32 terms

Chapter 10

Exam 4

Terms in this set (...)

emotional regulation
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
initiative vs guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
A person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
intrinsic motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
extrinsic motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.
An illness or disorder of the mind.
externalizing problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
internalizing problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
rough and tumble play
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
sociodramatic play
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
authoritarian parents
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
permissive parents
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.
authoritative parents
An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
neglectful/uninvolved parents
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
prosocial behavior
Feelings and actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
antisocial behavior
Feelings and actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
instrumental aggression
Behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege.
reactive aggression
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
relational aggression
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
bullying aggression
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
psychological control
A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
time out
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
sex differences
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
gender differences
Differences in the roles and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
phallic stage
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Oedipus complex
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's romantic love.
Electra complex
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's romantic love.
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
n psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
gender schema
A cognitive concept or general belief based on one's experiences—in this case, a child's understanding of sex differences.