Terms in this set (112)
individual political opinions depends on 3 factors:
1) individual's underlying preferences
2) his or her beliefs about the current circumstances and the consequences of different courses of action
3) the choices presented
What will most likely reach the best decision - a majority of a jury of 12 people or a single individual?
a majority of a jury of 12
the aggregation of many citizen's views and interests
this is one of the most widely followed indicators of public support for the government -
the approval rating of the president
the two most important indicators of individuals' general political orientations are -
party identification and ideology
when is the census conducted?
every 10 years
the products of his or her personality, social characteristics, and interests; they mirror who a person is, what she wants, and the manner in which she is embedded in a family and community, and the broader economy and society
an individual's opinion
this is the single largest employer in the united states
the induction of individuals into the political culture; the process of learning the underlying beliefs and values on which the political system is based
the social institutions, including families and schools, that help shape individuals' basic political beliefs and values
agents of socialization
four of the most important agents of socialization that foster differences in political perspectives:
2) membership in social groups
4) prevailing political conditions
a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between men and women
what is the "spiral of silence?"
people who are likely to gradually shift their own views to conform to those of their group
this person generally supports political and social reform; extensive government intervention in the economy; the expansion of federal social services; more vigorous efforts on behalf of the poor, minorities, and women; and greater concern for consumers and the environment; they generally support abortion rights and oppose state involvement with religious institutions and religious expression
this person generally supports the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political formulas and economic arrangements; many of these people also believe that a large and powerful government poses a threat to citizens' freedoms; many oppose abortion and support school prayer;
three forces play especially important roles in shaping opinion -
2) private groups
3) news media
this cues people to think about some issues rather than others; it makes some considerations more salient than others
a process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor
this refers to the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted
what are viewed as twin evils?
priming vs. framing
the scientific instrument for measuring public opinion
a small group selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population
a method used by pollsters to select a representative sample in which every individual in the population has an equal probability of being selected as a respondent
a poll in which respondents are selected at random from a list of ten-digit telephone numbers, with every effort made to avoid bias in the construction of the sample
random digit dialing
a polling error in which the sample in not representative of the population being studied, so that some opinions are over- or under - represented
what is the typical size of sample ranges of citizens in the US?
a polling error that arises on account of the small size of the sample
sampling error (or margin of error)
the failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions
a polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent's opinion
an attitude or view that is especially important to the individual holding it
the impression conveyed by polls that something is important to the public when it actually is not
illusion of salience
a shift in electoral support to the candidate whom public opinion polls report as the front-runner
elections determine who will ________
the problem of incomplete information - of choosing alternatives, without fully knowing the details of available options
not knowing all aspects of the actions taken by an agent (nominally on behalf of the principal but potentially at the principals' expense)
this branch determines the operations of elections (who is allowed to vote, how votes are cast and counted, and how we determine who wins office)
four features of the US election laws deserve particular emphasis:
1) all citizens 18 or older can vote
2) how (they use a form of the ballot called the "Australian ballot"
3) where (through single-member districts that have equal populations)
4) what (candidate with most votes wins
what is "convenience voting?"
voting by mail or early at a polling center or town hall
Were blacks allowed to vote before the civil war?
What were the Jim Crow laws?
the laws established literacy tests, poll taxes, and all-white primaries
when did congress lower the voting age from 21 to 18, and what amendment?
1971, 26th amendment
this is a ratio comparing the number of people who voted to some baseline population
this bill was to ease voter registration by allowing individuals to register when they applied for driver's licenses, as well as in public-assistance and military-recruitment offices
"motor voter" bill
these people enable local election offices to format ballots, set up precincts, and determine which voters should vote in which place
to avoid confusion, there is only ___ ballot constellation per precinct
which states allow2 same-day registration (or election day registration)"?
Minnesota and Wisconsin
why did the secret ballot become widespread at the end of the nineteenth century?
in response to such corrupt practices, like vote buying and voter intimidation
this is the tendency of the pack to follow particular individuals or to reflect a public conversation rather than each individual's private information
when will you perhaps engage in groupthink?
if you attend a caucus or a town hall meeting
an electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot; introduced at the end of the eighteenth century, this replaced the partisan ballot and facilitated split-ticket voting
where some voters select candidates from different parties for different offices
an electorate that is allowed to elect only one representative from each district - the typical method of representation in the united states
the presidential electors from each state who meet in their respective state capitals after the population to cast ballots for president and vice president
unequal representation violated which amendment's guarantee of equal protection under the law? there were lots of inequalities regarding voting, like LA and Alpine County
the fourteenth amendment
what are the two great 4exceptions to the requirements of single-member districts with equal populations?
the united states senate and the electoral college
this deal created the US senate to balance representation of people with representation of places
the Connecticut compromise
what happens when there is a tie in the election?
the parties win equal shares of the vote, and for every 1 percent of the vote above 50 percent a party gains an additional 2 percent of the seats
what are majority-minority districts?
