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207 terms

HISTORY VOCAB - WW1

From 164 = Germany stuff
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dominated
controlled or ruled by superior authority or power
colonial
a resident of a colony
Militarization (the arms race)
building up the nation's army and navy and improving its equipment
Alliances
A union or association formed for mutual benefit; agreements made between countries to help each other if war broke out (the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente)
Imperialism
The desire to conquer colonies; extending your countries' rule over another countries
Nationalism
patriotism and the belief that your country is better than others. This made nations assertive and aggressive.
patriotism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
assertive
confidently aggressive
aggressive
having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends
resentment
a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will
Gavrilo Princip
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Sarajevo, Bosnia
World War I broke out here when Austro-Hungarian archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
modifications
slight changes
General Von Schlieffen
He created the Schlieffen plan--a two front war with France and Russia. He was a German general.
Netherlands
a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea
Belgium
a monarchy in northwestern Europe
General Von Moltke
The general that put the Schlieffen Plan into action
alterations
modifications made to a pattern or garment for a better fit
corps
an army unit usually consisting of two or more divisions
assumptions
a belief that something is true without proof
miscalculations
an act of miscalculating; an error or misjudgment
mobilize
cause to move around
counter-productive
tending to hinder the achievement of a goal
Battle of Tannenburg
where Russia was defeated on August 30th by the Germans.
obligation
a legal agreement specifying a payment or action and the penalty for failure to comply
1839 Treaty of London
Treaty that made Britain protect Belgium if they were attacked upon
cavalry
troops trained to fight on horseback
foot soldiers
Infantry
artillery
an army unit that uses big guns
swiftly
very quickly
Battle of Liège
the first battle of the war, from August 5-16, 1914 between Germany & Belgium. Germany won but suffered many losses
Big Bretha
A big German Artillery gun
British Expeditionary Forces (BEFs)
-name of British ground forces
-had plans for swift intervention if Germans were to attack on Belgium and France
-British navy was better prepared
Plan 17
A French attack aimed to regain land loss during the Franco-Prussian war in 1880. There were heavy losses on the French side and was then abandoned.
Battle of Mons
British held up the Germans troops for 48 hours before falling into a retreat all the way to the outskirts of Paris for 2 weeks until the start of the Battle at the Marne
ammunition
projectiles to be fired from a gun
First Battle of the Marne
On September 6, The French attacked a gap in the German line at the Battle of the Marne. For three days, France threw everything into the attack. Finally, the Germans fell back. Paris and France had been miraculously saved.
River Aisne
A river where the French and British troops pushed the Germany army to
strategic
highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war
war of movement
...
trench warfare
war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
war of attrition
A war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
General Von Falkenhayn
Moltke's successor, he sought success by an attack on the French stronghold of Verdun.
outflank
go around the flank of (an opposing army)
supplied
gave what is need or wanted
equipment
an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service
reinforcements
extra people such as soldiers or police sent to provide help
casualties
people who are killed, wounded, captured, or missing in a war
decisive
characterized by decision and firmness
First Battle of Ypres
(October and November of 1914)
Allied troops ended all hopes of a German advance, leading to a stalemate and the beginning of trench warfare.
Race to the Sea
The name given to a period of World War I when, on the Western Front, the two sides were still engaged in mobile warfare. With the German advance stalled at the First Battle of the Marne, the opponents continually attempted to outflank each other through north-eastern France. This process brought the forces back to positions prepared under British Admiralty guidance, on the North Sea coast in Western Belgium. The nature of operations then changed to trench warfare, which is very large scale siege warfare. This produced a continuous front line of trench fortifications more than two hundred miles long, which by the following Spring extended from the coast to the Swiss border.
