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44 terms

Management Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
Organizational Structure
the vertical and horizontal configuration of departments, authority, and jobs within a company
Organizational Process
the collection of activities that transform inputs into outputs that customers value
Departmentalization
subdividing work and workers into separate organizational units responsible for completing particular tasks
Functional Departmentalization
organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular business functions or areas of expertise
Product departmentalization
organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for producing particular products or services
Customer Departmentalization
organizing work and workers into separate units responsible for particular kinds of customers
Matrix departmentalization
a hybrid organizational structure in which two or more forms of departmentalization, most often product and functional, are used together
Simple Matrix
a form of matrix departmentalization in which managers in different parts of the matrix negotiate conflicts and resources
Complex matrix
a form of matrix departmentalization in which managers in different parts of the matrix report to matrix managers, who help them sort out conflicts and problems
Authority
the right to give orders, make decisions, or take action
Chain of command
the line of authority that moves from the top of a hierarchy to the lowest level
Unity of command
a management principle that workers should report to just one boss
line authority
the right to command immediate subordinates in the chain of command
Staff Authority
the right to advise, but not command, others who are not subordinates in the chain of command
Line function
an activity that contributes directly to creating or selling the company's products
Staff function
an activity that does not contribute directly to creating or selling the company's products, but instead supports line activities
Delegation of authority
the assignment of direct authority and responsibility to a subordinate to complete tasks for which the manager is normally responsible
Centralization of authority
the location of most authority at the upper levels of the organization
Decentralization
the location of a significant amount of authority in the lower levels of the organization
Standardization
solving problems by consistently applying the same rules, procedures, and processes
Job Design
the number, kind, and variety of tasks that individual workers perform in doing their jobs
Job specialization
a job composed of a small part of a larger task or process
Job rotation
periodically moving workers from one specialized job to another to give them more variety and the opportunity to use different skills
Job enlargement
increasing the number of different tasks that a worker performs within one particular job
Job enrichment
increasing the number of tasks in a particular job and giving workers the authority and control to make meaningful decisions about their work
Job characteristics model
an approach to job redesign that seeks to formulate jobs in ways that motivate workers and lead to positive work outcomes
Internal motivation
motivation that comes from the job itself rather than from outside rewards
Skill variety
the number of different activities performed in a job
Task identity
The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
Task significance
the degree to which a job is perceived to have a substantial impact on others inside or outside the organization
Autonomy
the degree to which a job gives workers the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish the job
mechanistic organization
an organization characterized by specialized jobs and responsibilities; precisely defined, unchanging roles; and a rigid chain of command based on centralized authority and vertical communication
Organic organization
an organization characterized by broadly defined jobs and responsibility; loosely defined, frequently changing roles; and decentralized authority and horizontal communication based on task knowledge
Intraorganizational process
the collection of activities that take place within an organization to transform inputs into outputs that customers value
Reengineering
fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed
Task interdependence
the extent to which collective action is required to complete an entire piece of work
Pooled interdependence
work completed by having each job or department independently contribute to the whole
Sequential interdependence
work completed in succession, with one group's or job's outputs becoming the inputs for the next group or job
Reciprocal interdependence
work completed by different jobs or groups working together in a back-and-forth manner
empowering workers
permanently passing decision-making authority and responsibility from managers to workers by giving them the information and resources they need to make and carry out good decisions
Empowerment
feelings of intrinsic motivation, in which workers perceive their work to have impact and meaning and perceive themselves to be competent and capable of self-determination
Interorganizational process
a collection of activities that take place among companies to transform inputs into outputs that customers value
Modular organization
an organization that outsources noncore business activities to outside companies, suppliers, specialists, or consultants
virtual organization
an organization that is part of a network in which many companies share skills, costs, capabilities, markets, and customers to collectively solve customer problems or provide specific products or services