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Educational Psychology

Executive Control Process

Processes such as selective attention, rehearsal, elaboration, and organization that influence encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in memory


Knowledge about our own thinking processes

Learning Strategies

General plans for approaching learning tasks

Learning Tactics

Specific techniques for learning, such as using mnemonics or outlining a passage

Concept Map

A drawing that charts the relationships among ideas


Tools for concept mapping developing by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition that are connected to many knowledge maps and other resources on the Internet


A five-step reading strategy: Review headings; Examine boldface words; Ask "what do I expect to learn?"; Do it- Read; Summarize in your own words


A strategy that can be used in reading literature: Characters, Aim or story, Problem, Solution


A strategy to guide reading and inquiry: Before-what do I already know? What do I want to know? After-What have I learned?

Production Deficiency

Students learn problem-solving strategies, but do not apply them when they could or should


Any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find a means to do so

Problem Solving

Creating new solutions for problems

Schema-Driven Problem Solving

Recognizing a problem as a "disguised" version of an old problem for which one already has a solution


Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem; prescription for soltuions


General strategy used in attempting to solve problems

Means-Ends Analysis

Heuristic in which a goal is divided into subgoals

Working-Backwards Strategy

Heuristic in which one starts with the goal and moves backward to solve the problem

Analogical Thinking

Heuristic in which one limits the search for solutions to situations that are similar to the one at hand


Putting your problem-solving plan and its logic into words

Functional Fixedness

Inability to use objects or tools in a new way

Response Set

Rigidity; tendency to respond in the most familiar way

Representativeness Heuristic

Judging the likelihood of an event based on how well the events match your prototypes - what you think is representative of the category

Availability Heuristic

Judging the likeliood of an event based on what is available in your memory, assuming those easily remembered events are common

Belief Perseverance

The tendency to hold on the beliefs, even in the face of contradictory evidence

Confirmation Bias

Seeking information that confirms our choices and beliefs, while dis-confirming evidence


Sudden realization of a solution


Imaginative, original thinking or problem solving


Conceiving of a problem in a new or different way

Divergent Thinking

Coming up with many possible solutions

Convergent Thinking

Narrowing possibilities to a single answer


Generating ideas without stopping to evaluate them

Stand-Alone Thinking Skills Programs

Programs that teach thinking skills directly without need for extensive subject matter knowledge

Critical Thinking

Evaluating conclusions by logically and systematically examining the problem, the evidence, and the solution


Influence of previously learned material on new material; the productive (not reproductive) uses of cognitive tools and motivations

Low-Road Transfer

Spontaneous and automatic transfer of highly practiced skills

High-Road Transfer

Application of abstract knowledge learned in one situation to a different situation


Practicing a skill past the point of mastery

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