrection
an armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries. The conflict arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence following annexation by the United States.[13][14] The war was part of a series of conflicts in the Philippine struggle for independence, preceded by the Philippine Revolution and the Spanish-American War.
(mainly happened because the United States annexed the territories)
Platt Amendment (1901-03)
an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, replacing the earlier Teller Amendment. It stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American War and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S. relations until the 1934 Treaty of Relations. The Amendment ensured U.S. involvement in Cuban affairs and gave legal standing (in U.S law) to U.S. claims to certain territories on the island including Guantanamo Bay Naval Base.
Porfirio Diaz
a Mexican War of Independence volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N. Méndez as interim president, and a four-year term served by his political ally Manuel González from 1880 to 1884. Commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, he is a controversial figure in Mexican history. The period of his leadership was marked by significant internal stability (known as the "paz porfiriana"), modernization, and economic growth. However, his regime grew unpopular due to repression and political stagnation, and he fell from power during the Mexican Revolution, after he had imprisoned his electoral rival and declared himself the winner of an eighth term in office.
Porfiriato
The 35 years in which Díaz ruled Mexico are referred to as this term
Pujo Committee (House subcommittee)
a United States congressional subcommittee which was formed between May 1912 and January 1913 to investigate the so-called "money trust", a community of Wall Street bankers and financiers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances.
Queen Liliuokalani
the last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
overthrown in a coup when she tried to limit the power that fruit interests had in Hawaii
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904
a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904. The corollary states that the United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
Root-Takahira Agreement, 1908
an agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan negotiated between United States Secretary of State Elihu Root and Japanese Ambassador to the United States Takahira Kogorō.
Signed on 30 November 1908, the agreement consisted of an official recognition of the territorial status quo as of November 1908, affirmation of the independence and territorial integrity of China (i.e. the "Open Door Policy" as proposed by John Hay), maintenance of free trade and equal commercial opportunities, Japanese recognition of the American annexation of the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Philippines and American recognition of Japan's position in northeast China. Implicit in the agreement was American acknowledgment of Japan's right to annex Korea and dominance over southern Manchuria, and Japan's acquiescence to limitations on Japanese immigration to California.
Rough Riders
the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action. The United States Army was weakened and left with little manpower after the American Civil War roughly thirty years prior. As a result, President William McKinley called upon 1,250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts.[1] It was also called "Wood's Weary Walkers" after its first commander, Colonel Leonard Wood, as an acknowledgment of the fact that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up fighting on foot as infantry. Wood's second in command was former assistant secretary of the United States Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, a man who had pushed for American involvement in Cuban independence.
The Rough Riders were mostly made of native Americans, college athletes, cowboys, and ranchers.
Russo-Japanese War, 1905
"the first great war of the 20th century."[3] It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
Japanese were more advanced; had radio; T. Roosevelt's negotiation of the treaty helped him win the Nobel Peace Prize
Samoa
a country encompassing the western part of the Samoan Islands in the South Pacific Ocean.
American side and German side
Sanford Dole
a lawyer and jurist in the Hawaiian Islands as a kingdom, protectorate, republic and territory. Serving as a friend of both Hawaiian royalty and the elite immigrant community, he advocated the westernization of Hawaiian government and culture.
Chosen as the first to govern after the coup in Hawaii took place.
Sec. of State William H. Seward
the 12th Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
As Johnson's Secretary of State, he engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia in an act that was ridiculed at the time as his namesake "Folly", but which somehow exemplified his character.
(was not such a "Folly" after gold was discovered there)
Sec. State John Hay
an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln. His highest office was serving as United States Secretary of State under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt.
helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish-American War. He continued serving as Secretary of State after Theodore Roosevelt succeeded McKinley, serving until his own death in 1905. He established the Open Door policy in China.
preparations for the Panama Canal. (negotiating treaties)
(described Spanish-American War as "splendid little war")
Seward's Folly
refers to Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia
"Speak softly and carry a big stick"
a quote that Roosevelt thought was a West African proverb that gave rise to a namesake policy
Taft-Katsura Agreement, 1905
a set of notes taken during conversations between United States Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Prime Minister of Japan Katsura Tarō on 29 July 1905. The notes were discovered in 1924; there was never a signed agreement or secret treaty, only a memorandum of a conversation regarding Japanese-American relations.
First were Katsura's views on peace in East Asia, which according to him formed the fundamental principle of Japan's foreign policy and was best accomplished by a good understanding between Japan, the United States, and Great Britain.
The second issue concerned the Philippines. On this, Taft observed that it was in Japan's best interests to have the Philippines governed by a strong and friendly nation like the United States; Katsura claimed that Japan had no aggressive designs on the Philippines.
Finally, regarding Korea, Katsura observed that Japanese colonization of Korea was a matter of absolute importance, as he considered Korea to have been direct cause of the just-concluded Russo-Japanese War. Katsura stated that a comprehensive solution of the Korea problem would be the war's logical outcome. Katsura further stated that if left alone, Korea would continue to improvidently enter into agreements and treaties with other powers, which he said created the original problem. Therefore, Katsura stated that Japan must take steps to prevent Korea from again creating conditions which would force Japan into fighting another foreign war.
Tampico Affair
started off as a minor incident involving U.S. sailors and Mexican land forces loyal to General Victoriano Huerta during the guerra de las facciones phase of the Mexican Revolution.
The commander of the Dolphin arranged for a pickup of oil from a warehouse on April 9 near a tense defensive position at Iturbide Bridge. The defenders of the bridge anticipated an attack based on the two consecutive days of skirmishes that had immediately preceded. Nine U.S. sailors on a whaleboat flying the U.S. flag were dispatched to the warehouse along a canal. Based on the sailors' account, seven of them moved the cans of fuel to the boat while two remained on the vessel. Mexican federal soldiers were alerted to the activity and confronted the American sailors. Neither side was able to speak the other's language, which left the sailors immobile in the face of commands from the soldiers.
The Mexicans raised rifles against the Americans, including the sailors still on the boat, and ushered the men to the nearby Mexican regimental headquarters.
(near namesake place)
Torrijos-Carter Treaties of 1977
two treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D.C., on September 7, 1977, which abrogated the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty of 1903. The treaties guaranteed that Panama would gain control of the Panama Canal after 1999, ending the control of the canal that the U.S. had exercised since 1903.
Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905
formally ended the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War. It was signed on September 5, 1905 after negotiations at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine (but named after nearby Portsmouth, New Hampshire) in the USA.
Valparaiso Affair, 1891
a diplomatic incident that took place between Chile and the United States, during the Chilean Civil War, as result of the growing American influence in Pacific Coast region of Latin America in the 1890s. It remains a nodal event because it marked a dramatic shift in United States-Chilean relations. It was triggered by the stabbing of two United States Navy sailors from the USS Baltimore in front of the "True Blue Saloon" in Valparaíso on October 16, 1891.
Venezuelan Boundary Dispute 1895-6
occurred over Venezuela's longstanding dispute with the United Kingdom about the territory of Essequibo and Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory. As the dispute became a crisis, the key issue became Britain's refusal to include in the proposed international arbitration the territory east of the "Schomburgk Line", which a surveyor had drawn half a century earlier as a boundary between Venezuela and the former Dutch territory of British Guiana.
ultimately saw Britain accept the United States' intervention in the dispute to force arbitration of the entire disputed territory, and tacitly accept the United States' right to intervene under the Monroe Doctrine. A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the matter, and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.
(afterwards, Anglo-American relations became better)
Venustiano Carranza
one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914, and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted. He was assassinated near the end of his term of office at the behest of a cabal of army generals resentful at his insistence that his successor be a civilian.
Pancho Villa
one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals.
As commander of the División del Norte (Division of the North), he was the veritable caudillo of the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua which, given its size, mineral wealth, and proximity to the United States of America, provided him with extensive resources. He was also provisional Governor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914. Although he was prevented from being accepted into the "panteón" of national heroes until some 20 years after his death, today his memory is honored by Mexicans, U.S. citizens, and many people around the world.
seized hacienda land for distribution to peasants and soldiers. He robbed and commandeered trains, and, like the other revolutionary generals, printed fiat money to pay for his cause.
dominance in northern Mexico was broken in 1915 through a series of defeats he suffered at Celaya and Agua Prieta at the hands of Álvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. After his famous raid on Columbus in 1916, U.S. Army General John J. Pershing tried unsuccessfully to capture him in a nine-month pursuit that ended when Pershing was called back as the United States entry into World War I was assured. He retired in 1920 and was given a large estate which he turned into a "military colony" for his former soldiers. In 1923, he decided to re-involve himself in Mexican politics and as a result was assassinated, most likely on the orders of Obregón.
Emiliano Zapata
a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the president Porfirio Díaz. He formed and commanded an important revolutionary force, the Liberation Army of the South, during the Mexican Revolution.
Walter Reed
a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. This insight gave impetus to the new fields of epidemiology and biomedicine, and most immediately allowed the resumption and completion of work on the Panama Canal (1904-1914) by the United States.
Watchful Waiting
refers to Wilson waiting to see which faction of Mexico would eventually take over; a phrase used by him in a State of the Union Address
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley;
proponent of BIMETALLISM gave what is known as the Cross of Gold Speech: "you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns."
o FREE SILVER
o Support of POPULIST PARTY
an ANTI-IMPERIALIST
Yellow Fever
an acute viral hemorrhagic disease.
Disrupted work on the Panama Canal.
Walter Reed was able to find the cause of it and people were able to combat it by using insecticides to kill mosquitoes
Yellow Journalism
a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. Techniques may include exaggerations of news events, scandal-mongering, or sensationalism.
Pulitzer and Hearst used this type of journalism
Grover Cleveland
the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1861 to 1913; won a second term in 1892, with the major parties challenged, especially at the state level, by the POPULIST PARTY;
His handling of the PULLMAN STRIKE (1894) earned Cleveland the enmity of labor unions and lost him the industrial working class vote
People's (Populist) Party
a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
enacted on July 14, 1890 as a United States federal law. It was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month; Cleveland vetoed it during Panic of 1893; farmers got angry
Grange Movement
AKA National Grange, a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s
1893 - 1897
the years of Cleveland's second term
James G. Blaine
a Republican politician who served as U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, and two-time Secretary of State. He was nominated for president in 1884, but was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there. During the American Civil War, he served the Union as a Brigadier General in the XX Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, and was later appointed to the U.S. Senate from that state.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
the Republican political tactic of reminding voters that southern democrats caused the Civil War
Southern Alliance
a southern division of the Farmers' Alliance
Omaha Platform (1892)
the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4 1892
Colored Alliance
formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place did not allow black farmers to join. A group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance, to fill their need.
Crime of '73
refers to the Fourth Coinage Act, which was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law.
McKinley Tariff
an act framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890. The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Protectionism, a tactic supported by Republicans, was fiercely debated by politicians and condemned by Democrats
Silverites and Gold Bugs
refers to the debate between having silver as an additional money standard and having on the gold standard
Jacob S. Coxey and Coxey's Army
an American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. He twice led a namesake Army in 1894 and 1914, consisting of a group of unemployed men that he led on marches from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, D.C. to present a "Petition in Boots" demanding that the United States Congress allocate funds to create jobs for the unemployed
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
a tariff that replaced the McKinley Tariff and lowered tax rates; imposed an income tax
William McKinley
the 25th President of the United States (1897-1901). He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s. He also led the nation to victory in 100 days in the Spanish-American War; assassinated at Pan-American exhibition;
campaigned in 1896 against the Democrat free silver advocate WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN, on a pro-tariff, pro-imperialism platform, as a means to fix the economy.
Marcus A. Hanna
a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley; made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.; started Panama Canal (?)
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley;
proponent of BIMETALLISM gave what is known as the Cross of Gold Speech: "you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns."
o FREE SILVER
o Support of POPULIST PARTY
Panic (Depression) of 1893
economic crisis that brought Cleveland and the Democrat party down. Cleveland pushed for a lower tariff to help the economy (the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894), but the northern industrialists who came into Congress with him wanted a high one and he lost their support. The WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF OF 1894 did enact, in addition to a slightly lower tariff, the FIRST PEACE-TIME INCOME TAX, of 2% on about 10% of the population.
COXEY'S ARMY - 1500 TROOPS TO 500 MARCHERS; ARRESTED FOR STEPPING ON THE GRASS;
CLEVELAND has to ask J.P. MORGAN to BAIL OUT
Pullman Strike
a strike that occurred at first against the titular company, because they lowered wages while keeping the housing prices at the same level; becomes a federal issue Eugene V. Debs, the leader of the strike, was arrested; violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act; again held up the mail
Progressivism
A largely middle-and upper class paternalistic movement, progressives worked to end dominance of political machines, to regulate and control big business, and to improve the working and living conditions the urban poor. NOT at all the enemy of Big Business, they simply wanted to REGULATE big business for the benefit of the many, rather than the few.
William Randolph Hearst
an American business magnate and a leading newspaper publisher; his enormous news empire was reflective of his own politics throughout his life. It reflected many "populist" beliefs at the start, such as advocating bimetallism and imperialism. By the end of his life, his papers were extremely conservative ("more Fox than Fox" - Patton), and refused to publish anything that was not complimentary towards his own pro-big business, anti-labor and intolerant interests.
Edward Bellamy
the author of Looking Backward;
a socialist of a sort (not at all a communist) also wrote the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892.
Looking Backward
a sci-fi novel; the setting is the year 2000; Dr. Leete examines the year 1887; utopian society; written by Edward Bellamy;
Social Gospel - Socialist, utopian novel set in 2000: envisions the possibility of a society that has used the potential of industry & technology to create an equitable, just, safe society.
Jacob Riis
a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his discovery of the use of flash in photography.
How the Other Half Lives
one of Jacob Riis's collection of photos showing how poor people lived
Immigrant Labor
refers to labor done by immigrants; the Exclusion Act limited Chinese immigration; Foran Act got rid of Padrone System; Immigration Restriction League was formed by Harvard graduates to restrict immigration;
liked by big business; not by most others, especially by less recent immigrants of a different national origin
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
The Atlantic Monthly
an American magazine founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1857. It was created as a literary and cultural commentary magazine. It quickly achieved a national reputation, which it held for more than a century. It was important for recognizing and publishing new writers and poets, and encouraging major careers. It published leading writers' commentary on abolition, education, and other major issues in contemporary political affairs.
The magazine's founders were a group of prominent writers of national reputation, who included Harriet Beecher Stowe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., John Greenleaf Whittier and James Russell Lowell. Lowell was its first editor. The editor-in-chief as of November 2009 is James Bennet
McClure's
an American illustrated monthly periodical popular at the turn of the 20th century. The magazine is credited with creating muckraking journalism. Ida Tarbell's series in 1902 exposing the monopoly abuses of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company and Ray Stannard Baker's earlier look at the United States Steel Corporation focused the public eye on the conduct of corporations. The magazine helped shape the moral compass of the time.
it also published such writers as Rudyard Kipling, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jack London, Herminie T. Kavanagh, Lincoln Steffens, Willa Cather and Arthur Conan Doyle. Mark Twain also contributed.
RADICALISM
is decidedly NOT middle class, nor tolerant of Big Business
Eugene Debs
an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs eventually became one of the best-known socialists living in the United States.
INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD (the WOBBLIES)
convinced that the capitalist system needed to be overthrown. They wanted to create a labor union for organizing all workers of the world, then go on general strike and paralyze capitalist society, then take over the plants and overthrow governments (this is an anarcho-syndicalist philosophy), believing that if there was no government, people would willingly to work in "syndicates" or collectives, taking according to their needs and produce according to their abilities;
made up of the Western Federation of Miners (who were apparently VERY violent) and immigrants who had been exposed to ideas of anarchism, socialism, and communism in Europe. It had less than100,000 members at its peak. Most traditional labor unions shunned it;
did win a strike in Lawrence MA, although it lost a big one in NJ.
It agitated for pacifism in WWI, calling for all workers to fight capitalists, not each other ("Make Love Not War" 50 years early!). The Red Scare and conservatism of the 1920s, following the Bolshevik Revolution, led to state laws banning its existence as a "criminal syndicate." Veterans and the Ku Klux Klan both target it. By the 1920s it is exterminated in the U.S.
"Big Bill" Haywood
a founding member and leader of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and a member of the Executive Committee of the Socialist Party of America. During the first two decades of the 20th century, he was involved in several important labor battles, including the Colorado Labor Wars, the Lawrence textile strike, and other textile strikes in Massachusetts and New Jersey.
also led the Western Federation of Miners
Mary Harris "Mother" Jones
a prominent American labor and community organizer, who helped coordinate major strikes and co-founded the Industrial Workers of the World.
She worked as a teacher and dressmaker but after her husband and four children all died of yellow fever and her workshop was destroyed in a fire in 1871 she began working as an organizer for the Knights of Labor and the United Mine Workers union.
She was a very effective speaker, punctuating her speeches with stories, audience participation, humor and dramatic stunts. From 1897 (when she was 60) she was known as her nickname and in 1902 she was called "the most dangerous woman in America" for her success in organizing mine workers and their families against the mine owners. In 1903, upset about the lax enforcement of the child labor laws in the Pennsylvania mines and silk mills, she organized a Children's March from Philadelphia to the home of then president Theodore Roosevelt in New York.
Emma Goldman
an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches. She played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America and Europe in the first half of the twentieth century.
She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist and financier Henry Clay Frick as an act of propaganda of the deed. Although Frick survived the attempt on his life, Berkman was sentenced to twenty-two years in prison; she was imprisoned several times in the years that followed, for "inciting to riot" and illegally distributing information about birth control. In 1906, she founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth.
John Reed
(I think it's this guy) an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, best remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant.
Robert M. LaFollette
an American Republican (and later a Progressive) politician. He served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, was the Governor of Wisconsin, and was also a U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (1906 to 1925). He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and 17% of the national popular vote.
He is best remembered as a proponent of progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations. In 1957, a Senate Committee selected him as one of the five greatest U.S. Senators, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Robert Taft
Initiative and Referendum
one of the methods by which Progressive laws got passed (?)
Direct Election of Senators
Resulted from the passing of the 17th Amendment; pushed for by Progressives and Populists
10 & 8 Hour Day Laws
laws that were trying to be passed to limit the work hours of men, women, and children
Lochner v. New York (1905)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case that held a "liberty of contract" was implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60. By a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court rejected the argument that the law was necessary to protect the health of bakers, deciding it was a labor law attempting to regulate the terms of employment, and calling it an "unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the individual to contract." Justice Rufus Peckham wrote for the majority, while Justices John Marshall Harlan and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. filed dissents.
Child Labor
refers to labor done by children; poorly enforced at state level; struck down by Supreme Court (Hammer v. Dagenhart)
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
a disaster that occurred in the middle of the day on a weekend; women were jumping out of a sweatshop in a tall building in order to escape flames; brought working conditions to attention; local authorities did not help the wounded; strong support from Jewish communities
Consumer's League
an American consumer organization; a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues; provides government, businesses, and other organizations with the consumer's perspective on concerns including child labor, privacy, food safety, and medication information; chartered in 1899 by social reformers Jane Addams and Josephine Lowell.
Female Suffrage
what women wanted in terms of voting...
arguments made for it: "politics would be more pure"
arguments made against it: "women are different; must be taken care of"
Carrie Chapman Catt
a women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920; she served as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and was the founder of the League of Women Voters and the International Alliance of Women.
Western States
these states accepted Women's Suffrage via the State by State Approach
Alice Paul
an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920
Theodore Roosevelt
the 26th President of the United States of America (1901-1909). He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity.[3] He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels. Roosevelt's achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.
Became president after McKinley died
first of Progressive Presidents
"THERE CAN BE NO GREATER ISSUE THAN THAT OF CONSERVATION." (August 5, 1912)
With Gifford Pinchot, he established the federal BUREAU OF FORESTRY, and by executive order created the first federal bird sanctuary, and several other wildlife refuges.
"I believe that the natural resources must be used for the benefit of all our people. ... Conservation is a great moral issue, for it involves the patriotic duty of ensuring the safety and continuance of the nation." (Aug. 31, 1910).
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor. In contrast to his conservative predecessor William McKinley, Roosevelt was a liberal Republican who believed in government action to mitigate social evils, and as president denounced "the representatives of predatory wealth" as guilty of "all forms of iniquity from the oppression of wage workers to defrauding the public."