hygienic
tending to promote or preserve health
decimated
destroyed in large percentage
artillery bombardment
artillery bombardment
sheltered
protected from danger or bad weather
annihilated
destroyed completely, wipe out
belts of barbed wire
barbed wire
artillery
artillery
Deadlock
A situation, typically one involving opposing parties, in which no progress can be made
Stalemate
Any position or situation in which no action or progress can be taken or made
shrapnel
Fragments of a bomb, shell, or other object thrown out by an explosion
Bayonet
The blade fixed on to the end of a rifle (specialty of British)
Britain
a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles
Belgium
a monarchy in northwestern Europe
concealed
concealed or hidden on any grounds for any motive
camouflage
the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance
eradicate
kill in large numbers
corpses
dead bodies
accurate
conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy
psychological
mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature
moderate
not extreme
morale
the spirit of a group that makes the members want the group to succeed
maneuverable
...
unreliable
not worthy of reliance or trust
preceded
to come before
Creeping Barrage
the standard means of deploying artillery to support an infantry attack. The infantry would follow the advancing artillery as close as possible. this was found to be way more effective than weeks of preliminary bombardment
munitions
military supplies
inexhaustible
incapable of being entirely consumed or used up
threatened
(of flora or fauna) likely in the near future to become endangered
inaccessible
capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all
Bulgaria
a republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe
Greece
a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula
Winston Churchill
First Lord of the Admiralty, Politician in charge of the Navy
Dardanelles
the strait between the Aegean and the Sea of Marmara that separates European Turkey from Asian Turkey
erroneous
incorrect, containing mistakes
obsolete
no longer in use
Constantinople
the largest city and former capital of Turkey
navel bombardment
Artillery bombardment using the navy's guns
Bosporus
a strait connecting the Mediterranean and the Black Sea
auspicious
attended by favorable circumstances
hesitation
the act of pausing uncertainly
indecision
the trait of irresolution
confusion
a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another
moderate slopes
listen
steep ridges
listen
Amphibious landings
the way of getting soldiers from the sea to the land, landing forces from the sea
dysentery
an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
blizzard
A heavy snowstorm with strong winds
sanitation
the state of being clean and conducive to health
evacuation
the act of evacuating
humiliation
depriving one of self-esteem
Battle of the Somme
battle in World War I (1916)
divert
send on a course or in a direction different from the planned or intended one
breakthrough
a penetration of a barrier such as an enemy's defense
adjacent
near or close to but not necessarily touching
preoccupied
having or showing excessive or compulsive concern with something
over-whelming
so strong as to be irresistible, very intense
concrete
a strong hard building material composed of sand and gravel and cement and water
defence
protection from harm
laden
burdened psychologically or mentally
murderous
capable of or conducive to bloodshed
suffered
To feel pain or distress; sustain loss, injury, harm, or punishment
Pal Battalions
listen
civilian
a nonmilitary citizen
volunteers
people who offer to do things by choice and often without pay
tactical
having to do with tactics especially naval or military tactics; marked tactics or deft maneuvering
inevitable
an unavoidable event
Hindenburg Line
line of trench systems established in 1917 that were the last and strongest of the German army's defence on the Western Front
strategic
highly important to or an integral part of a strategy or plan of action especially in war
contributed
give, give to be published, had a part in
Battle of Passchendaele
was one of the worst slaughters of World War I. During the summer and fall of 1917, Allied troops fought through endless rains across fields of deep mud, to capture the small town of Passchendaele in Belgium.
3rd battle of Ypres
500,000 people wounded or dead
one of the first battles the americans participated in
theory of Attrition
listen
imminent
about to happen
fortified
secured with bastions or fortifications
churned
stirred or shook greatly
quagmire
a soft wet area of low-lying land that sinks underfoot
immobilized
unable to move
weaponry
weapons considered collectively
aerial reconnaissance
looking over battlefields from the sky
inexperienced
lacking practical experience or training
capacity
the maximum production possible
overconfident
marked by excessive confidence
underestimating
placing at too low a value
Inflexible
literal meanings
The Battle of Heligoland Bight
(28 August 1914)
The Battle at Dogger Bank
(24th JAN 1915)
The Battle of Jutland
(31 MAY - 1 JUN 1916)
armaments
The weapons and supplies of war with which a military unit is equipped
dominance
superior development of one side of the body
essential
absolutely necessary
statistics
a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters
RMS Lusitania
the Germans torpedoed and sunk this passenger ship off the coast of Ireland drawing the United States into WWI
Dover Barrage
listen
British Blockade
an effort to restrict the maritime supply of raw materials and foodstuffs
demoralized
made less hopeful or enthusiastic
explosives
things that can blow up or explode
fertilizers
chemicals that promote plant growth
Zimmermann Telegram
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
superiority
the quality of being superior
desperate
a person who is frightened and in need of help
Ludendorff/ Spring offensives
a series of German attacks along the Western Front during World War I, which marked the deepest advances by either side since 1914. The German authorities had realised that their only remaining chance of victory was to defeat the Allies before the overwhelming human and matériel resources of the United States could be deployed.
