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Terms in this set (50)
The atrium skylight in a single-loaded corridor office building would be located at the
10th or above story
Besides the Roman house, what was the other historical precedent for the interior atrium of 19th Century skyscrapers?
Sketch the standard massing scheme of a New York skyscraper designed in the 1870s
The style closest to describing the Equitable Life Insurance Building was
Why is the Equitable Building considered by many historians to be the first skyscraper?
the floor heights were taller allowing windows to be bigger thanks to the elevator even though it had the same amount of floors as other buildings
The first skyscraper designed (but not built) for Chicago was the
The Renaissance palazzo provided what two precedents for the early skyscraper
What was the tallest building under construction in the U.S. during the last 25 years of the 19th Century.
Who is now being given credit for designing what most historians regard as the first skyscraper in the U.S.
What would have been the first skyscraper erected in Chicago had the 1871 fire not occurred?
What was the conventional color scheme of many of the buildings designed in the U.S. during the 1870s?
The tallest building (exclude any "structures") under construction in the U.S. during the 1870s was?
Montauk Block, Chicago, 1881
What was the geopolitical significance of Chicago's location at the time of its founding?
Chicago was the lynch pin between the major transportation route of the South (the Mississippi River) and of the North (the Great Lakes) the Illinois-Michigan Canal linked the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River creating a gateway to the West, also Abe Lincoln was president during the Civil War and came from Chicago so most building contracts came to Chicago as payback for his nomination and to insure re-election
Name two 19th century American writers whose search for an American style paralleled the work of Richardson, Root, and Sullivan:
a. Mark Twain
b. Walt Whitman
What two advantages did Root's iron reinforced pad foundation have over the traditional foundations of the time?
a. requires less depth b. lighter- so it saves weight by getting rid of stone pyramid
Was Richardson responsible for bringing the "box" to Chicago? Explain.
No, Root had already brought the box to Chicago and Richardson was imitating him
According to Larson, the major departure from Root's prior designs in Richardson's design of the Marshall Field Wholesale Store was
lack of break of elevation-one continuous surface.
List three technical innovations incorporated in the design and construction of the Rookery:
a. double loaded corridor
b. iron reinforced foundations (reinforced pad foundation)
c. iron skeletal exterior stairway
What was a difference between the massing of a 1870s skyscraper in New York and a 1880s skyscraper in Chicago?
New York's buildings were corporate buildings and tended to have towers on the tops to try and compete in height with the other corporate buildings. The taller the better. The Chicago office buildings didn't need this significance. They were simple extrusions
Name two buildings that used the progression of layered arcades as their elevational idea prior to the Field Wholesale store:
Hunt's New York Tribune Building
Post's New York Produce Exchange
The first skyscraper built in Chicago? Designed by?
Montauk Block Burnham and Root
Larson credits Richardson with what achievement in the design of the Field Wholesale store?
Elimination of any horizontal demarcation of floors in middle body of elevation; tripartite base, body, top, removing breaks in elevation
The atrium skylight in the Rookery is located at the
Low center, double-louded corridor building, low skylight 3rd floor, bottom of light well
List two technical firsts developed by Root that allowed the skyscraper to evolve in Chicago
a. iron skeletal frame
b. iron reinforced pad foundation
What was the last tall masonry bearing wall office building erected in Chicago/
The first use of iron columns in the exterior of a skyscraper was the
Who was the leading figure in the first Chicago School, who was responsible for the design of more skyscrapers than the rest of the school's figures combined?
List three major architectural firms of the Chicago School that were in practice from 1881-1891.
Holabird and Roche, Albert and Sullivan, Burnham and Root
Draw a "Chicago window."
What was the primary reason for the lack of ornament in the Montauk and Monadnock Blocks?
The client did not want ornament because you could not see it due to train polution
The atrium skylight in the Masonic Temple was located at the
top center, 300' high
The model for the design of the elevations of the First Leiter Building was?
Shillito's Department Store.
If Chicago cannot claim to have been the birthplace of the iron frame, what technical achievement central to the evolution of the skyscraper can it call its own?
Use of lightweight architectural terra cotta in place of brick, brings iron frame back into exterior
What does Larson credit Root with having pioneered in the design of the elevations of the Monadnock and Masonic Temple?
unbroken vertical piers
Is Sullivan's design of the Wainright Building's elevations honest? Why?
No because his exterior columns had no structural integrity (just for decoration no structural importance)
The leading figure of the Chicago School was
List three conceptual ways to design the elevation of a skeletal-framed skyscraper based on rational factors:
b. horizontal layering
What two skyscrapers represent Root's ultimate achievement of using the building's structural system as the primary basis for the design of a skyscraper's elevation?
a. Masonic Temple
b. Monadnock Block
The construction technique of the exterior of the Tacoma Building was first used in the
Home Insurance Building
List three ways in which weight was reduced in the construction of Chicago skyscrapers which enabled them to be built taller on the city's relatively weak soil:
a. terra cotta was used instead of brick as masonry
b. iron framing (the replaced heavy masonry bearing walls)
c. the replacement of masonry floor arches with flat-arched, hollow tile floors
The first use of iron columns in the exterior of a skyscraper was the
The tallest atrium constructed in the 19th Century was in the
The tallest building erected in Chicago during the First Chicago School was the
Following his dictum "Form follows Function," Sullivan designed all the exterior columns in the Wainwright Building as (what) elements.
The tallest atrium designed by Root was in the
What building in Chicago was almost a direct copy of the Shillito's Store?
First Leiter Building by Jenney
The first exterior use of the Rookery atrium's hung-masonry curtain wall was on the (what)? Who was its architect?
Tacoma Buidling, Holabird and Roche
What two differences were there in Buffington's patent that proves he was not influenced by the Home Insurance Building:
Wrought iron plates riveted together (not cast iron), Masonry completely independent of iron frame, Iron all riveted together, diagonal bracing for stability
Sullivan's best-remembered phrase was:
form follows function
Draw a section of a Phoenix column and describe how it was fabricated
hollow circle column made wrought iron pieces with flanges
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