In his second term, he tried to extend this program further. Roosevelt pushed for the courts, which had been guided by a clearly delineated standard up to that point, to yield to the wishes of the executive branch on all subsequent anti-trust suits.
Hepburn Act
a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise. By this act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, railroad sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.
Elkins Railroad Act
a 1903 United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates. Railroad corporations, their officers and employees were all made liable for discriminatory practices
Newlands Act
a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
Northern Securities Company
an important United States railroad trust formed in 1902 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
"busted" in 1904
Standard Oil Co., American Tobacco Co.
trusts that were also busted (?)
Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners were on strike asking for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal). President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.
United Mine Workers
a North American labor union best known for representing coal miners and coal technicians. Today, the Union also represents health care workers, truck drivers, manufacturing workers and public employees in the United States and Canada. Although its main focus has always been on workers and their rights, the ___ of today also advocates for better roads, schools, and universal health care.
The ___ was founded in Columbus, Ohio, on January 22, 1890, with the merger of two old labor groups, the Knights of Labor Trade Assembly No. 135 and the National Progressive Miners Union. Adopting the model of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), the union was initially established as a three-pronged labor tool: to develop mine safety; to improve mine workers' independence from the mine owners and the company store; and to provide miners with collective bargaining power. After passage of the National Recovery Act in 1933, organizers spread throughout the United States to organize all coal miners into labor unions.
John L. Lewis
an American leader of organized labor who served as president of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW) from 1920 to 1960. A major player in the history of coal mining, he was the driving force behind the founding of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), which established the United Steel Workers of America and helped organize millions of other industrial workers in the 1930s. After resigning as head of the CIO in 1941, he took the Mine Workers out of the CIO in 1942 and in 1944 took the union into the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
help negotiate the Anthracite Coal Strike with his demands
John Muir
a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking trails in the U.S., the 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, was named in his honor.[2] Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier.
Sierra Club
one of the oldest, largest, and most influential grassroots environmental organization in the United States.[2] It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. The Sierra Club has hundreds of thousands of members in chapters located throughout the US, and is affiliated with Sierra Club Canada.
Hetch Hetchy
a glacial valley in Yosemite National Park in California. It is currently completely flooded by O'Shaughnessy Dam, forming the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir. The Tuolumne River fills the reservoir. Upstream from the valley lies the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne. The reservoir supplies the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct. The damming of the valley in the 1920s, and the creation of a reservoir, were at the time, and since, a major environmental controversy in the Western United States.
Yuba National Forest
Its creation set aside FEDERAL FORESTS, millions of acres of lands for public use, under the Forest Reserve Act of 1891.
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines.[1] The Act arose due to public education and exposés from Muckrakers such as Upton Sinclair and Samuel Hopkins Adams, social activist Florence Kelley, researcher Harvey W. Wiley, and President Theodore Roosevelt.
Panic of 1907
also known as the 1907 Bankers' Panic, was a financial crisis that occurred in the United States when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year. Panic occurred, as this was during a time of economic recession, and there were numerous runs on banks and trust companies. The 1907 panic eventually spread throughout the nation when many state and local banks and businesses entered bankruptcy. Primary causes of the run include a retraction of market liquidity by a number of New York City banks and a loss of confidence among depositors, exacerbated by unregulated side bets at bucket shops. The panic was triggered by the failed attempt in October 1907 to corner the market on stock of the United Copper Company. When this bid failed, banks that had lent money to the cornering scheme suffered runs that later spread to affiliated banks and trusts, leading a week later to the downfall of the Knickerbocker Trust Company—New York City's third-largest trust. The collapse of the Knickerbocker spread fear throughout the city's trusts as regional banks withdrew reserves from New York City banks. Panic extended across the nation as vast numbers of people withdrew deposits from their regional banks.
The panic might have deepened if not for the intervention of financier J. P. Morgan, who pledged large sums of his own money, and convinced other New York bankers to do the same, to shore up the banking system. At the time, the United States did not have a central bank to inject liquidity back into the market. By November the financial contagion had largely ended, yet a further crisis emerged when a large brokerage firm borrowed heavily using the stock of Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (TC&I) as collateral. Collapse of TC&I's stock price was averted by an emergency takeover by Morgan's U.S. Steel Corporation—a move approved by anti-monopolist president Theodore Roosevelt. The following year, Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., established and chaired a commission to investigate the crisis and propose future solutions, leading to the creation of the Federal Reserve System.
"Gentlemen's Agreement" of 1907
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. The agreement was never ratified by Congress, which in 1924 ended it.
restricted Japanese Immigrants
William Howard Taft
the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to have served in both offices, and along with James Polk, the only president to have also headed another branch of the federal government.
was a progressive; there were limitations (?)
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair (1910)
a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.
Election of 1912
Election with the following parties:
PROGRESSIVE "BULL MOOSE" PARTY - TR and the "NEW NATIONALISM"
Platform: progressive stuff...
DEMOCRATS - WOODROW WILSON and the "NEW FREEDOM"
Platform: limited federal government and opposition to monopoly powers, often after consultation with his chief advisor Louis D. Brandeis
SOCIALIST PARTY - EUGENE V. DEBS
REPUBLICANS - TAFT
Woodrow Wilson
the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. Running against Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt and Republican candidate William Howard Taft, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912.
Underwood Tariff
re-imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909. It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on October 3, 1913, and was sponsored by Alabama Representative Oscar Underwood.
Federal Reserve Act
an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of what regulators perceive to be harmfully anti-competitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly.
created by Wilson against trusts
Clatyon Anti-Trust Act
enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.
Passed during the Wilson administration, the legislation was first introduced by Alabama Democrat Henry De Lamar Clayton, Jr. in the U.S. House of Representatives, where the act passed by a vote of 277 to 54 on June 5, 1914. Though the Senate passed its own version on September 2, 1914 by a vote of 46-16, the final version of the law (written after deliberation between Senate and the House), did not pass the Senate until October 5 and the House until October 8 of the same year.
Black Militancy
refers to blacks serving in the military; W.E.B. DuBois pushed for this (?)
W.E.B. DuBois
an American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, and editor. Born in western Massachusetts, he grew up in a tolerant community and experienced little racism as a child. After graduating from Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology, and economics at Atlanta University. He was one of the co-founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Opponent of Booker T. Washington and his "Atlanta" Compromise
NAACP
an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909. Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.
Disenfranchisement
the action of taking away someone's right to vote
Literacy Tests and Poll Taxes
two ways that the voting rights of blacks were disenfranchised in the South; needed to be able to read and pay a fee to vote; Grandfather Clause also put into motion
Grandfather Clause
a law that stated that blacks could only vote if their namesake ancestor was allowed to vote; another form of disenfranchisement
Jim Crow
this name originated as the name of a stage character; refers to the time in which rights were taken away from blacks in the South due to laws of the same name
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, reading the Fourteenth Amendment as protecting the "privileges or immunities" conferred by virtue of the federal United States citizenship to all individuals of all states within it, but not those privileges or immunities incident to citizenship of a state;
narrow interpretation of the 14th Amendment lead to rights being taken away from blacks
"privileges or immunities" clause
part of the 14th Amendment that states "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States...."; narrowly interpreted in the Slaughterhouse Cases
police powers
The results of the Slaughterhouse Cases held that the 14th Amendment did not restrict these powers of the state
theory of incorporation
this theory was rejected in the 1881 Civil Rights Cases; present in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution; the rejection of this theory helped reject the Civil Rights Law, stating that it was unconstitutional
procedural due process
due process in criminal and civil proceedings
substantive due process
one of the theories of law through which courts enforce limits on legislative and executive powers and authority
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments;
also declared the 1875 Civil Rights Law unconstitutional
Anti-miscegenation Laws (1883)
Laws that prevented interracial marriage; resulted from Pace v. Alabama (1883)
Plessy v. Fergusson (1896)
a test case in Louisiana; said that "Separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; dissenting opinion by John Marshall Harlan
Justice John Marshall Harlan
a supreme court justice involved in the Plessy v. Fergusson case who disagreed with the "separate but equal" majority ruling
Colonization Movement
a movement that began sending blacks to colonies in Africa; Marcus Garvey was one of the leaders of this movement
Booker T. Washington
a former slave who became an orator and founded the Tuskegee Institute for African-Americans; became unpopular for Atlanta Compromise, in which he agreed with the "separate but equal" ruling; wrote autobiography Up From Slavery
Lynching
refers to the killing of African-Americans without trial; peak amount in 1890's
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
treaty between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin of 1858 and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China most favored nation status. It was signed at Washington in 1868 and ratified at Beijing in 1869.
Recognized China's right of eminent domain over all of its territory;
Gave China the right to appoint consuls at ports in the United States, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia";
Provided that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and
Granted certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
Importantly, Chinese immigration to the United States was encouraged.
Exclusion Act (1882)
a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Indian Wars
wars fought against the titular group of people during the years from 1862 - 1867
Plains Indians
refers to Indians that lived in the West, like the Sioux
Chief Red Cloud
a war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux). He led as a chief from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents the United States Army faced, he led a successful campaign in 1866-1868, a war named after him, over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.
Indian Bureau
a bureau created to fight the titular group?
General Philip Sheridan
a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East; prosecuted the later years of the Indian Wars of the Great Plains.
W. T. Sherman
Union Army General who led his famous "March to Sea" during the Civil War; When Grant assumed the U.S. presidency in 1869, he succeeded Grant as Commanding General of the Army (1869-83). As such, he was responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years, in the western United States.
Board of Indian Commissioners
a committee that advised the federal government of the United States on Native American policy and it inspected supplies delivered to Indian agencies to ensure the fulfillment of government treaty obligations to tribes.
Black Hills Gold
refers to the metal found in the Dakotas in July of 1876; mainly responsible for the Great Sioux War
Little Bighorn
a June 1876 battle; an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated; Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. Total U.S. deaths were 268, including scouts, and 55 were wounded.
Wounded Knee
happened on December 29, 1890, near the titular creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles westward (8 km) to the creek where they made camp.
The rest of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived led by Colonel James Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss guns.
On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers. Those few Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking troopers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.
Nez Perce
a group of Indians named for their pierced noses; one of their leaders was Chief Joseph, who was brilliant in retreating his people and hiding them from U.S. troops; Chief Joseph eventually surrendered
Apache
a group of Indians famous for being lead under Geronimo; fought in Arizona and New Mexico territories as well as in Mexico; last true Indian opponents; final surrender in 1886 (decision was Geronimo's)
Helen Hunt Jackson
a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881).
A Century of Dishonor
a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson that chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices; published in 1881
Dawes Act
act that authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians; named for sponsor; objective was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society. Individual ownership of land was seen as an essential step. The act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land "excess" to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non-Indians; well-intentioned, but Indians still got land taken from them (so still a failure in the end)
Comstock Lode
the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range; discovery published in 1859
Big Bonanza
an enormous gold and silver ore body discovered beneath Virginia City (in the Comstock Lode)
Timber and Stone Act of 1878
an act that sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre ($618/km²) in 160 acre (0.6 km²) blocks.

Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.
"Bonanza" Farms
very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat; made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads.
Open-Range Ranching
refers to ranching that occurred in the West by cowboys...
Chisholm Trail cattle drives
refers to cattle drives that occurred on an eponymous trail that led cattle from Texas to Kansas so that they could be shipped East
Desert Land Act
passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1877 to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western states. Through the Act, individuals may apply for a desert-land entry to reclaim, irrigate, and cultivate arid and semiarid public lands.

The act offered 640 acres (2.6 km2) of land to an adult married couple who would pay $1.25 an acre and promise to irrigate the land within three years. A single man would only receive half of the land for the same price. Individuals taking advantage of the act were required to submit proof of their efforts to irrigate the land within three years, but as water was relatively scarce, a great number of fraudulent "proofs" of irrigation were provided. (I'm pretty sure the act was a failure in that about 90% did not satisfy requirements)
Barbed Wire
invented by Glidden in 1874; revolutionary in keeping cattle and buffalo away from railroads; divided up the west; also contributed to range wars
Cattlemen's Associations
associations formed by ranchers(?)
Laissez-faire
refers to a form of capitalism in which government stayed out of the affairs of businesses; dominated Gilded Age of Capitalism
Corporation
created under the laws of a state as a separate legal entity that has privileges and liabilities that are distinct from those of its members
Monopolies
exist when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity
Vertical Integration
describes a style of management control; companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or (market-specific) service, and the products combine to satisfy a common need; Carnegie was good at doing this
Horizontal Integration
describes a type of ownership and control. It is a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets. It is much more common than vertical integration is in production; occurs when a firm is being taken over by, or merged with, another firm which is in the same industry and in the same stage of production as the merged firm, e.g. a car manufacturer merging with another car manufacturer; Rockefeller was good at doing this
Monopolistic Combinations
combinations of companies that resemble monopolies... (?)
Trust
a large business. Originally, it was a legal instrument used to consolidate power by large American enterprises; pretty much it was a monopoly
Pool
an informal agreement by competing companies to fix prices, share profits, or divide the market for their products in order to maximize profits.
Holding Company
a way companies can be brought together without being illegal. It is a corporation that owns enough voting stock in other companies to excise some control over them. They can have control over several companies with minimum investment.
Conglomerate
a combination of two or more corporations engaged in entirely different businesses that fall under one corporate structure (a corporate group), usually involving a parent company and several (or many) subsidiaries.
George Westinghouse
an American entrepreneur and engineer who invented the railway air brake and was a pioneer of the electrical industry
Air brake (1869)
invented by George Westinghouse
George Pullman
an American inventor and industrialist. He is known as the inventor of a namesake sleeping car
Sleeping Car (1864)
invented by George Pullman
Western Union Company
a financial services and communications company based in the United States. Its North American headquarters is in Englewood, Colorado. Up until 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.
Bessemer Process
the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron; heavily used by Carnegie in his steel mills
Mesabi Iron Range
vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief deposit of iron ore in the United States.
Edwin L. Drake
an American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil in the United States
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone in 1876
American Telegraph and Telephone Company (AT&T)
a company (still around today) that handled telephone and telegraph communications in the late 1800's
Transatlantic Cable
first cable used for telegraph communications laid across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean
Thomas Edison
an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory
(proponent of direct current; rivaled Tesla)
Incandescent Lamp
invented by Edison in 1879
Deflation
a period of time during the years 1873 - 1896/7 during which the value of American currency lost value
Panic of 1873
a financial crisis that lasted until 1876/9 that was caused by the fall in demand for silver internationally, which followed Germany's decision to abandon the silver standard in the wake of the Franco-Prussian war
1873 Cholera Epidemic
refers to the outbreak of a specific disease that occurred in the cities; mainly in NY
Tariff Crisis of 1880
refers to the tariff debate that occurred in 1880; Grover Cleveland received support from the pro-manufacturing Republicans but was opposed by Bourbon Democrats and Mugwumps (Republicans who joined Democrats)
Free Silver
the farmers wanted this to decrease their debt (?)
Bimetallism
refers to a currency backed by both silver and gold
Grand Army of the Republic
a fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army, US Navy, US Marines and US Revenue Cutter Service who served in the American Civil War. Founded in 1866 in Decatur, Illinois, it was dissolved in 1956 when its last member died; a very large political force; Cleveland became unpopular for vetoing pension for this group
Greenbacks
refers to members of a namesake political party named after the namesake type of currency; against big business; for female suffrage; want income tax
"Bourbon" Democrats and Mugwumps
2 groups of people against Cleveland in the tariff debate of the 1880s; the first were laissez-faire Democrats; the others were Republicans who were "on the fence"
Big Trusts
refers to large monopolies... (?)
Patronage Politics
when political leaders promise to give people jobs in office in return for their votes and contribution (?) Spoils System (?)
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time; created U.S. Steel after buying Carnegie's steel company
Andrew Carnegie
known for Vertical Integration; made a large steel company; became a philanthropist after amassing large sums of money; partnered with Frick; sold company to J.P. Morgan, who then created U.S. Steel; took advantage of the Bessemer process
John D. Rockefeller
the CEO of Standard Oil; known for Horizontal Integration; also becomes philanthropist but was not as nice as Carnegie; Trust or Monopoly vs. Corporation (1888)
Life Insurance
a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money (the "benefits") upon the death of the insured person
Tontine Policy
A policy that was popular after the Civil War, which is now illegal. The policy paid dividends to the policyholders who were still living at the end of a certain period. The money for these dividends came from people who had paid in and were now deceased or who had let their policies lapse.
Social Darwinism
a philosophy promoted by William Graham Sumner in his work The Gospel of Wealth; "survival of the most economically fit"; poor starve and die out while rich survive; says it's ok and even necessary to have large sums of money
Edward Bellamy
the author of Looking Backward
Looking Backward
a sci-fi novel; the setting is the year 2000; Dr. Leete examines the year 1887; utopian society; written by Edward Bellamy
Social Labor Party
the oldest socialist political party in the United States and the second oldest socialist party in the world. Originally known as the Workingmen's Party of America, the party changed its name in 1877 and has operated continuously since that date, although its current existence is tenuous
The National Grange
a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s
Wabash v. Illinois
a court case in which the railroad rates were being unfair to farmers and violated interstate commerce; created the Interstate Commerce Act; set up ICC; "fair and reasonable rates"; Regulatory Agencies were also soon set up
Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
an act that was created in 1890 for the intent of disbanding monopolies but was actually first used against labor unions; not effectively used until TR's time in office; United States v. EC Knight Co. (1885) showed how ineffective it was against a sugar trust; started wave of business consolidations in manufacturing sector after failure
Knights of Labor (1869)
a group of working class reformers who had middle class aspirations; founded by Terrence V. Powderly
Haymarket Affair
a demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians and the wounding of scores of others.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
a labor group founded in 1886 by Adolph Strasser and Samuel Gompers; an "umbrella group"; still present today
Molly Maguires
Irish-American terrorists who committed acts of violence to warn leaders of big-businesses; also executed
Railroad Strike of 1877
a strike that occurred in which people did not operate the railroads; mail did not get transported; federal issue; Rutherford B. Hayes got involved; began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops.
Homestead Strike (1892)
a strike that occurred in PA; workers were locked out of factories and mines; workers want to get in (town depends on plant); Henry Clay Frick employed Pinkerton Detectives; people on both sides killed; Carnegie was away and said that he would have better handled situation
Pullman Strike (1894)
a strike that occurred at first against the titular company, because they lowered wages while keeping the housing prices at the same level; becomes a federal issue Eugene V. Debs, the leader of the strike, was arrested; violated Sherman Anti-Trust Act; again held up the mail
Thorstein Veblen
an American economist and sociologist, and a leader of the so-called institutional economics movement. Besides his technical work he was a popular and witty critic of capitalism, as shown by his best known book The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).
Theory of the Leisure Class (1899)
a book, first published in 1899, by the Norwegian-American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen while he was a professor at the University of Chicago. In the book's introduction he explains that much of the material discussed can be traced back to the proper sources by any well-read person. The Theory of the Leisure Class is considered one of the first detailed critiques of consumerism.
Office Work and "Women's Work"
refers to working in offices and women in the workplace...
Typewriters
a mechanical or electromechanical device with keys that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a medium, usually paper; also produced by Remington Arms Company
Vocational Public High Schools
a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job. Traditionally, they have not existed to further education in the sense of liberal arts, but rather to teach only job-specific skills, and as such have been better considered to be institutions devoted to training, not education
Immigrant Labor
refers to labor done by immigrants; the Exclusion Act limited Chinese immigration; Foran Act got rid of Padrone System; Immigration Restriction League was formed by Harvard graduates to restrict immigration
Tenements
small huts found in cities in the late 1800's; not well-lit; Jacob Riis took photos of them
Jacob Riis
a Danish American social reformer, "muckraking" journalist and social documentary photographer. He is known for using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City; those impoverished New Yorkers were the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. He endorsed the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. Additionally, as one of the most famous proponents of the newly practicable casual photography, he is considered one of the fathers of photography due to his discovery of the use of flash in photography.
How the Other Half Lives
one of Jacob Riis's collection of photos showing how poor people lived
Electric Trolley Lines
created in the late 1800's; started to replace horse-drawn carts
Brooklyn Bridge
one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States. Completed in 1883, it connects the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn by spanning the East River. With a main span of 1,595.5 feet (486.3 m), it was the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and the first steel-wire suspension bridge.