Hundred Days Offensive
final offensive of WWI, Aug-Nov 1918, western front, prominent Canadian participation, final retreat of the Germans
Kaiser Wilheim II
leader of German in WWI
armistice
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
provoked
incited, especially deliberately, to anger
coordination
the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation
communication
something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups
Learning Curve
firmer grasp of the necessary inter-relationship between artillery and infantry
confine
place limits on (extent or access)
malnutrition
a state of poor nutrition
traumatized
bodily or mental injury
influenza
viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.
bankrupt
someone who has insufficient assets to cover their debts
abdicated
given up responsibility for
self-inflicted
listen
Freikorps
Free Corps, the paramilitary units composed of ex-soldiers which sprang up throughout Germany after 1918. This group of former soldiers helped the nationalist right to deal with the communist threat in the immediate aftermath of the First World War
rebellion
organized opposition to authority
intolerable
completely unacceptable
particular
a fact about some part (as opposed to general)
ample
affording an abundant supply
hijacked
seized a vehicle by force
Rentenmark
This currency was put in place in the Weimar Republic to replace the deutschemark (1:1000 value) in order to curb inflation.
Deutschemark
...
Post-Modernist Art
...
Paul Klee
Swiss painter influenced by Kandinsky (1879-1940)
George Grosz
Drafted into German Army, but unfit for service. Tried to commit suicide. Artist, [1900-1925] Part of New Objectivity. Communist who went to America. Influenced by Expressionism and Dada; made critical paintings. (1) Pillars of Society, (2) Montage Man John Heartfield.
Otto Dix
German artist turned machine gunner. took Nietzsche and the Bible with him to war. went to experience the worst possible experience. made grotesque and shocking art (even before the war). painted to rid himself of the war.
Thomas Mann
German writer concerned about the role of the artist in bourgeois society (1875-1955)
Erich Maria
Writer of "All Quiet on the Western Front"
Marlene Dietrich
United States film actress (born in Germany) who made many films with Josef von Sternberg and later was a successful cabaret star (1901-1992)
Walter Gropius
United States architect (born in Germany) and founder of the Bauhaus school (1883-1969)
Fritz Lang
"Metropolis" 1927
German expressionist (only one left in Germany '27)
political extremism
listen
prominent
conspicuous in position or importance
critic
someone who frequently finds fault or makes harsh and unfair judgments
Locarno Pact 1925
all European nations, especially Germany, promised to settle disputes peacefully (without combat)
frontiers
boundaries
Young Plan 1929
Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr.
Dawes Plan 1924
Negotiated by Charles Dawes, it rescheduled German reparations payments and opened the way for further American private loans to Germay
Gustav Stresemann
German Foreign Minister who assumed leadership of government and got the French to move out of the Ruhr
swastika
the official emblem of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich
Ernst Röhm
Head of the "Storm Troopers"; loyal aid to Hitler; killed by Hitler
Mussolini
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
spontaneous
produced without being planted or without human labor
amateurish
lacking professional skill or expertise
exploited
developed or used to greatest advantage
Heinrich Himmler
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
Reinhard Heydrich
Gestapo deputy chief who set out to gain the final solution to the Jewish Question.
foreign
relating to or originating in or characteristic of another place or part of the world
prejudice
a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation
consensus
agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole
suspicious
openly distrustful and unwilling to confide
monstrous
abnormally large
Gallipoli
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.