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36 terms

Chapter 4

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tissue
Group of cells of similar type that work together to serve a common function
Epithelial tissue
covers body surfaces, lines body cavities and organs and forms glands
connective tissue
serves as a storage site for fat, lays an important role in immunity and provides the body and its organs with protection and support
muscle tissue
is responsible for movement of the organism and of substances through the organism
nervous tissue
conducts nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
squamous epithelium
made up of flattened or scale like cells. these cells form linings - in the blood vessels or lungs . in blood vessels, the smooth surface of the lining reduces friction.
cuboidal epithelium
cube -shaped cells specialized for secretion and absorption. they are found in many glands and in the lining of the kidney tubules
columnar epithelium
sonsists of tall, rectangular, column shaped cells that line the small intestine. they have small fingerlike folds on their exposed surfaces, greatly increasing the surface area for absorption
gland
an epithelial tissue that secretes a product
exocrine gland
secrete their products into ducts leading to body surfaces, cavities or organs. it includes the salivary glands of the mouth and the oil and sweat glands of the skin.
endocrine gland
lack ducts and secrete their products, hormones, into intercellular spaces, from which the hormones diffuse into the bloodstream and are carried throughout the body
basement membrane
this binds the epithelial cells to underolying connective tissue and helps the epithelial tissue resist stretching.
collagen fibers
one of the 3 components of the connective tissue matrix. these are strong and ropelike and can withstand pulling bc of their great tensile strength
elastic fibers
one of the three protein fibers in the connective tissue matrix. these contain random coils and can stretch and recoil like a spring.they are common in structures where great elasticity is needed including the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
reticular fibers
one of the three protein fibers in the connective tissue matrix. these are thin strands of collagen that branch extensively, forming interconnection networks suitable for supporting soft tissues. they support the liver and spleen
fibroblast
are the cells that produce the protein fibers in the connective tissue
loose connective tissue
contain many cells but has fewer and more loosely woven fibers than are seen in the matrix of dense connective tissue. ie...(areolar )ah-re-o-lar). loose and dense connective tissue differ in the ration of cells to exstracellular fibers
adipose tissue
this is the second type of loose connective tissue. it contains cells that are specialized for fat storage.
dense connective tissue
forms strong bands because of its large amounts of tightly woven fivers. it is found in ligaments (structures that join bone to bone), tendons (structures that join muscle to bone), and the dermis (layer of skin below the epidermis)
cartilage
specialized connective tissue. it is tough but flexible. it serves as cushioning between certain bones and help smaintain the structure of certain body parts inclusind the ears
hyaline cartilage
the most abundant, provides support and flesxibility. it is found at the ends of long bones where it allow one bone to slide easily over another. it also forms part of the nose, ribs, larynx and trachea.
elastic cartilage
more flixible than hyaline cartilage bc of the large amounts of v=wavy elastic fibers in its matrix. its found in the external ear
fibrocartilage
sontains fewer cells than either hyaline or elastic cartilage. its matrix contains collagen fibers. it forms the outer part of the the shock absorbing disks between the vertebrae of the spine. it is to withstand pressure.
bone
in combination with cartilage and other components of joints, makes up the skeletal system. it is a living actively metabolixing tissue witha good blood supply that promotes prompt healing. its functions are the protection and support for internal structures, movement in conjunction with muscles; storage of lipids, calcium and phosphorous; and production of red blood cells.
blood
is a specialixed connective tissue consisting of a liquid matrix, called plasma, in which so called formed elements are suspended. the fibers in _____ are soluble proteins, cisible only when the _____ CLOTS.
skeletal muscle tissue
is so names because it is usually attached to bones. it is a voluntary muscle. they are long cylinder-shaped cells each containing several nuclei.
cardiac muscle tissue
is only found in the walls of the heart, where its contrafctions are responsible for pumping blood to the rest of the body.
smooth muscle tissue
is involuntary and is found in the walls of blood vessels adn airways, where its contraction reduces teh flow of blood or air. was also in the walls of organs such as the stomach intestines and bladder.
neurons
generate and conduct nerve impulses which they conduct to other _______, muscle cells or glands. most have three parts: the cell body, dendritges and an axon.
neuroglia
or more simply, glial cells, support, insulate and protect neurons. they increase the rate at which impluses are conducted by neurons and provide neurons with nutrients from nearby blod vessels.
organ
is a structure composed of two or more different tissues that work together to perform a spicific function.
organ system
a group of organs with a common function. ie...the trachea, bronchi, and lungs constitute the respiratory system.
mucous membrane
line passageways that open to the exterior of the body, such as those of the respiratory digestive reproductive and urinary systems.
serous membrane
line the thoracic and abdominal cavities and the organs within them. they secrete a fluid that lubricates the organs within
synovial membrane
line the cavities of freely movable joints, such as the knee. these membranes secrete a fluid that lubricates the joint, easing movement
Cutaneous membrane
or skin, covers the outside of the body, unlike others it is thick relatively waterproof and relatively dry.