John A. Roebling (1883)
a German immigrant who initially designed the Brooklyn Bridge
Skyscrapers
tall buildings made of steel; they were being constructed by the late 1800's and early 1900's
Louis Sullivan
an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism"; He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
Chicago World's Fair (1893)
a World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492; electricity was featured there
Leisure Time
refers to time away from school and factories; one has time to enjoy life
Central Park
a natural place created in NY by Frederick Law Olmstead
Culture Places (?)
American Museum of Natural History (1870), Metropolitan Museum of Art (1870), Boston Museum of Fine Arts (1870), Boston Symphony (1881), Metropolitan Opera (1883)
Spectator Sports
sports that crowds began watching; Intercollegiate level and Professional level
James Naismith
the inventor of basketball
Dwight L. Moody
an American evangelist and publisher who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now Northfield Mount Hermon School), the Moody Bible Institute and Moody Publishers
YMCA (1851)
a worldwide organization of more than 45 million members from 125 national federations affiliated through the World Alliance of YMCAs. Their main motto is: "Empowering young people." It was founded on June 6, 1844 in London, England, United Kingdom, and it aims to put Christian principles into practice, achieved by developing "a healthy spirit, mind, and body." The YMCA is a federated organization made up of local and national organizations in voluntary association. It is one of the many organizations that espouses Muscular Christianity.
Salvation Army
a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over 120 countries.
It was founded in 1865 in the United Kingdom by William Booth and his wife Catherine as the East London Christian Mission and with a quasi-military structure
Social Gospel
a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada
Applied Christianity
a book by Washington Gladden published in 1887. Gladden was a well known pastor in the day. The book attacks competition between social classes and urges cooperation between employees and employers. Gladden was a well known anti-catholic, so he obviously didn't show love for all beings (unlike the loving, forgiving, benign and tolerant Catholics).
Jane Addams
a pioneer settlement worker, founder of Hull House in Chicago, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in woman suffrage and world peace. Beside presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, she was the most prominent reformer of the Progressive Era and helped turn the nation to issues of concern to mothers, such as the needs of children, public health, and world peace. She said that if women were to be responsible for cleaning up their communities and making them better places to live, they needed the vote to be effective in doing so; In 1931 she became the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; founded the Hull House: a settlement house in the United States that was co-founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr
Settlement House Movement
a reformist social movement, beginning in the 1880s and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal of getting the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Its main object was the establishment of "settlement houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class "settlement workers" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of their low-income neighbors.
Chautauqua Movement
an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Public Libraries
libraries open to the public...Carnegie helped found some of them
Newspapers
papers with news information; started getting published about the late 1800's
Edward Scripps
an American newspaper publisher and founder of The E. W. Scripps Company, a diversified media conglomerate, and United Press news service
Joseph Pulitzer
a Hungarian-American newspaper publisher of the St. Louis Post Dispatch and the New York World; crusaded against big business and corruption. In the 1890s the fierce competition between his World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal introduced yellow journalism and opened the way to mass circulation newspapers that depended on advertising revenue and appealed to the reader with multiple forms of news, entertainment, and advertising
William Randolph Hearst
an American business magnate and a leading newspaper publisher
Mass Ciruclation Periodicals
mass-produced newspapers and magazines; late 1800's
Ladies Home Journal
an American magazine which first appeared on February 16, 1883, and eventually became one of the leading women's magazines of the 20th century in the United States. It was the first American magazine to reach 1 million subscribers in 1907
Johns Hopkins
a wealthy American entrepreneur, philanthropist and abolitionist of 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland, now most noted for his philanthropic creation of the institutions that bear his name, namely the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and the Johns Hopkins University and its associated divisions, in particular the schools of nursing, medicine and public health. A biography entitled Johns Hopkins: A Silhouette written by his cousin, Helen Hopkins Thom, was published in 1929 by the Johns Hopkins University Press
John Dewey
an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology. He was a major representative of progressive education and liberalism
Literature
Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Henry James, Edith Wharton
Visual Arts
Thomas Eakins, Winslow Homer, James McNeill Whistler, Eadweard Muybridge (photography)
Philosophy
William James's Pragmatism (Relativism)
Spoils System
refers to political patronage; giving govt jobs to supporters; endorsed by Andrew Jackson; James Garfield died because of it; after his death, Chester Arthur wanted to get rid of govt corruption
William Marcy "Boss" Tweed
the leader of a political machine in NY; exposed by the cartoonist Thomas Nast; Tammany Hall
Tammany Hall
where Boss Tweed "ruled" NY; still a corrupted place years after Boss Tweed was removed
Party Politics and Political Machines
forms of political patronage (?)
Rutherford B. Hayes
the 19th President of the United States (1877-1881). As president, he oversaw the end of Reconstruction and the United States' entry into the Second Industrial Revolution. Hayes was a reformer who began the efforts that would lead to civil service reform and attempted, unsuccessfully, to reconcile the divisions that had led to the American Civil War fifteen years earlier.
Sound Money
refers to money that is not susceptible to inflation or deflation (?)
Tariff of 1880
caused a split in politics; Cleveland and tariff-supporting Republicans vs Mugwumps and "Bourbon" Democrats
James A. Garfield
served as the 20th President of the United States, after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives; assassinated because of an angry supporter who felt he got sleighted
Stalwarts
a faction of the United States Republican Party toward the end of the 19th century; "traditional" Republicans who opposed Rutherford B. Hayes' civil service reform
Half-Breeds
a political faction of the United States Republican Party that existed in the late 19th century; a moderate-wing group, and they were the opponents of the Stalwarts, the other main faction of the Republican Party. The main issue that separated the Stalwarts from them was political patronage. The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while these people, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform and a merit system
Chester A. Arthur
the 21st President of the United States (1881-1885). Becoming President after the assassination of President James A. Garfield, Arthur struggled to overcome suspicions of his beginnings as a politician from the New York City Republican machine, succeeding at that task by embracing the cause of civil service reform. His advocacy for, and enforcement of, the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was the centerpiece of his administration.
Pendleton Act and Civil Service Commission
2 things put into motion under Chester A. Arthur to reduce political patronage
Mugwumps
Republicans who agreed with "Bourbon" Democrats on Tariff issue; "on the fence"
"Bourbon" Democrats
Democrats against the Tariff of 1880; favored laissez-faire capitalism
Grover Cleveland
the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents. He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1861 to 1913.
James G. Blaine
a Republican politician who served as U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, and two-time Secretary of State. He was nominated for president in 1884, but was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland.
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). Harrison, a grandson of President William Henry Harrison, was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there. During the American Civil War, he served the Union as a Brigadier General in the XX Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, and was later appointed to the U.S. Senate from that state.
"Waving the bloody shirt"
the Republican political tactic of reminding voters that southern democrats caused the Civil War
Southern Alliance
a southern division of the Farmers' Alliance
People's (Populist) Party
a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century). It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally. It sometimes formed coalitions with labor unions, and in 1896 the Democrats endorsed their presidential nominee, William Jennings Bryan.
Omaha Platform (1892)
the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populist (or People's) Party held in Omaha, Nebraska on July 4 1892
Colored Alliance
formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place did not allow black farmers to join. A group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance, to fill their need.
Crime of '73
refers to the Fourth Coinage Act, which was enacted by the United States Congress in 1873 and embraced the gold standard and demonetized silver
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
an 1878 act of Congress requiring the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. Though the bill was vetoed by President Rutherford B. Hayes, the Congress overrode Hayes' veto on February 28, 1878 to enact the law.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
enacted on July 14, 1890 as a United States federal law. It was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month
McKinley Tariff
an act framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890. The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Protectionism, a tactic supported by Republicans, was fiercely debated by politicians and condemned by Democrats
Silverites and Gold Bugs
refers to the debate between having silver as an additional money standard and having on the gold standard
Jacob S. Coxey and Coxey's Army
an American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio. He twice led a namesake Army in 1894 and 1914, consisting of a group of unemployed men that he led on marches from Massillon, Ohio to Washington, D.C. to present a "Petition in Boots" demanding that the United States Congress allocate funds to create jobs for the unemployed
Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894
a tariff that replaced the McKinley Tariff and lowered tax rates; imposed an income tax
William McKinley
the 25th President of the United States (1897-1901). He is best known for winning fiercely fought elections, while supporting the gold standard and high tariffs; he succeeded in forging a Republican coalition that for the most part dominated national politics until the 1930s. He also led the nation to victory in 100 days in the Spanish-American War; assassinated at Pan-American exhibition
Marcus A. Hanna
a Republican United States Senator from Ohio and the friend and political manager of President William McKinley; made millions as a businessman, and used his money and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.; started Panama Canal (?)
William Jennings Bryan
gave Cross of Gold Nomination Acceptance Speech when accepting Populist Party nomination; attacked Darwinism and Evolution in the Scopes Trial; defeated by McKinley
Disenfranchisement
the action of taking away someone's right to vote
Literacy Tests and Poll Taxes
two ways that the voting rights of blacks were disenfranchised in the South; needed to be able to read and pay a fee to vote; Grandfather Clause also put into motion
Grandfather Clause
a law that stated that blacks could only vote if their namesake ancestor was allowed to vote; another form of disenfranchisement
Jim Crow
this name originated as the name of a stage character; refers to the time in which rights were taken away from blacks in the South due to laws of the same name
Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
the first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. It is viewed as a pivotal case in early civil rights law, reading the Fourteenth Amendment as protecting the "privileges or immunities" conferred by virtue of the federal United States citizenship to all individuals of all states within it, but not those privileges or immunities incident to citizenship of a state;
narrow interpretation of the 14th Amendment lead to rights being taken away from blacks
"privileges or immunities" clause
part of the 14th Amendment that states "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States...."; narrowly interpreted in the Slaughterhouse Cases
police powers
The results of the Slaughterhouse Cases held that the 14th Amendment did not restrict these powers of the state
theory of incorporation
this theory was rejected in the 1881 Civil Rights Cases; present in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution; the rejection of this theory helped reject the Civil Rights Law, stating that it was unconstitutional
procedural due process
due process in criminal and civil proceedings
substantive due process
one of the theories of law through which courts enforce limits on legislative and executive powers and authority
Civil Rights Cases (1883)
a group of five similar cases consolidated into one issue for the United States Supreme Court to review. The Court held that Congress lacked the constitutional authority under the enforcement provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals and organizations, rather than state and local governments;
also declared the 1875 Civil Rights Law unconstitutional
Anti-miscegenation Laws (1883)
Laws that prevented interracial marriage; resulted from Pace v. Alabama (1883)
Plessy v. Fergusson (1896)
a test case in Louisiana; said that "Separate but equal" facilities were constitutional; dissenting opinion by John Marshall Harlan
Justice John Marshall Harlan
a supreme court justice involved in the Plessy v. Fergusson case who disagreed with the "separate but equal" majority ruling
Colonization Movement
a movement that began sending blacks to colonies in Africa; Marcus Garvey was one of the leaders of this movement
Booker T. Washington
a former slave who became an orator and founded the Tuskegee Institute for African-Americans; became unpopular for Atlanta Compromise, in which he agreed with the "separate but equal" ruling; wrote autobiography Up From Slavery
Burlingame Treaty (1868)
treaty between the United States and China, amended the Treaty of Tientsin of 1858 and established formal friendly relations between the two countries, with the United States granting China most favored nation status. It was signed at Washington in 1868 and ratified at Beijing in 1869.
Recognized China's right of eminent domain over all of its territory;
Gave China the right to appoint consuls at ports in the United States, "who shall enjoy the same privileges and immunities as those enjoyed by the consuls of Great Britain and Russia";
Provided that "citizens of the United States in China of every religious persuasion and Chinese subjects in the United States shall enjoy entire liberty of conscience and shall be exempt from all disability or persecution on account of their religious faith or worship in either country"; and
Granted certain privileges to citizens of either country residing in the other, the privilege of naturalization, however, being specifically withheld.
Importantly, Chinese immigration to the United States was encouraged.
Exclusion Act (1882)
a United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Indian Wars
wars fought against the titular group of people during the years from 1862 - 1867
Plains Indians
refers to Indians that lived in the West, like the Sioux
Chief Red Cloud
a war leader and a chief of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux). He led as a chief from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents the United States Army faced, he led a successful campaign in 1866-1868, a war named after him, over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana.
Indian Bureau
a bureau created to fight the titular group?
General Philip Sheridan
a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. His career was noted for his rapid rise to major general and his close association with Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who transferred Sheridan from command of an infantry division in the Western Theater to lead the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac in the East; prosecuted the later years of the Indian Wars of the Great Plains.
W. T. Sherman
Union Army General who led his famous "March to Sea" during the Civil War; When Grant assumed the U.S. presidency in 1869, he succeeded Grant as Commanding General of the Army (1869-83). As such, he was responsible for the U.S. Army's engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years, in the western United States.
Board of Indian Commissioners
a committee that advised the federal government of the United States on Native American policy and it inspected supplies delivered to Indian agencies to ensure the fulfillment of government treaty obligations to tribes.
Black Hills Gold
refers to the metal found in the Dakotas in July of 1876; mainly responsible for the Great Sioux War
Little Bighorn
a June 1876 battle; an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The U.S. Seventh Cavalry, including the Custer Battalion, a force of 700 men led by George Armstrong Custer, suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated; Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother-in-law. Total U.S. deaths were 268, including scouts, and 55 were wounded.
Wounded Knee
happened on December 29, 1890, near the titular creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. On the day before, a detachment of the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment commanded by Major Samuel M. Whitside intercepted Spotted Elk's band of Miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunkpapa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them 5 miles westward (8 km) to the creek where they made camp.
The rest of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived led by Colonel James Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss guns.
On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow troopers. Those few Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking troopers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.
Nez Perce
a group of Indians named for their pierced noses; one of their leaders was Chief Joseph, who was brilliant in retreating his people and hiding them from U.S. troops; Chief Joseph eventually surrendered
Apache
a group of Indians famous for being lead under Geronimo; fought in Arizona and New Mexico territories as well as in Mexico; last true Indian opponents; final surrender in 1886 (decision was Geronimo's)
Helen Hunt Jackson
a United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor (1881).
A Century of Dishonor
a non-fiction book by Helen Hunt Jackson that chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on injustices; published in 1881
Dawes Act
act that authorized the President of the United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide the land into allotments for individual Indians; named for sponsor; objective was to stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society. Individual ownership of land was seen as an essential step. The act also provided that the government would purchase Indian land "excess" to that needed for allotment and open it up for settlement by non-Indians; well-intentioned, but Indians still got land taken from them (so still a failure in the end)
Comstock Lode
the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range; discovery published in 1859
Big Bonanza
an enormous gold and silver ore body discovered beneath Virginia City (in the Comstock Lode)
Timber and Stone Act of 1878
an act that sold Western timberland for $2.50 per acre ($618/km²) in 160 acre (0.6 km²) blocks.

Land that was deemed "unfit for farming" was sold to those who might want to "timber and stone" (logging and mining) upon the land. The act was used by speculators who were able to get great expanses declared "unfit for farming" allowing them to increase their land holdings at minimal expense.
"Bonanza" Farms
very large farms in the United States performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat; made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads.
Open-Range Ranching
refers to ranching that occurred in the West by cowboys...
Chisholm Trail cattle drives
refers to cattle drives that occurred on an eponymous trail that led cattle from Texas to Kansas so that they could be shipped East
Desert Land Act
passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1877 to encourage and promote the economic development of the arid and semiarid public lands of the Western states. Through the Act, individuals may apply for a desert-land entry to reclaim, irrigate, and cultivate arid and semiarid public lands.

The act offered 640 acres (2.6 km2) of land to an adult married couple who would pay $1.25 an acre and promise to irrigate the land within three years. A single man would only receive half of the land for the same price. Individuals taking advantage of the act were required to submit proof of their efforts to irrigate the land within three years, but as water was relatively scarce, a great number of fraudulent "proofs" of irrigation were provided. (I'm pretty sure the act was a failure in that about 90% did not satisfy requirements)
Barbed Wire
invented by Glidden in 1874; revolutionary in keeping cattle and buffalo away from railroads; divided up the west; also contributed to range wars
Cattlemen's Associations
associations formed by ranchers(?)
Election of 1848
election between Lewis Cass (Democrat), Martin Van Buren (running with the Free Soil Party (Barnburners and Liberty Party)), and Whig Zachary Taylor; Free Soil Party took votes from Cass; Zachary Taylor won
Gold Rush
occurred during the years 1849 - 1860 in California; many people went to California because of this
Popular Sovereignty
referred to leaving the slavery debate to the states; letting them vote on the issue; caused problems (in the KS-NE Act, for example)
Compromise of 1850
compromise negotiated mainly by Stephen Douglas; Fugitive Slave Law enforced; Utah and New Mexico Territories created; California admitted as a free state; abolished slave trade in D.C.; Settled Texas claims to NM territory; opposed by Zachary Taylor, but he died in office; Millard Fillmore replaced him
Stephen A. Douglas
a senator from Illinois; negotiated Compromise of 1850 and was behind the KS-NE Act; debated Lincoln in a series of debates
Millard Fillmore
VP of Zachary Taylor; became President after Zachary Taylor died; favored Compromise of 1850
Fugitive Slave Act
amended as a part of the Compromise of 1850; employed people called "commissioners" by the federal government to catch "fugitive" slaves; also made it illegal to try to help them
Crop value per slave
refers to how many crops a slave could grow relative to the cost of the slave (?)
Antebellum plantation culture
refers to the relations between masters and slaves on plantations; treatment of slaves varied from master to master, but slaves were not usually close to their masters or their families and were not treated very well, either (?)
Denmark Vesey (1822)
African American slave brought to the United States from the Caribbean of Coromantee background. After purchasing his freedom, he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States. Word of the plans was leaked, and at Charleston, South Carolina, authorities arrested the plot's leaders before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were tried, convicted and executed.
Nat Turner (1831)
led a slave rebellion in 1831; occurred in Southampton County, VA; 55 - 65 white men killed
Gradualism
belief in or the policy of advancing toward a goal by gradual, often slow stages; some abolitionists wanted to use this philosophy to get rid of slavery (proposed by more moderate abolitionists)
Immediate Emancipation
the belief in the instant abolition of slaves; supported strongly by people like William Lloyd Garrison (considered more extreme)
Panic of 1857
a financial panic in the United States caused by the declining international economy and over-expansion of the domestic economy; first worldwide economic crisis; failure of Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company and ruling of Dred Scott v. Sanford Case led to this crisis
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
a written in 1852 that depicted slaves as human beings; characters dramatized and somewhat unrealistic, but still depicted slaves as humans; contributed to anti-slavery sentiments
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, later Lord Dalling. It was negotiated in response to attempts to build the Nicaragua Canal, a canal in Nicaragua that would connect the Pacific and the Atlantic; stated that should a canal be built, the two countries would share it
Election of 1852
election between Cass, Buchanan, and Douglas for the Democrats; Franklin Pierce emerges as a darkhorse Democrat; "Conscience Whigs" vs "Cotton Whigs"; eventually nominate Winfield Scott for Whig party; Pierce wins
Gadsden Purchase
a land purchase that extended the land at the south of Alabama and New Mexico; opened possibility of Southern Continental Railroad; negotiated in 1853
Ostend Manifesto
a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.; became very unpopular once people found out about it. (North and Europe outraged)
Commodore Matthew Perry
the military officer who opened doors to Japan by sailing there with warships and refusing to leave until they decided to open up to the rest of the world
Townsend Harris
first American ambassador to Japan; created namesake treaty that favored visa status for Japanese students and opened ports to U.S. in Japan
Kansas-Nebraska Act
occurred in 1854; split KS and NE; repealed 36o 30' line; slavery question left to popular sovereignty; to try to get South on board with northern transcontinental railroad; increased sectional tensions; Bloody Kansas revolts resulted in around 200 dead; negotiated largely by Stephen Douglas
Know-Nothing (American) Party
a secretive political party; against immigration and Catholics; popular in South as well as North; 1854 midterm successes; Leonard Jerome of Rochester, NY was the leader of them
Nativist
one who favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants.
