25 terms

AP Biology Review #7

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C3 plant
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
C4 plant
plant that has adapted its photosynthetic process to more effieiently handle hot and dry conditions.
calvin cycle
a name for the light-independent (dark) reactions of photosynthesis.
CAM plant
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed.
carbon fixation
the attachment of the carbon from CO2 to a molecule that is able to enter the Calvin cycle, assisted by rubisco.
carotenoid
a photosynthetic pigment.
chlorophyll a
photosyntheticc pigment that participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
chlorophyll b
an accessory photosynthetic pigment that transfers energy to chlorophyll a.
cyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and produces ATP but not NADPH or oxygen.
electromagnetic spectrum
the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranging in wavelength from less that an nanometer to more than a kilometer.
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
a three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Clavin cycle; it is alos an intermediate in glycolysis.
light-dependent reactions
The reactions of the first stage of photosynthesis, in which light energy is captured by chlorophyll molecules and converted to chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH molecules.
NADPH
nicotinadmide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron acceptor that temporarily sotres energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
noncyclic photophosphorylation
The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
photophosphorylation
process by which ATP is made during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. it is the chloroplast equivalent of oxidative phosphorylation.
photorespiration
process by which oxygen competes whith carbon dioxide and attaches to RuBP. plants that experiencee this have a lowered capacity for growth.
photosynthesis
the process by which plants generate energy from light and inorganic raw materials. this occurs in the cloroplasts and involves two stages: light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions.
photosystem
cluster of light-trapping pigments involved in the process of photosynthesis.
photosystem I
one of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of p700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
photosystem II
one of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has tow moleucles of p680 chlorophyll a at is reaction center.
reaction center
control center made up of pigments.
rubsico
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate) of the Calvin cycle in C3 plants.
RuBP
ribulose bisphosphate; an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis; catalyzes the reaction between RuBP with carbon dioxide.
stroma
the inner fluid portion of the chloroplast that plays host to the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
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