they must contain majorities of black or hispanic people (the voting act of 1982 was amended to provide for the creation of legislative districts with sufficient numbers of black and hispanic voters to elect house members representative of those groups)
responsibility for drawing new district boundaries rests, in most states, with ____ and _____
state legislatures and governors (the legislatures must pass and the governors must sign a law defining new US house and state legislative districts)
the apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give unfair advantage to one political party
a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election, but not necessarily a majority of the votes cast
this is a plurality system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins all the delegates: winner takes all
the electoral college
a type of electoral system in which, to win a seat in a representative body, a candidate must receive a majority (50 percent plus 1) of all the votes cast in the relevant district
a multiple-member-district system that allows each political party representation in proportion to its percentage of the vote (rarely used in the US)
proportional representation (PR)
law of politics, stating that plurality-rule electoral systems will tend to have two political parties
a measure proposed by a legislature that is referred to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection (not an election); this is an institution of direct democracy; it allows voters to govern directly without intervention by government officials
referendum (24 states permit this)
a process by which citizens may petition to place a policy proposal on the ballot for public vote; must have a minimum amount of signatures
initiative (24 states permit this)
the removal of a public official by popular vote; allows voters to remove governors and other state officials from office before the expiration of their term (does not include members of congress and president)
begins with a petition campaign;
recall (exists in 18 states)
an individual's attachment to a particular political party, which might be based on issues or ideology, past experience, or up-bringing
3 distinct views of party identification:
1) its a psychological attachment that individuals hold
2) it reflects underlying ideologies of voters and policy positions of parties
3) reflects experiences with political leaders and representatives, especially the presidents from each of the parties
an individual's propensity to select candidate4s or parties based on the extent to which the individual agrees with one candidate more than others on specific issues
voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
voting based on the past performance of a candidate
an issue for which a range of possible options or policies can be ordered, say, from liberal to conservative or from most expensive to least expensive
a proposition predicting that when policy options can be arrayed along a single dimension, majority rule will pick the policy most preferred by the voter whose ideal policy is to the left of half of the voters and to the right of exactly half of the voters; this says that the candidate whose policy position is closed to the ideal policy of the median voter will defeat the other candidate in a majority contest
an issue or aspect of a choice for which all voters prefer a higher value, in contrast to a spatial issue; for example, voters prefer their politicians to be honest, and honesty is a ____ issue
3 most important factors shaping voting decisions -
3) candidate characteristics
when are general elections for federal offices?
the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November
a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns
political action committee (PAC)
an organized group that attempts to influence government by electing its members to office
why do political parties organize?
1) the problem of collective action
2) collective choice of policy
3) fellow politicians seek success simultaneously for the organization and for themselves
what functions do parties perform?
1) recruiting candidates
2) nominating candidates
3) getting out the vote
4) facilitating mass electoral choice
5) influencing national government
the process by which political parties select their candidates for election to public office
a primary election in which voters can participate in the nomination of only those candidates of the party in which they have been enrolled for a period of time before primary day
a primary election in which voters can choose on the day of the primary which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election
the party that holds the majority of legislative seats in either the House or the Senate
an individual voter's psychological ties to one party or another
a partisan who contributes time, energy, and effort to support a party and its candidates
a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men
the organization of the parties, the balance of power between and within party coalitions, the parties' social and institutional bases, and the issues and policies around which party competition is organized
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a local party organization that controlled local politics through patronage and the nomination process
a party that organizes to compete against the two major American political parties
who drew the most electoral votes ever polled by a third-party candidate
george wallace, 1948 progressive party
an electorate that is allowed to elect only one representative from each district - the typical method of representation in the US
an electorate that selects several candidates at large from an entire district, with each voter given the number of votes equivalent to the number of seats to be filled
a normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
an organized group of individuals or organizations that makes policy-related appeals to government; sometimes referred to as lobbies
these focus on winning elections, while the others focus on influencing elected officials
PACs; interest groups
Madison's theory -
a good constitution encourages multitude of interests so that no single interest can ever tyrannize the others
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation
special newsletters, periodicals, training programs, conferences, and other information provided to members of groups to entice others to join
special goods, services, or money provided to members of groups to entice others to join
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize friendship, networking, and consciousness-raising
selective benefits of group membership that emphasize the purpose and accomplishments of the group
an attempt by a group to influence the policy process through persuasion of government officials
the act of launching a media campaign to build popular support
What are the 3 types of media?
1) broadcast media
2) print media
3) the internet
the requirement that broadcasters provide candidates for the same political office an equal opportunity to communicate their messages to the public
equal time rule
an FCC regulation giving individuals the right to have the opportunity to respond to personal attacks made on a radio or TV broadcast
right of rebuttal
an FCC requirement that broadcasters who air programs on controversial issues provide time for opposing views
an effort by a government agency to block the publication of material it deems libelous or harmful in some other way; censorship. in the united states, the courts forbid prior restraint except under the most extraordinary circumstances
what affects news coverage?
2) news sources
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