Free-Soilers
a political party that pushed for the abolition of slavery; largely absorbed by Republican Party in 1854
Conscience Whigs
a faction of the Whig Party in the state of Massachusetts noted for their moral opposition to slavery. They were noted as opponents of the more conservative "Cotton" Whigs who dominated the state party; led by Charles Sumner
Anti-Nebraska Democrats
an American political party formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Its founders, including Salmon P. Chase, held deep moral opposition to slavery, and were thus appalled by legislation that could lead to more slave-holding states; morphed into Republican Party
"Bleeding Kansas"
refers to the revolts that led to 200 dead in Kansas due to the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Popular Sovereignty
middle position on the slavery issue. It said that actual residents of territories should be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed in the territory. The federal government did not have to make the decision, and by appealing to democracy Cass and Douglas hoped they could finesse the question of support for or opposition to slavery. Douglas applied it to Kansas in the Kansas-Nebraska Act which passed Congress in 1854. The Act had two unexpected results. By dropping the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (which said slavery would never be allowed in Kansas), it was a major boost for the expansion of slavery; led to trouble when the Kansas-Nebraska Act was created
"Border Ruffians"
refers to people who came from out of state to vote in the Kansas election to determine whether slavery would be legal in that state
John Brown
attacked Harpers Ferry; wanted to create a slave revolt; also fought in Kansas and Nebraska during the Bloody Kansas revolts
Charles Sumner
famous for being caned by Brooks; one of the Radical Republicans who pushed for equality of blacks; also lead the Conscience Whig party before it gave way to the Republican Party
Election of 1856
Election in which Republicans nominated John C. Fremont ("Free soil, free speech, Fremont), Democrats nominated Buchanan (because he was unsullied by KS-NE act) (came from PA); Know-Nothings nominate Millard Fillmore; Buchanan wins
Dred Scott decision
a Supreme Court decision (ruled under the Taney court) that ruled that even free blacks were not equal to whites and that Constitutional rights did not apply to them
Lecompton Constitution
a pro-slavery faction-formed Constitution that was created for Kansas; Buchanan wanted to accept it, but Douglas rallied Congress to oppose him; Kansas joined as a free state just before the Civil War
Stephen Douglas
a Senator from Illinois; debated against Lincoln in a series of debates; expansionist and cared about economy; wanted a transcontinental railroad to run through Illinois
Abraham Lincoln
became the 16th President of the United States; debated Douglas in a series of debates; disliked slavery but was still racist; was President throughout Civil War
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
the series of debates that occurred between the two titular opponents for the Illinois Senate seat
Freeport Doctrine
articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in the titular town. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the majority decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from U.S. territories (since Douglas professed great respect for Supreme Court decisions, and accused the Republicans of disrespecting the court, yet this aspect of the Dred Scott decision was contrary to Douglas' views and politically unpopular in Illinois).
"Fire-eaters"
refers to radical Southern Democrats who wanted to secede from the Union, such as Jefferson Davis; blocked northern legislation; once they were out of Congress, Republicans took advantage of their absence and passed laws that they blocked, before
Harpers Ferry Raid
a raid made by John Brown on a city in Virginia; wanted to inspire a slave revolt, but the slaves did not follow him; he was executed, later; supported by North; hated by South
Election of 1860
an election between Stephen Douglas (Northern Democratic platform), Abraham Lincoln (Republican platform), John Breckenridge (Southern Democratic platform), and John Bell (Constitutional Party platform); Lincoln won; Southerners were outraged, because Lincoln didn't even appear on some of their ballots, and they were afraid that slavery was going to be taken away from them; South Carolina seceded shortly afterwards
Crittenden Compromise
an unsuccessful proposal introduced by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden on December 18, 1860. It aimed to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the grievances that led the slave states of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States; composed of constitutional amendments and congressional resolutions; vetoed by Lincoln; last-ditch attempt to appease South (would have prohibited later amendments)
Secession Ordinance
document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by the states officially seceding from the United States of America. Each state ratified its own, typically by means of a specially elected convention or general referendum.
Confederate States of America
refers collectively to the states who seceded from the Union (S.C., Miss., Flor., Ala., Geo., Louis., Tex., Ark., N.C., Tenn., and Vir.)
Jefferson Davis
a fire-eater who was elected the President of the Confederate States of America
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
Lincoln's first public speech to the people in which he addressed issues of slavery and secession of the South
Fort Sumter
the first battle of the Civil War in which Confederates opened fire on a Union military fort in Charleston (4/12/1861)
Blockade
what the Union formed to try to prevent the South from trading with Europe (?)
Anaconda Plan
the plan for defeating the Confederacy; formed by Winfield Scott and George McClellan; involved forming a blockade and preventing resources from getting to the Confederacy
Wheeling Conferences
a series of two meetings that ultimately repealed the Ordinance of Secession passed by Virginia, thus establishing the Restored government of Virginia, which ultimately authorized the counties that organized the convention to become West Virginia. The convention was held at what became known as West Virginia Independence Hall in the namesake town (May - June, 1861)
Repealed Ordinance of Secession
the result of the Wheeling Conferences; West Virginia gained statehood after doing this
(First Battle of) Bull Run
A Civil War battle that occurred July 12, 1861; unseasoned Union Army troops under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell against the equally unseasoned Confederate Army under Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard near Manassas Junction. McDowell's ambitious plan for a surprise flank attack against the Confederate left was not well executed by his inexperienced officers and men, but the Confederates, who had been planning to attack the Union left flank, found themselves at an initial disadvantage.

Confederate reinforcements under the command of Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad and the course of the battle changed. A brigade of Virginians under a relatively unknown colonel from the Virginia Military Institute, Thomas J. Jackson, stood their ground and Jackson received his famous nickname, "Stonewall Jackson". The Confederates launched a strong counterattack and as the Union troops began withdrawing under pressure, many panicked and it turned into a rout as they frantically ran in the direction of nearby Washington, D.C. Both sides were sobered by the violence and casualties of the battle, and they realized that the war would potentially be much longer and bloodier than they had originally anticipated; Confederate Victory
Merrimack (Confederacy) vs. Monitor (Union)
a famous naval war battle between the two namesake ships; both were ironclad; occurred March 9, 1862
Battle of Shiloh
also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6-7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union army under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river. Confederate forces under Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack on Grant there. The Confederates achieved considerable success on the first day, but were ultimately defeated on the second day; Grant did well
Battle of Antietam
occurred September 17, 1862; fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and namesake Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with about 23,000 casualties; Lincoln gave Emancipation Proclamation afterwards; Lee's army vs. McClellan's; Burnside was also involved; McClellan let Lee retreat
Battle of Fredericksburg
fought December 11-15, 1862, in and around namesake town of Virginia, between General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. The Union army's futile frontal assaults on December 13 against entrenched Confederate defenders on the heights behind the city is remembered as one of the most one-sided battles of the American Civil War, with Union casualties more than twice as heavy as those suffered by the Confederates.

Burnside's plan was to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg in mid-November and race to the Confederate capital of Richmond before Lee's army could stop him. Bureaucratic delays prevented Burnside from receiving the necessary pontoon bridges in time and Lee moved his army to block the crossings. When the Union army was finally able to build its bridges and cross under fire, urban combat resulted in the city on December 11-12. Union troops prepared to assault Confederate defensive positions south of the city and on a strongly fortified ridge just west of the city known as Marye's Heights.
Battle of Chancellorsville
a major battle of the American Civil War; It was fought from April 30 to May 6, 1863, in Spotsylvania County, Virginia, near the namesake village. Two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac against an army half its size, Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia; it's known as Lee's "perfect battle" because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The victory, a product of Lee's audacity and Hooker's timid combat performance, was tempered by heavy casualties and the mortal wounding of Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson to friendly fire, a loss that Lee likened to "losing my right arm."
Siege of Vicksburg
(May 18 - July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the namesake Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate army of Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of namesake city of Mississippi; together with Battle of Gettysburg, this battle forms the turning point of the Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
fought July 1-3, 1863, in and around the namesake Pennsylvania town. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North.
Gettysburg Address
the public speech that Lincoln gave to the people after the namesake Civil War Battle in PA; "Four score and seven years ago...a new nation, conceived in liberty...we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground...government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.)
Fall of Atlanta
occurred on 9/2/1864; refers to the devastation of Georgia's capital due to Sherman's March to the Sea
William Tecumseh Sherman
the Union General who made a famous March to the Sea; executed total war in Georgia; destroyed railroad system
Sherman's March to the Sea
campaign by the namesake Union general as he marched through Georgia; destroyed crops and railroads along the way; supposed to be a punishment to the South
Fall of Richmond
occurred on 4/2/1865; beginning of the end of the Civil War; Lee realized that the war could not continue
Appomattox Court House
the location where the final surrender of the South took place
Union Advantages (Confederate Disadvantages)
refers to the fact that the Union had a better industry, higher population, and other things that the South did not have
Union Disadvantages (Confederate Advantages)
refers to the fact that the Union did not have very good generals and the fact that the Union had to invade the Confederacy in order to win
Trent Affair
an international incident in which American ships pulled over the namesake British ship in order to arrest John Slidell and another man for wanting to help Confederacy; seen as a violation of British sovereignty (and kind of ironic)
Alabama Issue
refers to the fact that Britain made ships for the Confederacy; got the U.S. very angry; sued Britain for it
Native Americans
no idea what this is doing here; apparently the Union had some sort of diplomacy with them
Confederate Diplomacy
refers to the attempts of the Confederacy to negotiate with world powers to help them defeat the Union; did not get much help except for the ships from Britain
Economic Activist Government
refers to the passing of acts by the Republicans while the Southern Democrats were not in office
Morrill Tariff Act
a protective tariff in the United States, adopted on March 2, 1861 during the administration of President James Buchanan.
Named for its sponsor, who drafted it with the advice of Pennsylvania economist Henry Charles Carey, passage of the tariff was possible because many tariff-adverse Southerners had left Congress after their states declared their secession; raised rates to protect and encourage industry and the high wages of industrial workers. It replaced the low Tariff of 1857, which was written to benefit the South.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Legal Tender Act
Lincoln signed in 1862, authorized $150 million in greenbacks. - Confederacy never made its paper money legal tender, responded by making more paper money, which accelerated southern inflation; created national currency for Union
Morrill Land Grant Act
an 1862 act; the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of colleges; as a result 69 land-grant institutions were established.
Pacific Railway Act
an 1862 Act that authorized the construction of a transcontinental railroad
National Bank Act
established a system of national charters for banks, and created the United States National Banking System. They encouraged development of a national currency backed by bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities and established the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency as part of the United States Department of the Treasury and authorized the Comptroller to examine and regulate nationally chartered banks. The legacy of the Act is its impact on the national banking system as it stands today and its support of a uniform U.S. monetary policy; passed in 1863
Inflation
the raising of prices due to an increase in the amount of money; occurred in both the North and the South, but hard times were more common in the South
Food riots
occurred in the spring of 1863; events of civil unrest in the Confederacy on April 2, 1863; were triggered mainly by foraging armies, both Union and Confederate, who ravaged crops and devoured draft animals. The staggering inflation created by the Confederate government was also a primary cause. The drought of 1862 created a poor harvest that did not yield enough in a time when food was already scarce. From 1861 to 1863, the price of wheat tripled and butter and milk prices quadrupled. Salt, which at the time was the only practical meat preservative, was very expensive (if available at all) as a result of the Union blockade and the capture of Avery Island by the Union.
William Holden
the 38th and 40th Governor of North Carolina in 1865 and from 1868 to 1871. He was the leader of the state's Republican Party during Reconstruction; was the second governor in American history to be impeached, and the first to be removed from office. He is the only North Carolina governor to have been impeached. (I don't know if it is this guy or not, because there are several famous guys with this same name)
Border States
states like Maryland and Missouri which were technically southern but remained with the Union
Habeas corpus
Latin for "show the body"; refers to the right of people to know why they are in jail; must be jailed for a reason; Lincoln suspended this act during the Civil War
Martial Law
the law that Lincoln imposed on states (mainly Maryland and other border states) during the Civil War; technically unconstitutional, but he had to do it
Women in the labor force
refers to the fact that women were working in factories while men were out fighting
Emancipation
the freeing (of slaves)
Thaddeus Stevens
a Republican "semi-Radical" who wanted abolition of slavery and equality of blacks, but was not extremely Radical; would settle for a compromise; apparently famous for being buried in a black cemetery; pushed for the "40 Acres and a Mule" policy
Confiscation Acts
acts that occurred in August, 1861 and July, 1862; laws passed by the United States Congress during the Civil War with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the Confederate forces in the South; first authorized the confiscation of any Confederate property by Union forces ("property" included slaves). This meant that all slaves that fought or worked for the Confederate military were freed whenever they were "confiscated" by Union troops. The bill passed in the House 60-48 and in the Senate 24-11; second stated that any Confederate official, military or civilian, who did not surrender within 60 days of the act's passage would have their slaves freed. However, this act was only applicable to Confederate areas that had already been occupied by the Union Army. All slaves that took refuge in Union areas were "captives of war" and would be set free.
Voluntary Gradual Emancipation
refers to slow and voluntary abolition of slavery (?)
Horace Greeley
an American newspaper editor, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, a reformer, a politician, and an outspoken opponent of slavery. The New York Tribune (which he founded and edited) was America's most influential newspaper from the 1840s to the 1870s; known for the phrase "Go West, young man"; also wrote "The Prayer of Twenty Millions"
"The Prayer of Twenty Millions"
a famous editorial entitled written by Horace Greeley; demanded a more aggressive attack on the Confederacy and faster emancipation of the slaves.
Emancipation Proclamation
a famous proclamation effective 1/1/1863; stated that every slave state still in rebellion would have its slaves freed after the Union passed through it; issued by Lincoln
Conscription Act
effective March, 1863; legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army; the controversial act required the enrollment of every male citizen and those immigrants who had filed for citizenship between ages twenty and forty-five. Federal agents established a quota of new troops due from each congressional district. In some cities, particularly New York City, enforcement of the act sparked civil unrest as the war dragged on, leading to the New York Draft Riots on July 13-16.
New York City Draft Riots
riots in the titular city due to the passing of the Conscription Act during July 13-16, 1863
Peace Democrats
a vocal group of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates; also called Copperheads
Clement L. Vallandigham
an Ohio politician, and leader of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the American Civil War. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives; banished to the Confederacy in 1863
Copperheads
the derogatory name for the Peace Democrats; refers to a snake, but the Peace Democrats turned it into a symbol of pride and wore copper coins depicting liberty
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
a proclamation that became effective December, 1863; it stated that secession was not recognized and therefore readmission to the Union was automatic as soon as the rebellion ended; also explained 10% plan
Radical Republicans
Republicans who wanted instant abolition of the slaves and punishment for the South; against Lincoln; led by people like Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens; against the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (thought it did away with majority rule and Democracy)
10% Plan
Lincoln's plan to readmit states to the Union as long as the namesake amount of people agreed to return, free their slaves, provide education for free blacks, and draft Republican constitutions
Wade-Davis Bill
a bill drafted by the two titular Republicans; required that more than 50% of people in each state take a loyalty oath; pushed for readmission only through statewide constitutional conventions; Confederate officials and volunteers barred from process; also required that new state constitutions prohibited slavery (similar to 10% Plan except that > 50% was needed)
Pocket Veto
a veto in which the President does not sign the bill but rather just holds onto it to let it die; Lincoln did this to the Wade-Davis Bill
"Wade-Davis Manifesto"
a vitriolic editorial in the New York Tribune that attacked Lincoln when he did not sign the titular bill
Presidential Election of 1864
Presidential Election in which Lincoln and Johnson ran as a part of the Union Party, General George B. McClellan ran as a Democrat; Fremont ran on the Radical Republican platform; Lincoln won; "Don't change horses in the middle of a stream"
Nevada Statehood
Lincoln and supporters wanted this to happen so that the namesake state would support Lincoln; became a state in 1864
Thirteenth Amendment
ratified in December 1865; outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed it to have been adopted. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War.
Second Inaugural Address
another famous public speech by Lincoln after he was elected for a second term; stated that he wanted to finish the business at hand with the South and allow them to rejoin the Union
Assassination
refers to the killing of Abraham Lincoln by John Wilkes Booth
Reconstruction
refers to the time during which the South was making amends with the North and during which newly-freed slaves were starting to gain rights; two types: Presidential and Congressional
Andrew Johnson
the President who took over after Lincoln was killed; apparently known for saying "The Constitution as it is, and the Union as it was."; he was almost impeached
Johnsonian Reconstruction
Reconstruction that occurred mainly due to the actions of Lincoln's successor; wanted to make sure that the South did not get punished
Oath of Loyalty
a promise to be loyal; required of the Southern citizens and states before they could rejoin the Union
Pardons
excusing someone from a crime; many rich plantation owners were excused in this manner
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
a federal law in the United States that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War. The Act was enacted by Congress over the veto of President Andrew Johnson.
Black Codes
laws that were passed to put blacks in a form of slavery; made them do work for petty offenses, some of which were not even real offenses (ex: unemployed blacks who "unlawfully" congregated were arrested and forced to work on public projects)
Fourteenth Amendment
ratified 7/9/1868; Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling by the Supreme Court (1857) that held that blacks could not be citizens of the United States.
Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states, as well as to recognize substantive and procedural rights.
Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction; prohibits Black Codes; bars from office former Confederate officials who rebelled; rejects Confederate Debt
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
two women who fought for women's suffrage
Reconstruction Acts
Acts that were passed during Reconstruction to make states rejoin the Union; created military districts; new Freedmen's Bureau Bill passed over Johnson veto; Military control of elections and constitutional conventions; only a majority of those voting required to ratify state constitutions
First Reconstruction Act
an act that divided the South into 5 military districts, not including Tennessee; state constitutions needed to provide black suffrage; must ratify 14th Amendment to enter U.S.
Second Reconstruction Act
an act that established and clarified that the military commanders held responsibility to register voters and hold elections in their territories; only the majority of votes cast were needed to get the constitution ratified, which enabled the constitution to be ratified much more easily against the will of many ex-Confederates; prevented former rebels from holding office
Tenure of Office Act
an act that stated that cabinet members could not be fired by the President without Congressional approval; one of the grounds for trying to impeach Johnson
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War under Andrew Johnson (but before under Lincoln); when Andrew Johnson fired him, Congress accused Johnson of breaking the law by disregarding the Tenure of Office Act
Impeachment Trial
occurred after Johnson tried to fire Edwin M. Stanton
Acquittal
happened to Andrew Johnson when Edmund Ross decides not to vote that Andrew Johnson broke the law
Election of 1868
Election in which it was Grant (Republican) vs. Horatio Seymour (Democrat); Grant won by a huge margin due to black suffrage in the South and due to the absence of white suffrage in the same area
Fifteenth Amendment
ratified 3/1870; ensured and reinforced black suffrage
"Black Republican" Reconstruction
an expression used to describe those years during the Reconstruction era after the Civil War in which former black slaves, with the aid of northern carpetbaggers and southern scalawags, won election to political offices throughout the former Confederacy.
Scalawag
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
Carpetbagger
refers to a northern politician who moves south; could be for a variety of reasons
Hiram Revels
the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Because he preceded any African American in the House, he was the first African American in the U.S. Congress as well. He represented Mississippi in 1870 and 1871 during Reconstruction.
Blanche K. Bruce
a U.S. politician who represented Mississippi as a Republican in the U.S. Senate from 1875 to 1881 and was the first elected African-American senator to serve a full term. Hiram R. Revels, also of Mississippi, was the first to ever serve in the U.S. Congress, but did not serve a full term.
40 Acres and a Mule
refers to the short-lived policy, during the last stages of the American Civil War in 1865, of providing arable land to black former slaves who had become free as a result of the advance of the Union armies into the territory previously controlled by the Confederacy; failed policy; was pushed by Thaddeus Stevens; unfortunately, many blacks did not get this; now used as an expression noting some of the failures of Reconstruction
Wholesome compulsion
no idea what this means; could refer to the fact that whites thought that blacks were compulsed to do things? I have no idea
Sharecropping
system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops
Crop-lien system
a system in which both the landowner and sharecropper depended on credit supplied by local bankers, merchants, and storekeepers for everything
Ku Klux Klan
a race-hate group that formed during the Reconstruction Era; at first started out hating blacks but now hates Jews as well; known for the sheets that they wear; physically punished blacks during the Reconstruction Era
Force Acts
acts passed from 1870-1871 that helped protect the voting rights of African-Americans; mainly aimed at limiting the activities of the Ku Klux Klan. Through the acts, actions committed with the intent to influence voters, prevent them from voting, or conspiring to deprive them of civil rights, including life, were made federal offenses. Thus the federal government had the power to prosecute the offenses, including calling federal juries to hear the cases.
Election of 1872
Election in which Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) ran against Democrat Horace Greeley; Greeley died during the election; Grant still won by a landslide
Amnesty Act
an 1872 United States federal law that removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the American Civil War, except for some 500 military leaders of the Confederacy. The original restrictive Act was passed by the United States Congress on May 1866.
Mid-term 1874 elections
midterm election in which Republicans lost heavily and the Democrats gained control of the House. It signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction, which Democrats opposed.
Panic of 1873
an economic depression that started during Grant's terms in office; lasted until 1876 or 1879; one of the reasons why the Republicans lost so heavily in the midterm election
Civil Rights Act of 1875
guaranteed that everyone, regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations" (i.e. inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement). If found guilty, the lawbreaker could face a penalty anywhere from $500 to $1,000 and/or 30 days to 1 year in prison.
However, the law was rarely enforced, especially after the 1876 presidential election and withdrawal of federal troops from the South; also declared unconstitutional later
Election of 1876
election in which Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) ran against Samuel Tilden (Democrat); Hayes won the 20 electoral votes needed for victory by one vote by a bitter political battle; These 20 electoral votes were in dispute in three states: Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina; each party reported its candidate had won the state
Congressional Electoral Commission
a temporary body created by Congress to resolve the disputed United States presidential election of 1876. It consisted of 15 members. The election was contested by the Democratic ticket, Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks, and the Republican ticket, Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler. Twenty electoral votes, from the states of Florida, Louisiana, Oregon, and South Carolina, were in dispute; the resolution of these disputes would determine the outcome of the election. Facing a constitutional crisis the likes of which the nation had never seen, Congress passed a law forming the Electoral Commission to settle the result.
Compromise of 1877
refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election, regarded as the second "corrupt bargain", and ended Congressional ("Radical") Reconstruction. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. Consequently, the incumbent President, Republican Ulysses S. Grant, removed the soldiers from Florida before Hayes as his successor removed the remaining troops in South Carolina and Louisiana. As soon as the troops left, many Republicans also left (or became Democrats) and the "Redeemer" Democrats took control.
James A. Garfield
a Radical Republican Representative from Ohio who eventually becomes president after Hayes; later assassinated
Election of 1828
Election in which Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams; Martin Van Buren helped Jackson campaign
Andrew Jackson
AKA "Old Hickory" and "King Mob", he was president after John Quincy Adams; celebrated for his role in the Battle of New Orleans; made him a national hero; party ideals based on his actions; he was also an Indian fighter; anti-intellectual; bad with foreign affairs and hated the (Second) National Bank
Jacksonian Democracy
refers to the democracy that Jackson created; favored the "common man"; hated intellectuals and privileged people
"Common man"
the figure championed by Jacksonian Democrats; the "average (white) person (meaning 'man')"
Rotation
refers to the system in which Jackson claimed he let everyone take part in the government by using the Spoils System
Spoils System ("To the victors belong the spoils.")
the way in which Jackson appointed people loyal to him and fired those who disagreed with him; he claimed that everyone had a chance in the government by using this method, but he usually only appointed "privileged" people to office
"Kitchen Cabinet"
a group of Jackson's friends that were distinguished from Jackson's actual Cabinet; included Martin Van Buren
Webster-Hayne Debate
(Webster defended Northeast interests; Hayne defended Southern interests)
a debate between the two titular senators in which they argued over Protective Tariffs
Distribution (land sales proceeds)
refers to the dividing of the profits of land sales in the West (?)
Bank War
the figurative battle that Andrew Jackson had with the Second National Bank
Nicholas Biddle
the head of the Second National Bank when Andrew Jackson "killed" it
South Sea Bubble
the titular company sold shares but then went bankrupt, Walpole made Parliament give the investors their money back, created trust for the English economy; first big speculative bubble; Andrew Jackson's fear of this happening to the US made him distrust the Second National Bank and the profits gained from the land sales
Specie Money
money that is not in paper form (i.e. gold and silver)
Speculation
when people think that something will be worth a lot of money in the future so that they buy it at a low price (and try to sell it later); leads to speculative bubbles
(a financial action that does not promise safety of the initial investment along with the return on the principal sum)
Second Bank Veto
the veto of the 1832 bill that renewed the Second National Bank's charter by Andrew Jackson
"Pet" Banks (1833)
a pejorative term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833. They were also named "Wildcat Banks". They were made among the big U.S. bank when President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter for the Second Bank of the United States, proposed by Daniel Webster and Henry Clay four years before the recharter was due.
(held US treasury funds)
John C. Calhoun
a Southern leader; went to Yale; elected to Congress in 1811; Secretary of War of Monroe; John Quincy Adams praised him; not Crawford or Clay; stuck up for states' rights; author of "South Carolina Exposition and Protest"; VP of Jackson; responsible for the Nullification Crisis of 1833
Peggy Eaton affair
refers to the "scandal" about the titular woman in which she had an affair with her second (later) husband before she divorced with her first; Jackson was sympathetic because his wife was in a similar situation
Removal (of Indians)
refers to the deportation of Indians to the West; if they refused, they were attacked and sent to the West by force; occurred during the 1830's
Black Hawk's War (1832)
the war that the Americans had with the titular Indian tribe during the year of 1832
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
a Supreme Court case between the Cherokee and the state of Georgia; Cherokee tried to sue Georgia; Marshall ruled that the Cherokee were not a foreign nation
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
titular man tried to sue Georgia for being arrested in Cherokee territory; Marshall sided with Cherokee Nation; Jackson overrode decision; trail of tears ensued
Treaty of New Echota (1835)
a treaty that let the Cherokee stay in the Cherokee nation until 1838; most Cherokee did not think that they would get thrown out
John Ross
the Cherokee Chief during the formation of the Cherokee Nation and right before the Trail of Tears; tried to negotiate with senators in Congress; Treaty of New Echota stuff (?)
Trail of Tears (1838)
refers to the trail that the Cherokee took from Georgia to Oklahoma; 4000 died out of about 16,000
Doctrine of Nullification
the idea that states could ignore federal laws if they are unconstitutional (?)
Nullification Crisis
crisis that occurred in 1832 and 1833; South Carolina threatened Civil War; South Carolina did not want to pay new tariff; prohibited collection as of Feb. 1, 1833; negotiations were reached before war broke out
Tariff of 1832
the tariff that led to the Nullification Crisis; gave preference to the Northeast; upset the South
Nat Turner (1831)
led a slave rebellion in 1831; occurred in Southampton County, VA; 55 - 65 white men killed
Denmark Vesey (1822)
African American slave brought to the United States from the Caribbean of Coromantee background. After purchasing his freedom, he planned what would have been one of the largest slave rebellions in the United States. Word of the plans was leaked, and at Charleston, South Carolina, authorities arrested the plot's leaders before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were tried, convicted and executed.
Abolition
refers to the freeing of the slaves that some people pushed for in 1830's; gained more ground in Reform Era
"Proclamation to the People of South Carolina"
written by Edward Livingston and issued by Andrew Jackson on December 10, 1832. Written at the height of the Nullification Crisis, it directly responds to the Ordinance of Nullification passed by the South Carolina legislature in November 1832. Its purpose was to subdue the Nullification Crisis created by South Carolina's ordinance and to denounce the doctrine of nullification.
Force Bill (1833)
n response to South Carolina's ordinance of nullification, empowered President Jackson to use the army and navy, if necessary, to enforce the laws of Congress, specifically the tariff measures to which South Carolina had objected so violently.
Specie Circular (1836)
issued by Andrew Jackson due to his fear of the land speculative bubble; this caused the bubble to burst and created the Panic of 1837; people who wanted to buy land needed to pay with silver and gold
Panic of 1837
financial crisis or market correction in the United States built on a speculative fever. The end of the Second Bank of the United States had produced a period of runaway inflation, but on May 10, 1837 in New York City, every bank began to accept payment only in specie (gold and silver coinage), forcing a dramatic, deflationary backlash. This was based on the assumption by former president, Andrew Jackson, that the government was selling land for state bank notes of questionable value.
Locofoco
radical faction of the Democratic Party that existed from 1835 until the mid-1840s. The faction was originally named the Equal Rights Party, and was created in New York City as a protest against that city's regular Democratic organization ("Tammany Hall"). It contained a mixture of anti-Tammany Democrats and labor union veterans of the Working Men's Party. They were vigorous advocates of laissez-faire and opponents of monopoly.
Name came from using candles for a meeting
"Favorite Sons"
candidates who have regional appeal; Whigs tried using this strategy later to try defeating Martin Van Buren in the Election of 1840
Martin Van Buren
Jackson's Secretary of State and later Vice President; hand-picked successor to Jackson; almost defeated by Whigs in Election of 1840; never really chose a side in politics until he later joined Freesoil Party and supported Abolition
Depression of 1839-43
Occurred when the government defaulted from internal improvements and when cotton was overproduced; Van Buren had to deal with it during his presidency; could have contributed to not being reelected
Independent Treasury Act (1840)
a system for the retaining of government funds in the United States Treasury and its subtreasuries, independently of the national banking and financial systems; issued by Van Buren; tried to set up place to hold federal money without using a National Bank
Election of 1840
election between Van Buren and William Henry Harrison; Log Cabin Campaign occurred during this election
Whigs
the rival party of the Jacksonian Democrats; mainly consisted of people who hated Jackson; party not good with working together; slavery debates lead it to its downfall
William Henry Harrison
Whig candidate who defeated Van Buren in the Election of 1840; used the Log Cabin Campaign; "Hero of Tippecanoe" during the War of 1812; delivered the longest inaugural address and died in office one month later; John Tyler succeeded him; established precedent
Log Cabin Campaign
campaign used by the Whigs to get William Henry Harrison elected; compared Van Buren to an aristocratic mansion and William Henry Harrison to the titular house
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
one of the slogans used by the Whigs to defeat Van Buren
Alexis de Tocqueville
a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856).
Democracy in America
Tocqueville's two-volume work that pretty much describes all of America; from origins to how the social classes function
Individualism
refers to the fact that the elections were not based on the issues but on who the individuals were (?)
Horace Greeley
an American newspaper editor, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, a reformer, a politician, and an outspoken opponent of slavery. The New York Tribune (which he founded and edited) was America's most influential newspaper from the 1840s to the 1870s; known for the phrase "Go West, young man"
Cult of true womanhood
refers to the idea that womanly virtue resided in piety, purity, submissiveness and domesticity.
"Separate spheres"
similar to the "Cult of true womanhood" in that it refers to the fact that men must go out to work and women must stay at home with the children (in Middle Class society)
Catherine Beecher
an American educator known for her forthright opinions on female education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of kindergarten into children's education; wrote letter to Grimke sisters on Abolition
Godey's Ladies Book
a United States magazine which was published in Philadelphia and popular among women during the 19th century.
Lydia Marie Child
an American abolitionist, women's rights activist, opponent of American expansionism, Indian rights activist, novelist, and journalist and Unitarian.
Her journals, fiction and domestic manuals reached wide audiences from the 1820s through the 1850s. She at times shocked her audience, as she tried to take on issues of both male dominance and white supremacy in some of her stories.
Most famous for "Over the River and Through the Woods" (about Thanksgiving)
(Amos) Bronson Alcott
father of the author of Little Women; an American teacher, writer, philosopher, and reformer. As an educator, Alcott pioneered new ways of interacting with young students, focusing on a conversational style, and avoided traditional punishment. He was also an abolitionist and an advocate for women's rights.
Second Great Awakening
event that preached universalism instead of predestination; parallels Christian component of European romanticism as a reaction to the Enlightenment; along Erie Canal route; modern evangelical Christianity got its start here
"New Divinity"
a system of Christian theology that was very prominent in New England in the late 18th century; It modifies several tenets of Calvinism, most notably the notion of free will and original sin, the nature of the atonement of Jesus, and His righteousness being imputed to believers.
Lyman Beecher
a Presbyterian minister, American Temperance Society co-founder and leader, and the father of 13 children, many of whom were noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher, and Thomas K. Beecher. He is credited as a leader of the Second Great Awakening of the United States.
Charles Grandison Finney (1821 - 1835)
a leader in the Second Great Awakening. He has been called The Father of Modern Revivalism; best known as an innovative revivalist, an opponent of Old School Presbyterian theology, an advocate of Christian perfectionism, a pioneer in social reforms in favor of women and blacks, a religious writer, and president at Oberlin College.
Burned-over district
refers to the religious scene in western and central region of New York, in the early 19th century, where religious revivals and Pentecostal movements of the Second Great Awakening took place; coined by Finney
Oberlin College
a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio, noteworthy for having been the first American institution of higher learning to regularly admit female and black students; Finney served as its second president and helped it gain recognition
John Tyler
William Henry Harrison's vice president; became president after Harrison died in office; Southerner; vetoed creation of a Third National Bank; supported states' rights
"His Accidency"
used to refer to John Tyler because he was not really supposed to be president
Third Bank Veto
this veto of the creation of the titular institution caused all of the Whigs in John Tyler's Cabinet to resign except Daniel Webster, who still wanted to negotiate the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Britain
Henry Clay
Western leader; charming; indulged; still reasonable; challenged men to duels twice; developed "American System" in early 1820s; (known as "Great Compromiser?"); owned slaves yet disliked slavery; involved in Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850; disagreed with John Tyler's practices
Preemption Act (1841)
a federal law approved on September 4, 1841. It was designed to "appropriate the proceeds of the sales of public lands... and to grant 'pre-emption rights' to individuals" who were already living on federal lands (commonly referred to as "squatters")
Distribution Act (1841)
created a distribution program with a proviso requiring tariffs to remain below 20 percent; a second bill enacted the top rate on previously low-tax goods.
Tariff Act of 1842
a protective tariff schedule adopted in the United States to reverse the effects of the Compromise Tariff of 1833. The Compromise Tariff contained a provision that successively lowered the tariff rates from their level under the Tariff of 1832 over a period of ten years until the majority of dutiable goods were to be taxed at 20%. As the 20% level approached in 1842, industrial interests and members of the Whig Party began clamoring for protection, claiming that the reductions left them vulnerable to European competition. The bill restored protection and raised average tariff rates to almost 40%.
Daniel Webster
recognized as a coming leader of the North; graduated from Dartmouth; concentrated on law; great orator; opposed Tariff of 1816; too fond of riches; also involved in the Compromise of 1850 (and also very old when that happened); negotiated treaty with England to settle Maine's northern boundary; then resigned his position as Secretary of State under John Tyler
Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
a treaty resolving several border issues between the United States and the British North American colonies. It resolved a dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border, established the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783), reaffirmed the location of the border (at the 49th parallel) in the westward frontier up to the Rocky Mountains defined in the Treaty of 1818, called for a final end to the slave trade on the high seas, and agreed to shared use of the Great Lakes.
Texas Question
referred to the question of the annexation of Texas: should the United States annex Texas and cause war with Mexico?
Stephen F. Austin
born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri. He was known as the Father of Texas, led the second, but first legal and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
Sam Houston
a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of the Republic of Texas, U.S. Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor of the state. He refused to swear loyalty to the Confederacy when Texas seceded from the Union, and resigned as governor. To avoid bloodshed, he refused an offer of a Union army to put down the Confederate rebellion. Instead, he retired to Huntsville, Texas, where he died before the end of the Civil War.
(Antonio) Lopez de Santa Anna
known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government; fought first against Mexican independence from Spain, then in support of it. Though not the first caudillo (military leader) of Mexico, he was among the earliest. He held the rank of general and/or the office of president (or both concurrently) at various times over a turbulent forty-year career; he was president of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive occasions over a period of twenty-two years; fought against Americans in the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War
Alamo and Goliad
two events in the Texas Revolution in which all of the rebels were killed; Sam Houston urged people to remember these events when fighting the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto
Republic of Texas
republic founded March 2, 1836 when Texas won its independence from Mexico
Manifest Destiny
coined by John L. O'Sullivan; the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the continent. It was used by Democrat-Republicans in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century.
Jonathan Edwards (Matthew 5:14)
known mainly for his "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" but also said quoted "the city on the hill"
John L. O'Sullivan
the journalist who first coined the phrase "manifest destiny"
Oregon Fever
refers to the want of many Americans to want to go to Oregon after the territory was negotiated
Oregon Trail
the trail that many Americans took to the west; very dangerous and weary, but worth it to the Americans who took it
John Jacob Astor
monopolize fur trade by using his American Fur Company, Pacific Fur Company, and Southwest Fur Company
Treaty of Wang-hsia (Wanghia) (1844)
a diplomatic agreement between the Qing Dynasty of China and the United States; contents:
extraterritoriality, which meant that US citizens could only be tried by US consular officers;
fixed tariffs on the trade in the treaty ports;
the right to buy land in the five treaty ports and erect churches and hospitals there; and
the right to learn Chinese by abolishing a law which hitherto forbade foreigners to do so.
the U.S received most-favored-nation status, resulting in the US receiving the same beneficial treatment China gave to other powers such as Britain, and allowed the US to modify the treaty after 12 years.
As a show of goodwill towards the Qing Empire, the Opium trade was declared illegal, and the U.S. agreed to hand over any offenders to China.
Election of 1844
Annexation is the major issue of this election; Clay and Van Buren were the two major candidates; Polk came along as a "darkhorse" candidate and ended up winning; wanted to annex Texas and take all of Oregon Territory; Liberty Party siphoned off votes to Polk (took from Clay)
James K. Polk
AKA "Young Hickory"; president after John Tyler; declared war on Mexico; annexed Texas; "kept campaign promises"
"Fifty-four forty or fight"
refers to the Oregon Territory; was used as a campaign slogan for Polk; actually goes to the southern tip of present-day Alaska
Liberty Party
the party that split the vote in the Election of 1844; stole NY votes from Clay
Joint Resolution of Annexation
declared that Texas would be admitted as a state as long as it approved annexation by January 1, 1846, that it could split itself up into four additional states, and that possession of the Republic's public land would shift to the state of Texas upon its admission.
Texas statehood (December 1845)
occurred when Texas was annexed in 1845; one of the causes for the Mexican-American war
Oregon Treaty
treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. The treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country, which had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818; set the U.S. and British North American border at the 49th parallel with the exception of Vancouver Island, which was retained in its entirety by the British.
Mexican-American War
war between Mexico and the United States that lasted from 1846 - 1848; principle figures were Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna; seemed as if US was bullying Mexico for land
Zachary Taylor
AKA "Old Rough and Ready"; referred to his old age; commanded the main force in the Mexican-American war until Winfield Scott took over; involved in the Battle of Buena Vista; almost lost
Rio Grande River
thought by Americans to be the Mexican-American border; Mexicans thought that the border was the Nueces River
John Slidell
a man sent by Polk to negotiate with Mexico for the California and New Mexico Territories; would greatly reduce Mexican land; sent to offer 30 million dollars if necessary
John C. Fremont
American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. It remains in use, and he is sometimes called The Great Pathfinder. He retired from the military and moved to the new territory California, after leading a fourth expedition which cost ten lives seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849.
He became one of the two U.S. Senators of the new state in 1850, and was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims between the dispossessions of various land owners during the Mexican-American War, and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the California Gold Rush. He lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrats James Buchanan and John C. Breckenridge when Democrats warned his election would lead to civil war.
John D. Sloat
a commodore in the United States Navy who, in 1846, claimed California for the United States.
Winfield Scott
the general who took over as head of command during the Mexican-American War; landed at Veracruz; marched on to Mexico City (March 1847)
Nicholas Trist
ordered to arrange an armistice with Santa Anna for up to three million U.S. dollars. President Polk was unhappy with his envoy's conduct and prompted him to return to the United States. General Winfield Scott was also unhappy with his presence in Mexico, although he and Scott quickly reconciled and began a lifelong friendship.
However, the wily diplomat ignored the instructions. Known to have an over-fluid pen, he wrote a 65 page letter back to Washington, D.C. explaining his reasons for staying in Mexico. He capitalized on a brilliant opportunity to continue bargaining with Santa Anna. He successfully negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848. His negotiation was controversial among expansionist Democrats since he had ignored Polk's instructions and settled on a smaller cession of Mexican territory than many expansionist wanted and felt he could have obtained.
Upon return to Washington, however, he was immediately fired for his insubordination, and his expenses during his time in Texas were not paid. He did not recover his expenses until 1871
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
ended the Mexican-American War; negotiated by Trist and Scott; Mexico ceded to the United States Upper California and New Mexico. This was known as the Mexican Cession and included all of present-day California, Nevada and Utah as well as most of Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado (see Article V of the treaty). Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of the United States (see Article V). The Treaty also ceded an additional 1,007,935 km2 (389,166 sq mi), since Mexico had never officially recognized either the independence of the Republic of Texas (1836) or its annexation by the United States (1845), and under this calculation, Mexico lost about 55% of its prewar territory.
The Treaty also ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were often not honored by the U.S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty. The U.S. also agreed to take over 3.25 million dollars (equivalent to $82.2 million today) in debts that Mexico owed to United States citizens.
Sutter's Mill
owned by 19th century pioneer John Sutter in partnership with James W. Marshall. It was located in Coloma, California, at the bank of the South Fork American River; most famous for its association with the California Gold Rush; Marshall found gold there
Wilmot Proviso
one of the major events leading to the Civil War; would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future, including the area later known as the Mexican Cession, but which some proponents construed to also include the disputed lands in south Texas and New Mexico east of the Rio Grande.
David Wilmot
politician who introduced the titular proviso; started debate between North and South; a Democrat, a Free Soiler, and a Republican during his political career. His opposition to slavery did not include the abolitionist position of ending slavery in the entire country, and his views on race, by today's standards, could be classified as racist.
Popular Sovereignty
middle position on the slavery issue. It said that actual residents of territories should be able to decide by voting whether or not slavery would be allowed in the territory. The federal government did not have to make the decision, and by appealing to democracy Cass and Douglas hoped they could finesse the question of support for or opposition to slavery. Douglas applied it to Kansas in the Kansas-Nebraska Act which passed Congress in 1854. The Act had two unexpected results. By dropping the Missouri Compromise of 1820 (which said slavery would never be allowed in Kansas), it was a major boost for the expansion of slavery.
Lewis Cass
an American military officer and politician. During his long political career, he served as a governor of the Michigan Territory, an American ambassador, a U.S. Senator representing Michigan, and co-founder as well as first Masonic Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan. He was the losing nominee of the Democratic Party for president in 1848. He was nationally famous as a leading spokesman for the controversial Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty, which would have allowed voters in the territories to determine whether to make slavery legal instead of having Congress decide.
Crittenden Compromise
an unsuccessful proposal introduced by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden on December 18, 1860. It aimed to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the grievances that led the slave states of the United States to contemplate secession from the United States; composed of constitutional amendments and congressional resolutions
Oneida Community
a religious commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. The community believed that Jesus had already returned in the year 70 CE, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven (a belief called Perfectionism); practiced Communalism (in the sense of communal property and possessions), Complex Marriage, Male Continence, Mutual Criticism and Ascending Fellowship; became silverware company
Associations
a term used often by Alexis de Tocqueville describing the groups that Americans form to change their country and government; he used the Temperance Unions as examples
"Benevolent Empire"
part of a 19th century religious movement in the United States called the Second Great Awakening. Various protestant denominations developed missionary organizations in order to Christianize citizens of the United States and the world, and to create a Christian nation. The movement included a commitment to social reform by wealthy and middle-class urbanites.
Communitarianism
a critique of classical social and political liberalism, stressing the central importance of the community group over the autonomous individual in the formulation of political and economic rights and obligations;
an ideology that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. That community may be the family unit, but it can also be understood in a far wider sense of personal interaction, of geographical location, or of shared history.
Shakers (United Society of Believers)
a religious sect originally thought to be a development of the Religious Society of Friends. Founded upon the teachings of Ann Lee, Shakers today are mostly known for their cultural contributions (especially style of music and furniture).
However, the Shakers' enduring legacy includes their model of equality of the sexes (or gender equality), which they institutionalized in their society in the 1780s
famous for practicing celibacy; reason why they are not prevalent today; broke sexual tension through dances
Ann Lee
the founder of the Shakers utopian community; believed that she was the reincarnation of Jesus Christ
Amana Community
another community in which every man was married to every woman; raised children as a community
Oneida County
this county's Female Missionary Society helped to finance the Second Great Awakening
Rappites
followers of the Harmony Society founded by Johann Rapp and his adopted son Frederick in Germany; came to the United States; placed all goods in common; Christian theosophy and pietist society
Robert Owen
Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement; known for his communistic yet successful utopian community; society of New Harmony given to him by George Rapp; fell apart after he died
Charles Fourier ("Fourier Phalanxes)
a French philosopher; very influential and radical in his lifetime; his thoughts inspired communities named for him; feminist
Phalanx (phalanstere)
a type of building designed for an utopian community and developed in the early 19th century by Charles Fourier. ; this self-contained community ideally consisted of 1500-1600 people working together for mutual benefit. Several so-called colonies were founded in the United States of America by Albert Brisbane and Horace Greeley.
The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints (Mormons)
started by Joseph Smith; based on the Book of Mormon; a lost testament written by a messenger of God whose people was killed by people who became the Indians; known for some sects of it allowing polygamy
Joseph Smith (1831 - 1844)
the "prophet"/founder of the Mormon Religion; killed in a jail cell by an angry mob
Navoo & the Navoo Legion
its namesake Legion was a militia originally organized by the Latter Day Saints (Mormons) to defend the namesake city located in Illinois. To curry political favor with the ambiguously-political Saints, the Illinois state legislature granted the city a liberal city charter that gave the Nauvoo Legion extraordinary independence. Led by Joseph Smith, Jr., founder of the Latter Day Saint movement and mayor of the city, the Legion quickly became a formidable concentration of military power in the American West; the Legion could not help him when he was assassinated by a mob
Brigham Young (1847)
the successor to Joseph Smith as the head of the Mormon religion; decided to settle upon the shores of the Great Salt Lake
Polygamy
the practice of having multiple spouses, usually wives; the Mormons became very unpopular due to the fact that they practiced this
Thomas Gallaudet (1817)
renowned American pioneer in the education of the Deaf. Along with Laurent Clerc and Mason Cogswell, he co-founded the first institution for the education of the Deaf in North America, and he became its first principal. When opened in 1817, it was called the "American Asylum for Deaf-Mutes" in Connecticut, but it is now known as the American School for the Deaf.
Samuel Howe (1832)
a nineteenth century United States physician, abolitionist, and an advocate of education for the blind.
Institutionalization
the action of confining someone to an institution or making someone or something a part of a system
Eastern State Penitentiary
former American prison in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is located on 2027 Fairmount Avenue between Corinthian Avenue and North 22nd Street in the Fairmount section of Philadelphia and was operational from 1829 until 1971; refined the revolutionary system of separate incarceration first pioneered at the Walnut Street Jail which emphasized principles of reform rather than punishment. Notorious criminals such as bank robber Willie Sutton and Al Capone were held inside its unique wagon wheel design. When the building was erected it was the largest and most expensive public structure ever constructed, quickly becoming a model for more than 300 prisons worldwide.
Dorothea Dix
an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses.
American Temperance Union (1826)
the first national temperance group; founded in 1826; tried to reduce or prohibit the distribution and consumption of alcohol
Maine Law (1851)
was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States; named for the state in which it was passed; prevented sale of alcohol except for medicinal uses
Gradualism
belief in or the policy of advancing toward a goal by gradual, often slow stages; some abolitionists wanted to use this philosophy to get rid of slavery
Abolitionism
the belief in the instant and immediate emancipation of slaves; supported strongly by people like William Lloyd Garrison
The Liberator
the newspaper created by William Lloyd Garrison; called for the emancipation of slaves
Theodore Dwight Weld
one of the leading architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years, from 1830 through 1844; played a role as writer, editor, speaker, and organizer. He is best known for his co-authorship of the authoritative compendium, American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, published in 1839.
Liberty Party
a political party during the 1800's whose platform was the instant abolition of slavery; the first candidate was James G. Birney, a "reformed" slaveowner; let Polk win instead of Clay in the Election of 1848
David Walker
an outspoken African American activist who demanded the immediate end of slavery in the new nation. In 1829, while living in Boston, Massachusetts, he published Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, a call to awaken other African Americans to the power of black unity and struggle.
Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World
a work written by black abolitionist David Walker to awaken other African-Americans to the power of black unity and struggle
Frederick Douglass
an escaped, educated slave who became an abolitionist; wrote a famous narrative about his life; changed his last name from "Bailey"
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845)
an account of the life of the titular escaped-slave; how he grew up; showed some of the horrors of slavery
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
Women's Rights
a movement that sought to "liberate" women from their "enchained" relationship with men; started especially when women were forbidden to go to the World Abolition Conference; women started to realize that they were "manacled" themselves
Margaret Fuller
American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate associated with the American transcendentalism movement. She was the first full-time American female book reviewer in journalism. Her book Woman in the Nineteenth Century is considered the first major feminist work in the United States; also known for editing the Transcendentalist journal The Dial
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
two sisters who were at first abolitionists; they later also turned their efforts towards women's rights; one of them wrote a letter back to Catherine Beecher
Seneca Falls Convention
a convention in the titular place where people fighting for women's rights gathered; famous declaration signed there mimicked the Declaration of Independence; Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison also there
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
two leaders of the women's rights movement; planned the Seneca Falls Convention
Susan B. Anthony
a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President. She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year. She was one of the important advocates in leading the way for women's rights to be acknowledged and instituted in the American government.
"Anxious Bench"
1. Also called anxious seat. Chiefly North Atlantic States and Southern and South Midland U.S. a seat reserved at a revival meeting for those troubled by conscience and eager for spiritual assistance.
2. a state of anxiety, especially about the outcome of a vote, negotiation, etc.
Election of 1800
the election that occurred between Adams, Jefferson, and Burr; at first tied between Burr and Jefferson; Hamilton was able to convince people to vote for Jefferson; Jefferson won
12th Amendment
provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President. It replaced Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, which provided the original procedure by which the Electoral College functioned; separates VP election from Presidential one
Vice President Aaron Burr
vice president during Thomas Jefferson's first term in office; more famous (or rather infamous) for his actions after Jefferson's first term; killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel; Accused of treason for attempting to take a part of Mexico and make his own country
Judiciary Act of 1789
a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789 in the first session of the First United States Congress establishing the U.S. federal judiciary; created the circuit and local courts
Judiciary Act of 1801
one of the last actions of the (John) Adams administration; created 6 new circuit courts and added 16 new federal judges; all were Federalists
Midnight Justices of March 3rd
the justices that were appointed during John Adams's last night in office; some letters of appointment were left on his desk; led to Marbury v. Madison
Samuel P. Chase
a justice that was a rival of Thomas Jefferson; he was almost impeached by Jefferson, but people noticed that he did not do anything wrong
Chief Justice John Marshall
a Supreme Court justice who served from 1801 - 1835; believed in strong federal government; presided over the following cases:
Marbury v. Madison
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
Fletcher v. Peck
Dartmouth v. Woodward
McCulloch v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Writ of mandamus
the name of one of the prerogative writs in the common law, and is "issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly"
Marbury v. Madison
a case presided over by John Marshall; Marbury wanted his appointment that Adams forgot to give him; Madison refused to give it; Marbury says that giving original jurisdiction was unconstitutional; needed to go through lower courts; introduces judicial review
Barbary Pirates
pirates off the coast of Northern Africa; needed to pay a tax to get through safely; small war occurred during the Thomas Jefferson Administration
Tripolitan War 1801-5
also known as the Barbary Coast War or the First Barbary War; the first of two wars fought between the United States and the North African Berber Muslim states known collectively as the Barbary States.
Treaty of San Ildefonso
secret treaty between France and Spain signed in 1800; gave the Louisiana Purchase to France
Louisiana Purchase
the purchase of a large amount of land west of the Mississippi River; for only 15 million dollars; resulted in increase of federal power; extra-constitutional purchase; able to pay for it using debt that France owed to US; Livingston and Monroe were negotiating with Talleyrand to only obtain New Orleans at first
Robert Livingston
one of the two negotiators sent to try to obtain New Orleans; known as "the chancellor"; was present during Second Continental Congress and signed Declaration; later developed first steamboat with Fulton
James Monroe
the other of the two negotiators sent to try to obtain New Orleans; became president after James Madison
Meriwether Lewis
leader of the Corps of Discovery that explored the Louisiana Purchase; aide of Jefferson
William Clark
famous for his expedition with Lewis during the Corps of Discovery that explored the Louisiana Purchase
Sacagawea
Indian woman who helped Lewis and Clark navigate the Louisiana territory
Election of 1804
Election in which Thomas Jefferson won by a landslide; George Clinton (NY Governor) became Jefferson's Vice President; Federalist party on its way out
Essex Junto
an alliance of federalists who wanted New England to secede from the union; approached Aaron Burr; said they would support him if he promised to let the secede (but he didn't really promise)
John Randolph
a planter and a Congressman from Virginia, serving in the House of Representatives (1799-1813, 1815-1817, 1819-1825, 1827-1829, 1833), the Senate (1825-1827), and also as Minister to Russia (1830). After serving as President Thomas Jefferson's spokesman in the House, he broke with Jefferson in 1803 and became the leader of the "Old Republican" or "Quids" faction of the Democratic-Republican Party who wanted to restrict the role of the federal government.
opposed the War of 1812 and the Missouri Compromise of 1820; he was active in debates about tariffs, manufacturing, and currency. With mixed feelings about slavery, he was one of the founders of the American Colonization Society in 1816, to send free blacks to a colony in Africa; had tobacco plantation
Yazoo Land Fraud
massive fraud perpetrated from 1794 to 1803 by several Georgia governors and the state legislature. They sold large tracts of land in what is now the state of Mississippi to political insiders at very low prices. Although the law enabling the sales was overturned by reformers, the land claims were challenged in the courts for years, reaching the US Supreme Court. In the landmark decision, Fletcher v. Peck (1810), the Court ruled that the contracts were binding and the state could not retroactively invalidate the earlier land sales. It was one of the first times the Court had overturned state law.
Re-export trade
when one member of a free trade agreement charges lower tariffs to external nations to win trade, and then re-exports the same product to another partner in the trade agreement, but tariff-free; occurred when French traded with US to avoid British
Impressment
the drafting of British subjects (sailors) into the Navy; before the War of 1812; the British were even taking US residents to work in the British Navy
Embargo Act
Act created in 1807 that prevented exports by sea; imports were not forbidden, but the ships had to leave empty; destroyed foreign trade and economy
Non-Intercourse Act
act created in 1809 that redefined the Embargo Act to prevent trade only with Great Britain and France
Burr Conspiracy
scandal in which Aaron Burr bought land from Spain; was in contact with Governor James Wilkinson of the Louisiana Purchase who was a spy for Spain; had the command of 75; convicted of treason; exonerated by John Marshall; the fiasco hurt Jefferson
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
a landmark case in United States law and in the history of law worldwide. It formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. It was also the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it "unconstitutional", a process called judicial review. The landmark decision helped define the "checks and balances" of the American form of government.
resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered. Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents, but the court, with John Marshall as Chief Justice, denied Marbury's petition, holding that the part of the statute upon which he based his claim, the Judiciary Act of 1789, was unconstitutional.
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case decided on March 20, 1816. It was the first case to assert ultimate Supreme Court authority over state courts in matters of federal law.
fight over land taken from loyalist during American Revolution
Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision. The first case in which the Supreme Court ruled a state law unconstitutional, the decision also helped create a growing precedent for the sanctity of legal contracts, and hinted that Native Americans did not hold title to their own lands.
John Peck had purchased land that had previously been sold under the 1795 act and later sold this land to Robert Fletcher who then brought this suit against Peck in 1803, claiming that he did not have clear title to the land when he sold it. Interestingly, this was a case of collusion. Both Fletcher and Peck were land speculators whose holdings would be secured if the Supreme Court decided that Indians did not hold original title--and so Fletcher set out to lose the case.
(test case; Yazoo Land Fraud)
Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)
a landmark United States Supreme Court case dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations. The case arose when the president of Dartmouth College was deposed by its trustees, leading to the New Hampshire legislature attempting to force the college to become a public institution and thereby place the ability to appoint trustees in the hands of the governor. The Supreme Court upheld the sanctity of the original charter of the college, which pre-dated the creation of the State. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland. Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland, the Second Bank of the United States was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law was recognized in the court's opinion as having specifically targeted the U.S. Bank. The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution, which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers, provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution.
(MD tried to tax the Second National Bank of the United States; Marshall ruled that they could not do that)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.[2] The case was argued by some of America's most admired and capable attorneys at the time. Exiled Irish patriot Thomas Addis Emmet and Thomas J. Oakley argued for Ogden, while William Wirt and Daniel Webster argued for Gibbons.
The acts of the Legislature of the State of New York granted to Robert R. Livingston and Robert Fulton the exclusive navigation of all the waters within the jurisdiction of that State, with boats moved by fire or steam, for a term of years. Livingston and Fulton granted a license to Aaron Ogden. Thomas Gibbons operated a competing steamboat service between Elizabethtown, New Jersey and New York City that had been licensed by the United States Congress in regulating the coasting trade; he also took on Cornelius Vanderbilt as his business manager.
Aaron Ogden filed a complaint in the Court of Chancery of New York asking the court to restrain Thomas Gibbons from operating on these waters. Ogden's lawyer contended that states often passed laws on issues regarding interstate matters and that states should have fully concurrent power with Congress on matters concerning interstate commerce.
Tecumseh
an Indian chief and brilliant military leader; along with his brother called "The Prophet", they were able to wage an effective war against the Americans
General William Henry Harrison
Western general who fought against the Indians in the west; defeated Tecumseh and his brother at the Battle of Tippecanoe; later became president
Battle of Tippecanoe
fought on November 7, 1811, between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and Native American warriors associated with the Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa ("The Prophet") were leaders of a confederacy of Native Americans from various tribes that opposed U.S. expansion into Native territory. As tensions and violence increased, Governor Harrison marched with an army of about 1,000 men to disperse the confederacy's headquarters at Prophetstown, near the confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers.
Macon's Bill No. 2 (Macon Act)
repealed non-intercourse act in 1810; British and French warships prohibited from US harbor; future trade determined by the goodwill of the other nation (France said that they would not seize ships, so US cut off trade with Britain; France did not intend to stop seizing ships, though)
British Orders in Council 1807
a series of legislative decrees made by the United Kingdom in the course of the wars with Napoleonic France which instituted its policy of commercial warfare; in 1807, these forbade French trade with the United Kingdom, its allies, or neutrals, and instructed the Royal Navy to blockade French and allied ports.
War of 1812
military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire; Americans resented the fact that Britain was attacking their commerce; also believed Indians were being supplied by British; wanted to gain Canada
Battle of Baltimore
combined sea/land battle fought between British and American forces in the War of 1812. It was one of the turning points of the war as American forces repulsed sea and land invasions of the busy port city of Baltimore, Maryland, and killed the commander of the invading British army forces. The defense of Baltimore's Fort McHenry in the battle inspired Francis Scott Key to compose the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner" which later became the lyrics of the national anthem of the United States of America.
Battle of Lake Champlain (Plattsburg)
ended the final invasion of the northern states during the War of 1812. A British army under Lieutenant General Sir George Prévost and a naval squadron under Captain George Downie converged on the lakeside town of Plattsburgh, which was defended by American troops under Brigadier General Alexander Macomb and ships commanded by Master Commandant Thomas Macdonough. Downie's squadron attacked shortly after dawn on 11 September 1814, but was defeated after a hard fight in which Downie was killed. Prévost then abandoned the attack by land against Macomb's defences and retreated to Canada, stating that even if Plattsburgh was captured, it could not be supplied without control of the lake.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 Peace Treaty that ended the War of 1812; "status quo antebellum" (everything remained the same as before the war)(with respect to Britain and US, but US gained much territory from Indians)
Battle of New Orleans
battle that took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814 and ratified by the United States Senate on February 16, 1815. However, official dispatches announcing the peace would not reach the combatants until late February, finally putting an end to the war The battle is widely regarded as the greatest American land victory of the war.
General Andrew Jackson
hero of New Orleans; later became President of the United States; harsh towards Indians
Congress of Vienna
meeting of leaders of European nations after the defeat of Napoleon; Talleyrand appeared there; objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. This objective resulted in the redrawing of the continent's political map, establishing the boundaries of France, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Netherlands, the states of the Rhine, the German province of Saxony, and various Italian territories, and the creation of spheres of influence through which Austria, Britain, France and Russia brokered local and regional problems; was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe, and served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations and United Nations.
Principle of Intervention
principle in which other nations had the right to send armies into other countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones
(ex: the many revolutions that happened in Mexico and South America)
Mexican Independence
an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but ended as an unlikely alliance between Mexican ex-royalists and Mexican guerrilla insurgents.
Simon Bolivar
known as "The Liberator"; responsible for fighting for independence for many South American countries; he played a key role in Hispanic-Spanish America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in Latin American history.
De-facto governments of Latin America
emerging governments in Latin America that were established immediately after revolutions that had taken place in their countries
Monroe Doctrine
policy of the United States introduced on December 2, 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring U.S. intervention; noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries; issued at a time when nearly all Latin America colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence from the Spanish Empire (except Peru and Bolivia, which became independent in 1825.) The United States, working in agreement with Britain, wanted to guarantee no European power would move in.
Hartford Convention
a meeting of unhappy Federalists from December 1814 to Januaray 1815 in the titular location; wanted to pass laws limiting President's term to 4 years, wanted to repeal 3/5 Compromise; wanted to prevent non-natives from holding office; wanted to change ability to declare war; looks like they wanted to secede; stopped meeting after news of Treaty of Ghent
Isolationism
refers to the turning back of the United States on foreign affairs (except for the Monroe Doctrine) that occurred after the end of the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars
Anglo-American Rapprochment
refers to the friendliness that occurred between the Americans and the British after the War of 1812
1815 Commercial Convention
this commercial agreement restored trade between the US and Britain after the War of 1812. It eliminated discriminatory duties imposed against both nations and opened India to US shipping, but ignored markets in the British West Indies, from which US vessels were excluded until the 1820s.
(liberalized trade between Britain and US)
Rush-Bagot Agreement
agreement between the United States and Britain ratified by the United States Senate on April 16, 1818. The agreement provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained; limited tonnage of ships to prevent war
Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty
treaty negotiated by J. Q. Adams when he was Monroe's Secretary of State; it solidified the western boundaries of the U.S.; negotiated in 1819; ratified in 1821; 42nd parallel recognized as southern boundary of US all the way to the Pacific; also received Florida in exchange for $5 million Spanish against Spanish debt
John Quincy Adams
the son of John Adams; served as Secretary of State under James Monroe; became the 6th President of the United States; negotiated Transcontinental Treaty; sometimes named for him and Onis (also James Madison's Ambassador to Russia)
54o 40'
the US Russian border after an 1824 Treaty
Sectionalism
refers to the governing of a country by parts of the country; in the US during the early 1800s, the parts were the North, the South, and the West
Depression of 1819
economic crisis that occurred after the Era of Good Feelings; occurred due to the end of the Napoleonic Wars; farmers were able to go back to tilling crops and people were able to go back to their business; US not as powerful in exports; caused crisis
Protective Tariff
a tariff often used by governments to attempt to control trade between nations to protect and encourage their noncompetitive or undeveloped local industries, businesses, unions etc. giving them time to become competitive; the one during the War of 1812 was still around, even after the war was over; caused sectional disagreements (Northern merchants and existing manufacturers and farmers who did not export were against the tariff; Southerners for the tariff until 1820s due to cotton economy; upstart manufacturers for it)
Second Bank of the U.S.
founded after the First Bank of the U.S.'s charter expired in the years after the War of 1812 to establish central regulation; it was much larger; badly managed; 1819 depression hurt it; 10/1 credit:reserve ratio by 1818; reactionary tight money policy due to depression hurt potential borrowers and existing debtors
American System (Clay)
originally called "The American Way"; was a mercantilist economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Rooted in the " American School" ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the plan "consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other 'internal improvements' to develop profitable markets for agriculture." Congressman Henry Clay was the plan's foremost proponent
Internal Improvements
refers to the creation of public works to improve transportation and communication; examples are roads, canals, railroad, highways, and internet; these were also government funded
National (Cumberland) Road
a government-funded road built during the years 1811-1818 from Cumberland to Wheeling; runs from Illinois to Potomac R.
Daniel Webster
recognized as a coming leader of the North; graduated from Dartmouth; concentrated on law; great orator; opposed Tariff of 1816; too fond of riches
Martin van Buren
from New York; served in state legislature and U.S. Senate; to him, politics was a game; never really took a position
William Crawford
a Southern leader; elected to Senate in 1807; one of the first to try building a national machine; passed a titular act in 1820 that limited the term of minor federal appointees to 4 years
John C. Calhoun
a Southern leader; went to Yale; elected to Congress in 1811; Secretary of War of Monroe; John Quincy Adams praised him; not Crawford or Clay
Henry Clay
Western leader; charming; indulged; still reasonable; challenged men to duels twice; developed "American System" in early 1820s; (known as "Great Compromiser?"); owned slaves yet disliked slavery
Thomas Hart Benton
suspicious of paper currency; another Western leader; championed farmers
Missouri Compromise
resolved the dispute about the titular state; created Maine as a free state in 1820 so that the titular state could be made a slave state; established 36o 30' as the northern boundary for slavery in the West
Missouri Enabling Act
"An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri territory to form a constitution and state government, and for the admission of such state into the Union on an equal footing with the original states, and to prohibit slavery in certain territories"
Tallmadge Amendment
a proposed amendment that said that no slavery could extend beyond the Mississippi River; passed House; defeated in Senate, where South had more of an advantage
36o 30'
the northern boundary line for the extent of slavery in the West
Election of 1824
election that took place between Calhoun, Jackson, Crawford, (JQ) Adams, and Clay; Calhoun withdrew and ran for VP; Jackson led but no one had majority; Clay swung the vote in the House to Adams; Federalists had disappeared; internal Jeffersonian rivalries
Tariff of 1824
a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry in the face of cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods. The second protective tariff of the 19th century, it was the first in which the sectional interests of the North and the South truly came into conflict; nationalism was transforming into strong sectionalism. Henry Clay advocated his three-point "American System", a philosophy that was responsible for the Tariff of 1816, the Second Bank of the United States, and a number of internal improvements. John C. Calhoun embodied the Southern position, having once favored Clay's tariffs and roads, but now opposed to both. He saw the protective tariff as a device that benefited the North at the expense of the South, which relied on foreign manufactured goods and open foreign markets for its cotton.
Electoral Vote
refers to the voting power that the Electoral College has when choosing Presidents (?)
"Favorite Sons"
politicians who were supported by their home states (?)
Corrupt Bargain
refers to Clay's assistance to John Quincy Adams in helping him get elected; some people thought that this was unfair (and corrupt)
Logrolling
vote trading by legislative members to obtain passage of actions of interest to each legislative member. (?)
Tariff of Abominations
an 1828 tariff that put high duties on raw wool, hemp, flax, fur, and liquor; New England manufacturers hated it; gave Southerners a chance to block the bill; however, Southerners voted "nay" while New Englanders grudgingly accepted it; Calhoun wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, which repudiated nationalist philosophy and called for states' rights
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
a pamphlet anonymously written by Calhoun against the Tariff of Abominations; repudiated nationalist philosophy and called for states' rights
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made the first American factory in 1790
Lowell System
a labor and production model employed in the United States, particularly in New England, during the early years of the American textile industry in the early 19th Century.
(used young, unmarried women)
Eli Whitney
invented the cotton gin in 1793; the invention revolutionized South; created cotton economy
Steamboat
a boat that runs using a steam engine; Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston built the Clermont, which is one of these; later became more luxurious, such as the General Pike
Irish Potato Famine
lack of food of the principle Irish crop in the mid-1800's; caused many Irish to go to the United States
DeWitt Clinton
nephew of George Clinton who commissioned the Erie Canal; mayor of NYC at the time
Erie Canal
a canal that stretches from Albany to Buffalo; commisioned by NYC mayor DeWitt Clinton
Colonization Movement
movement that sent freed slaves to colonies in Liberia
De jure discrimination
discrimination by law
De facto discrimination
discrimination by fact
Roger B. Taney
the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864. He was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office or sit on the Supreme Court of the United States. He was also the eleventh United States Attorney General; preceded by John Marshall
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
an 1837 case regarding the Charles River Bridge and the Warren Bridge of Boston, Massachusetts, heard by the United States Supreme Court under the leadership of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. The case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract; Charles River Bridge thought that Massachusetts broke contract by allowing Warren Bridge to be built; decision was that Warren Bridge could be built
Alexis de Tocqueville
a French political thinker and historian best known for his Democracy in America (appearing in two volumes: 1835 and 1840) and The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856).
Balance of Trade
the relationship (or balance) between how much a country imports and how much a country exports; favorable if a country exports more than it imports; unfavorable if it imports more than it exports
mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests; the style of trade used at first by the British; one country's gain was another country's loss; not very effective
bullionism
nation's policy of accumulating as much precious metal as possible while preventing its outward flow to other countries
tariffs
taxes on imported goods
Navigation Acts
laws designed to bring gold and silver into Royal Treasury; develop imperial merchant fleet; channel flow of raw materials; keep foregin goods and vessels out of colonial ports; created around 1660s
Hat, Iron, and Wool Acts
Hat and Wool: no exporting them; Iron: no making new mills in North America
Board of Trade
a group of nominated British officials that oversaw colonial laws; made sure that they did not interfere with trade or conflict with English laws; first created in 1696
John Peter Zenger
a German-American printer, publisher, editor, and journalist in New York City. He was a defendant in a landmark legal case in American jurisprudence that determined that truth was a defense against charges of libel and "laid the foundation for American press freedom." (1733)
philosophes
French Enlightenment thinkers such as Baron de Montesquieu and Voltaire
John Locke
author of Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690); Social Contract; tabula rasa; LABOR THEORY OF VALUE; ("all men are created equal")
tabula rasa
Latin phrased used by Locke to say that all men are born with empty minds; learn everything through observation; gave rise to the "all men are created equal" idea
Social Contract
intellectual device intended to explain the appropriate relationship between individuals and their governments; according to Locke, "government by the consent of the governed"
Baron de Montesquieu
author of the Spirit of the Laws (1748); divides government into independent branches: executive, legislative, and judicial branches; Separation of Powers
Unitarianism
believes in only one aspect of God; not Trinity
Joseph Priestly
discovered oxygen (defloggistated air); was a Unitarian
Benjamin Franklin
international celebrity during Age of Enlightenment; involved in Revolution; also carried out experiments with electricity; founder of American Philosophical Society; became famous in Philadelphia after running from Boston
Battle of Louisbourg (Cape Breton)
Battle during War of Austrian Succession (King George's War) in which New Englanders captured Cape Breton; was handed back eventually during peace treaty
Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle
1748 treaty that ended King George's War
Fort Duquesne
French fort during French and Indian War/Seven Years' War; Washington tried to capture it but had to retreat and form Fort Necessity; later captured by William Pitt Sr. and renamed after him
Governor Dinwiddie
governor of Virginia before French and Indian War; wanted to limit French expansion in Ohio Country, an area claimed by the Virginia Colony and in which the Ohio Company, of which he was a stockholder, had made preliminary surveys and some small settlements; sent Washington to investigate French presence and try to get them to leave
William Pitt Sr.
military genius during French and Indian War who eventually takes over war leadership when King George II lets him; Fort Duquesne falls under him
Albany Plan for Union
a plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin during War of Austrian Succession (King George's War): colonies should band together to coordinate efforts; was roundly rejected
The Great Expulsion
(1755 - 1763) forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from present day Canadian Maritime provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (an area also known as Acadie); first removed to colonies; then to France; also wound up in Louisiana
Marquis de Montcalm
Marquis who laid siege at Fort William Henry during the French and Indian War; died during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759
General James Wolfe
English Brigadier General at age 31; died during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759 after finding a "chink in [Quebec's] armor"
Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Battle for Quebec)
one of the last battles of the French and Indian War in 1759; both Montcalm and Wolfe died during this battle
Treaty of Paris (in 1763)
1763 peace treaty that ended the French and Indian War; large land gains for Britain including Canada and Eastern half of Mississippi River Valley; France lost most of their land; Spain gained Philippines and Cuba; ceded Florida to Britain
Pontiac's Rebellion
namesake rebellion by Indian chief who united a number of tribes to attack settlements ranging from New York to Virginia; occurred in 1763
Prime Minister Grenville
prime minister who passed Sugar Act in 1764
Proclamation Line of 1763
a string of forts created by the British in 1763 to prevent colonists from taking Indian land; laws also created to let only licensed traders trade with Indians
Quebec Act
(1774) Act of the Parliament of Great Britain setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec. The principal components of the act were:
The province's territory was expanded to take over part of the Indian Reserve, including much of what is now southern Ontario, plus Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota.
The oath of allegiance was replaced with one that no longer made reference to the Protestant faith.
It guaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith.
It restored the use of the French civil law for private matters while maintaining the use of the English common law for public administration, including criminal prosecution.
East Florida, West Florida, Quebec
territories gained by the English due to the Treaty of Paris (?)
Sugar Act (1764)
1764 law by Prime Minister Grenville that placed tariffs on sugar, coffee, wines, and other things imported in substantial amounts into the colonies; colonists thought that Parliament had no right to do that
Vice-Admiralty courts
military tribunals composed only of a judge, not local common-law jury, Sugar Act required that offenders be tried in these courts rather than local courts, provoking opposition from smugglers accustomed to acquittal before sympathetic local juries
James Otis
the author of The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved, in which he said that the colonies should not be taxed
The Rights of British Colonies Asserted and Proved
work by James Otis that says that colonies should not be taxed; written in 1764 due to Stamp Act
Virtual Representation
the type of representation of the colonies in which members of Parliament spoke for the interests of all British subjects rather than for the interests of only the district that elected them; did not make sense to colonists but made perfect sense to British
Stamp Act (1765)
1765 tax on printed matter; one needed to buy namesake object for legal documents; colonists were outraged
Stamp Act Congress
1765 Congress that was a precursor to the First Continental Congress; delegates of states agreed not to comply
Patrick Henry
orator at VA House of Burgesses; opposed the Stamp Act in 1765; gave "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech; later fought against Federalism
"Sons of Liberty"
radical organization formed in summer of 1765; staged protests in Boston; looting and vandalizing houses of Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson
Quartering Act
1765 Act that made the colonial legislatures pay for the army; keep barracks; seen as an indirect tax; danger of "mission creep"
John Wilkes
Member of English Parliament; In 1771 he was instrumental in obliging the government to concede the right of printers to publish verbatim accounts of parliamentary debates. In 1776 he introduced the first Bill for parliamentary reform in the British Parliament. During the American War of Independence he was a supporter of the American rebels adding further to his popularity with American Whigs. In 1780, however, he commanded militia forces which helped put down the Gordon Riots damaging his popularity with many radicals; know the part about reform
Declaratory Act
1766 Act passed on the same day as repeal as Stamp Act; reserved right to Parliament to pass any act that it wants; colonists were deemed "subordinate"
Townshend Duties (1767)
1767 duties enforced by namesake Chancellor of the Exchequer; taxes on imports, such as glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea; caused boycott of British goods; encouraged manufacturing; Enforced by Admiralty Court
Massachusetts General Court's Circular Letter (1768)
1768 letter at the Massachusetts General Court that said the Townshend Acts were "Infringements of their Natural & constitutional Rights"
John Dickinson
author of Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer; wrote that he opposed the Townshend Duties but wanted to still behave like "dutiful children" to mother country; he wanted to still maintain good relations with Britain
Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer
the work written by John Dickinson that says that he does not like the Townshend Duties but at the same time does not want to fight with Britain
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770 event in which 5 colonists were killed by British soldiers; thought to have started with snowballs from mob of colonists; bonus info: Crispus Attucks was the first killed; he was black; bonus info 2: John Adams made sure that the soldiers received a fair trial; even more bonus info: Paul Revere made "the" famous engraving of the event (watch this be extra credit on the test)
John Adams
Boston lawyer who defended the soldiers responsible for the Boston Massacre; became 1st Vice-President and 2nd President of the United States
Gaspee Incident (1772)
1772 burning of British patrol ship that was in Long Island Sound; Rhode Island citizens tried in Rhode Island Civil Courts; found not guilty
"Committees of Correspondence"
shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of American Revolution. They coordinated responses to Britain and shared their plans; by 1773 they had emerged as shadow governments, superseding the colonial legislature and royal officials; communication between colonies about what to do with Britain
Tea Act of 1773
1773 Act that put tax on tea as well as original Townshend Duty; British East India Company also operating in America instead of just India
British East India Company
company that had a monopoly on tea in the colonies due to the Tea Act of 1773; also was located in India
Boston Tea Party
December 16th, 1773 throwing of tea into the Boston Harbor; radicals who did it dressed up like Indians; tea thrown off of the Dartmouth (actual name of the ship)
Samuel Adams
man who was thought to have played a leading role in events leading up to Boston Tea Party
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
Acts passed by Britain after Boston Tea Party only against Massachusetts; Boston Port Act closed port of Boston until Tea was repaid; Administration of Justice Act removed all criminal cases from Massachusetts; Massachusetts Government Act took away charter and strengthened power of governor
First Continental Congress
group that met in Philadelphia in September 1774; Declaration of Grievances and Resolves; Boycott with enforcement (illegal not to)
Lexington and Concord
the sites of the two first battles of the Revolutionary War in 1775; "shot heard around the world" in the former; British troops went to the latter to get rebel supplies
Second Continental Congress
meeting that started to organize the Continental Army; formation of Olive Branch Petition; Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking up Arms; Letters of Marque; May 1775 in Philadelphia
George Washington
lead the Continental Army; became the First President of the United States
Olive Branch Petition
a last attempt at Britain agreed upon at the Second Continental Congress
Battle of Bunker Hill
misnamed battle in which the British tried to seize Breed's Hill in 1775; British victory, but they had many casualties
Thomas Paine
the author of Common Sense (1776)
Common Sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776; explains the folly of England trying to control Americas; unites public opinion
Declaration of Independence
a document written by Thomas Jefferson; proofread by John Adams and Ben Franklin; declared the need to break from the English Government
Thomas Jefferson
author of the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United States; known for arguments with Alexander Hamilton
Loyalists
Americans who were still loyal to the English crown; usually abused (i.e. tarred and feathered) by radicals
General Burgoyne
English army general who captured Fort Ticonderoga; his army suffered heavy losses at Saratoga due to Benedict Arnold (when he was still on colonies' side); surrendered there
Battle of Saratoga
1777 battle of the Revolutionary War in which Burgoyne suffered heavy losses; Howe chased after Washington, ruining the whole British plan; France decided to join the colonies in the effort to fight Britain after learning of the U.S. victory in this war
Sir George Rodney
British naval officer during Revolutionary War; fought Spain
Consolato del Mare
"customs of the sea" in Spanish; refers to maritime naval law codes
Armed Neutrality
refers to the alliance of European nations to protect neutral ships in the Revolutionary War
John Paul Jones
Scottish sailor who fought for the colonies; attacked ships near England; known for the phrase "I have not yet begun to fight!"
Yorktown
the site of the last battle of the American Revolution in 1781; Cornwallis famously surrendered there, after ships were cut off by French
Newburgh Conspiracy
refers to the resting of the Continental Army for two years (1781 - 1783) in namesake NY town; also members were complaining about not receiving pay; eventually did
Treaty of Paris
peace treaty that was verified in 1783 in Paris; ended American Revolution
Articles of Confederation
weak form of government ratified in 1781; precusor to Constitution; needed to be redone later
Land Ordinance of 1785
ordinance in which there were 6 x 6 mile townships; 640-acre lots; lay aside 40 acres of land for school; Federal Administration over territories
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
ordinance in which there was a procedure for creating new states; population requirements (min was around 60000); requirement of republican govt; slavery prohibited except for a few cases: Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama
Shays's Rebellion
rebellion by namesake Revolutionary War veteran over taxes and deflation; U.S. arsenal formed at Springfield, MA to break it down; rebels prevented meeting of legislature (?)
Annapolis Convention
NY, NJ, PA, DE and VA showed up at convention to try to break up commerce argument between VA and MD; hosting state did not even show up
Alexander Hamilton
New Yorker who served as Washington's Secretary of Treasury; helped pay for debts; got country to make profits again; famously killed in a duel with Aaron Burr; one of the several authors of the Federalist Papers
John Jay
first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; negotiated with England to stop them from attacking American ships and make them pay damages; also went to Spain during Revolutionary War; one of the several authors of the Federalist Papers
James Madison
"father of the Constitution"; one of the several authors of the Federalist Papers; became the 4th president of the US
Robert Morris
served as the powerful Superintendent of Finance, managing the economy of the fledgling United States. His successful administration led to the sobriquet, "Financier of the Revolution."
Constitutional Convention
convention that met for several months during the summer of 1787; created the U.S. Constitution
Virginia Plan
plan proposed by James Madison; each state should receive representation proportional to the size (population) of the state
New Jersey Plan
plan proposed by William Patterson; each state should receive equal representation
Great Compromise
compromise that divides legislative branch into House and Senate; settles disputes between NJ Plan and VA Plan
Three-Fifths Compromise
compromise in which it is stated that slaves are three-fifths of people; three-fifths of total number are added to population
Checks and Balances
system by which the three branches of US govt are equal; called by this phrase
Federalism
belief in strong central govt; "distrust of the common man"; Hamilton, John Adams, and Madison (at first) believed in this
THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES (it was in bold...)
created at the end of the Philadelphia Convention; states the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Ratification of the Constitution
year after the creation of the Constitution in which 9 out of the 13 states needed to agree to the usage of the new Constitution
Federalist Papers
a series of papers championing Federalism; written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison; all signed "Publius"
Bill of Rights
refers to the first 10 amendments created in 1789 of the US Constitution
Anti-Federalists
people who were against strong central govt; Governor Clinton (NY) published a series of papers and signed them "Cato"
Electoral College
refers to the group of electors nominated to elect the President of the US
Judiciary Act of 1789
act that creates the court system of the United States (1789)
Tariff Act of 1789
act that levied a 5% tax on imports; tonnage duties were also levied to promote domestic shipping and ship building
Washington's Cabinet
group of members that included John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox, and John Randolph
Report on the Public Credit ("Funding at Par")
reported the debt of the country; written by Alexander Hamilton
Report on the Public Revenue (Revenue Tariff, Inheritance Tax, Excise Tax)
report written by Alexander Hamilton on how to make revenue for the country; revenue tariff, inheritance tax, and excise tax
Whiskey Rebellion
rebellion in 1794 in Western PA due to excise of 1791 tax (more of a "sin" tax); Militia Law of 1792 raises 13000; go to Pittsburgh; Washington and VA Gov. Harry Lee there; rebellion evaporates
Report on Banking
report written by Alexander Hamilton on need for National Bank
Implied Powers
powers authorized by a legal document (from the Constitution) which, while not stated, are seemed to be implied by powers expressly stated. When George Washington asked Alexander Hamilton to defend the constitutionality of the First Bank of the United States against the protests of Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Attorney General Edmund Randolph, Hamilton produced what has now become the classic statement for them.
Strict Constructionist Interpretation
legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation.
Necessary and Proper Cause
(also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause[1]) is the provision in Article One of the United States Constitution, section 8, clause 18:
" The Congress shall have Power - To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer there of. "
Report on Manufactures
report by Alexander Hamilton in 1791; wanted to increase industry; protective tariffs would make prices go up
Little Turtle
Indian chief whose tribe was in Ohio; resented Westward Expansion of Americans; lead a series of very effective raids from the time period of 1791; stopped after the Battle of Fallen Timbers; proceeded to advocate to adhering to "white" ways
Battle of Fallen Timbers
last battle of Little Turtle's raids in 1794; hometown destoyed
Treaty of Greenville
treaty signed at titular fort on August 3, 1795, between a coalition of Native Americans & Frontiers men, known as the Western Confederacy, and the United States following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. It put an end to the Northwest Indian War. The United States was represented by General "Mad Anthony" Wayne, who led the victory at Fallen Timbers. In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000 (such as blankets, utensils, and domestic animals), the Native Americans turned over to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio, the future site of downtown Chicago, the Fort Detroit area, Maumee Ohio Area, and the Lower Sandusky Ohio Area.
French Revolution
1789 Revolution that started with the Storming of the Bastille
Alliance of 1778
the pact made between France and the United States that was broken later; was ignored during the French Revolution
Proclamation of Neutrality
April 1793 proclamation that declared US uninvolvement in European affairs, especially the French Revolution
Citizen Genet
Frenchman that came over to the United States to get assistance from them in the French Revolution and against England; turned down by Washington; needed political asylum
Napoleon
man who led a coup d'etat against the directory; became the Emperor of France after the French Revolution
Federalist Party
old political party whose members believed in a strong, central govt
Republicans (Democratic-Republicans)
old political party whose members did not like strong central govt; believed in power of people
Jay Treaty of 1794
treaty negotiated by namesake with England; stated that English must leave forts, must compensate American ship owners, open up Asian trade, and Americans must honor pre-Revolution debts
Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty)
treaty negotiated with Spain to allow free use of the Mississippi; also opened up New Orleans and the Southern border
Washington's Farewell Address
last statement of Washington to people of the United States; warned against parties and war in Europe
Election of 1796
election in which Thomas Pinckney, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson ran for President; John Adams and Thomas Jeffereson were President and Vice President, respectively
XYZ Affair
scandal in which French officials under Talleyrand demanded money before they could negotiate a treaty to prevent the French from sinking their ships
Undeclared Naval War of 1798 - 1800
undeclared war of the seas between France and the US
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by Congress that made it harder to become a citizen of the United States and prevented slanderous remarks against the President and U.S. officials; also gave the President deportation power; passed during Adams's administration
Naturalization Act
act that increased the amount of time necessary for immigrants to become naturalized citizens in the United States from five to fourteen years; (one of the Alien and Sedition Acts?)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional; argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution.
Paleolithic
a term used to describe a people that search for for food; have less permanent settlements; less of a hierarchy (in the New World, they were found mainly in the Carribean)
Neolithic
a term used to describe a people that domesticate food; engage in trade (in the New World, they were found mainly in Mexico; on the mainland)
Leif Erikson
late 10th century: a viking that may have settled in the New World
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese Prince who pushed exploration during his lifetime; attempted to improve and codify navigation
Treaty of Tordesillas (Line of Demarcation)
1494 Treaty that finalized the position of the line made in 1493 made by Pope Alexander VI that divided the world between Spain and Portugal
Christopher Columbus
1492: (sailed for Spanish) discovered the New World; believed he reached Indies; used Arab miles to miscalculate size of Earth
Columbian Exchange
(still going on today) the exchange of objects from the New World with the Old World
(Ferdinand) Magellan
1519: (Portuguese) man (sailing for Spain) who set for 3-year voyage to circumnavigate globe; only crew survived (he did not)
(Vasco Nunez de) Balboa
1513: (Portuguese) man who crossed Isthmus of Panama; discovered Pacific Ocean
(Hernan) Cortes
1519: (Spanish) landed an army in Mexico; overran Aztecs
(Francisco) Pizarro
1530s: (Spanish) overran Incas in Peru; POTOSI SILVER MINES
(Juan) Ponce de Leon
1513: (Spanish) made first landing on North American Mainland; explored coast of FL
(Hernando) de Soto
Between 1539 and 1543: traveled from FL to Carolinas; then to Mississippi R.
Conquistadors
Spanish men who came to the New World in search of gold and silver
Maya/Aztec/Inca
The Native Americans present in Mexico and South America
Pueblo Indians
A group of Indians who lived in the South Western United States; encountered by Spanish; forced into slavery(?)
Mestizos
A person with mixed Spanish and Indian blood; skin
St. Augustine (FL)
OLDEST EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT IN NORTH AMERICA
Santa Fe (NM)
Spanish mission? another old city?
Requerimiento
A document read to Indians by Spanish; says pretty much that if comply, they will be left alone; if not, they will be slaughtered
Smallpox
The main disease that killed the Indians
Bartolomé de Las Casas
A priest with Dominican connections; described treatment of Indians; recommended using Africans instead; later regrets that
Amerigo Vespucci
namesake of America; first to declare New World
John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)
(sailed for England) explored the coast of future New England
Verrazano
explored east coast for France
Henry Hudson
explored namesake River for Dutch while looking for Northwest Passage; also sailed for English (namesake bay?)
Jacques Cartier
claimed what would become Canada for French
Francis Drake
first man to successfully circumnavigate globe; raided South America (Spanish Settlements); explored coast of California, possibly up to Vancouver Island (also did some Spanish Armada stuff)
Northwest Passage
the (imaginary) passage through the New World that would lead directly to the Indies
Henry VII
King of England who sent John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to discover the Northwest Passage in 1497
Protestant Reformation
(kinda began in 1517): the splitting off from the Catholic Church
Calvinism
The type of Protestantism that eventually takes hold; named after Jean Calvin
Henry VIII
King of England who breaks from the Catholic church (1534)
Queen Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry VIII; official founder of Anglican Church (w/English Book of Common Prayer of her brother); combined Protestant and Catholic beliefs; sent Raleigh to colonize Roanoke in 1584
Church of England (Anglican Church)
church formed by Elizabeth I; mixed Catholic and Protestant beliefs
Spanish Armada
A Spanish naval force sent to attack England in 1588; utterly destroyed
Richard Hakluyt
An English writer who advocated colonizing North America in 1584
Sir Walter Raleigh
the man who Elizabeth sent to set up the Roanoke colony in 1584
Roanoke Colony
the failed English settlement; famously left the word "Croatoan" on a tree; no one knows what happened to its people
joint-stock company
a type of corporation or partnership involving two or more individuals that own shares of stock in the company. (ex: East India Company); colonizers and explorers
London (Virginia) Company
a joint-stock company that colonized from the Hudson River down(?)
Jamestown
1607: first successful English settlement in the New World; in Virginia
Captain John Smith
Captain of English Navy who lead Jamestown; made the "you don't work, you don't eat" rule
Pocahontas
Indian princess (daughter of Powhatan) who married John Rolfe
Powhatan
namesake chief of a tribe of Indians; offered food to Jamestown settlers
Powhatan War
started in 1618 when Powhatan died; brother took over; not as tolerant; result: Powhatan confederacy destroyed
John Rolfe
Jamestown colonist who brought tobacco to Jamestown; made the colony prosper
Separatists
people who went to the New World to break away from the Anglican Church
Pilgrims
Separatists who ended up at Plymouth colony
Plymouth (Virginia) Company
a joint-stock company that founded a namesake colony in 1619-1620
Plymouth Colony
Colony founded by Separatists in 1620; the Separatists also wrote the Mayflower Compact
William Bradford
the first governor of the Plymouth Colony (1620)
Mayflower Compact
early precursor of US Constitution made around 1619-1620 on the ship that took the Separatists to the New World
Massasoit
leader of Wampanoag confederacy; Squanto was his "underling"
Puritans
people who sought to purify the Anglican Church; left for Mass. in 1629 and during Great Migration of 1630s
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629: colony founded by Puritans who were in search of religious freedom
John Winthrop
1629: first governor of Massachusetts; gave "city upon a hill" sermon
"City on a Hill"
the famous words said by Winthrop in his titular sermon; "everyone is watching"
King's Peace
1630s: the time when Charles I dismisses Parliament; tries to rule without it
Great Migration
1630s migration of many Puritans to New World mainly due to Charles I
Pequot War of 1637
1637: a war between the Pequots and New England settlers for land; also for interfering with fur trade w/Dutch; result: most of Pequot destroyed
Mystic River Massacre
a massacre that took place in 1637 as part of the Pequot War in which an entire city of Pequot Indians were killed by English, Narraganset, and Mohegan allies near the namesake river
Narraganset Indians
one Indian tribe who aided the English in the Mystic River Massacre
King Philip's War
1675 - 1676: New England confederation vs Native American confederation; pretty much ends the wars against Indians (except for when they ally with other countries); named after Metacomet who led Indian confederation
Roger Williams
A radical Puritan who created the Rhode Island colony in 1636
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan woman who went to the Rhode Island colony in 1637 after banishment; help found colony
Thomas Hooker
the main founder of the Connecticut colony in 1636; also inspired "The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut"
proprietary colonies
plots of land (in the New World) over which people have free reign (ex: PA; MD)
Lord Baltimore (George Calvert)
the first proprietor of the Maryland colony (1629); charter given to son in 1633
English Civil War
1642 - 1649: Cavaliers vs Roundheads in England; Puritan victory, Charles I beheaded, Cromwell and Puritans in charge of Commonwealth
Charles II
English king who came onto the throne during the Restoration of 1660
William Penn
first proprietor of Pennsylvania in 1681
Quakers
a group of Christians who found religious freedom in Pennsylvania; recognize no authority except God's
Duke of York (James II)
claimed NY, NJ, and DE from Dutch in 1664
James II
king who was openly Catholic; overthrown during the Glorious Revolution of 1688
Glorious Revolution
1688: a relatively non-violent revolution that occurred in England; James II was overthrown; William III of Orange and Mary II put on the throne
Leisler's Rebellion
1689: rebellion by Jacob Leisler who took over NY govt for less than two years
William and Mary
College named for the king and queen at that time found in the South (1693)
Toleration Act (of 1689)
1689: allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e. Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics.
House of Burgesses
form of government in Virginia colony formed in 1619 at Jamestown; Bacon was technically elected, but Berkeley arrested him
St. Lawrence and Montreal
areas claimed by the French (?)
Iroquois-French Wars
1642-1969: wars between French and Dutch over fur trade; French allied with Huron; Dutch allied with Iroquois; result: Huron largely destroyed; French victorious; Iroquois ally with English after Dutch leave
Grand Banks
group of underwater plateaus southeast of Newfoundland on the North American continental shelf. These areas are relatively shallow, ranging from 80 to 330 feet (24-100 m) in depth.
Hudson Bay
large body of saltwater in northeastern Canada; named after discoverer
Hudson River
315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south through eastern New York; discoverer thought that it was part of the ocean
Peter Minuit
man who purchased the island of Manhattan from Native Americans on May 24, 1626
New Netherlands
area of North America occupied by the Dutch; included NY, NJ, DE, and Conn.
Chesapeake Settlements
English settlements located around the namesake bay; refers to the southern colonies
Tidewater
refers to the "Northern Southern colonies" (VA and MD)
Low Country
refers to the "Southern Southern colonies" (Carolinas; eventually Georgia)
Headright system
system in which someone had a "right" to a certain amount of land (usually 50 acres) per "head" that came to South
Quitrent
a tax which provided a way for the proprietors to derive income from their colonies (ex: a shilling for 50 acres)
Indentured servitude
servitude in which someone must work for someone else for a certain amount of time (specified in a contract); eventually that person is released and usually given an amount of land (around 50 acres)
Squatters' rights
rights given to people occupying currently unoccupied space.
Royal African Company
a company that made African slaves readily available for the North American colonies
Triangular trade
a trade-cycle involving three stops; most notable one: molasses from the Caribbean to New England; rum made from the molasses and sold for slaves in Africa; slaves sold for molasses in Caribbean; repeat
Middle Passage
refers to the part of the triangular trade in which people brought slaves from Africa to the New World
Slave Codes
laws which each US state, or colony, enacted which defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. Such codes gave slave-owners absolute power over their human property.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676: (remember the date) namesake man appealed to Berkeley for protection of freed indentured servants from Indians; Berkeley said "no"; killed peaceful Indians and marched on and burnt down Jamestown; result: namesake killed in process; Berkeley taken back to England
William Berkeley
governor of Jamestown in 1676 (during Bacon's Rebellion)
Culpepper's Rebellion
1677 - 1679: Carolina dispute over duties on goods from England; namesake leads successful rebellion against Proprietary government and sets up self-rule with him as Governor.; result: taken back to England; found NOT GUILTY; new government created
Carolina
place where Culpepper's rebellion took place (hint: in Chesapeake colonies)(low country)
Scots-Irish
people who settled in PA and VA
Indigo and Rice
cash crops of South Carolina
"Peculiar Institution"
a euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South.
Paxton Boys Uprising
uprising by namesake boys in 1763 in PA; similar to Bacon's Rebellion; Ben Franklin negotiated
War of the Regulation
a North Carolina uprising, lasting from approximately 1760 to 1771, in which citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia in 1733; wanted it to be a debtors' colony
New England Colonies
refers to NH, RI, Conn., and Mass. (Maine not yet formed)
Nuclear family
a family group consisting of a father and mother and their children, all exclusively sharing living quarters.
Covenant
bond between God and person(?); membership of church (?)
Halfway covenant
provided halfway membership (of church) for any applicant not known to be a sinner who was willing to accept the provisions of a church covenant
Town meeting
a meeting of the town (practiced more often in New England colonies)
Harvard College
founded in 1636; receives charter in 1650; oldest education in America; created literacy in New England; named after person who donated money and his library in his will
Cotton Mather
a socially and politically influential New England Puritan minister, prolific author and pamphleteer; he is often remembered for his role in the Salem witch trials.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
named after place and who were put on trial; began with Tituba and three other girls; Tituba put on trial; many people sentenced to death; accused of communing with the devil
Dominion of New England
1684 - 1689: grouping of all New England colonies into one big colony controlled by England; Edmund Andros was governor
Middle Colonies
refers to PA, NY, NJ, and DE
John Peter Zenger
a German-American printer, publisher, editor, and journalist in New York City. He was a defendant in a landmark legal case in American jurisprudence that determined that truth was a defense against charges of libel and "laid the foundation for American press freedom." (1733)
Pennsylvania Dutch
erroneously named people who came from Germany and reside in PA; most are now Amish
Navigation Acts
laws designed to bring gold and silver into Royal Treasury; develop imperial merchant fleet; channel flow of raw materials; keep foreign goods and vessels out of colonial ports
Hat, Iron, and Wool Acts
Hat and Wool: no exporting them; Iron: no making new mills in North America
Balance of trade
occurs when a country imports as much as they export
Great Awakening
mid 18th century America: considered first national event; democritization of religion;destroyed social distinctions; outbreak of religious fervor; tempered after 1743
Old and New Lights
old: Harvard and Yale; refers to the fact that they were not affected by Great Awakening; new: Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth; refers to the fact that they were created during Great Awakening
Johnathan Edwards
preacher famous for his Sinner in the Hands of an Angry God sermon; fired after one of his followers committed suicide
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
famous sermon delivered by Johnathan Edwards
Enlightenment
refers to the time during the mid-18th century when there was an outbreak of scientific discoveries and philosophical thought
John Locke
author of Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690); Social Contract; tabula rasa; LABOR THEORY OF VALUE; ("all men are created equal")
Social Contract
intellectual device intended to explain the appropriate relationship between individuals and their governments; according to Locke, "government by the consent of the governed"
Baron de Montesquieu
author of the Spirit of the Laws (1748); divides government into independent branches: executive, legislative, and judicial branches; Separation of Powers
Unitarianism
believes in only one aspect of God; not Trinity
Joseph Priestly
discovered oxygen (defloggistated air); was a unitarian
Benjamin Franklin
international celebrity during Age of Enlightenment; involved in Revolution; also carried out experiments with electricity; founder of American Philosophical Society; became famous in Philadelphia after running from Boston
Five Nations
refers to the Iroquois Confederacy
King William's War
1689 - 1697: War between British and French; French captured Schenectady; Massachusetts colonists captureed Port Royal, Nova Scotia
Treaty of Ryswick
1697 treaty that ended King William's War
Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Succession)
1702 - 1713: Britain vs. France and Spain; (Britain and Scotland unite); Massachusetts colonists capture CAPE BRETON; forced to give it back; Deerfield Massacre; Asiento system put into effect
Peace of Utrecht
1713 peace treaty that ended Queen Anne's War
King George's War (War of Austrian Succession)
1744 - 1748: namesake (II) is German; leads troops both English and German into war; Cape Breton again; colonial resentment building; Albany Plan (proposed by Benjamin Franklin): colonies should band together to coordinate efforts; was roundly rejected
coureurs de bois
independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsmen who traveled in New France and the interior of North America.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
1748 treaty that ended King George's War