44 terms

Campbell Biology Chapter 1

Cells (basic info)
cells are the subunits of organisms; lowest level of structure able to perform all functions of life
the units of life
4 main functions to be an organism
uptake and processing of nutrients, excretion of wastes, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction
multicellular organism's 3 structures above the cell
tissues, organs, and organ systems
localized groups of organisms belonging to the same species
biological community
several species in the same area
emergent properties
result from interactions between components
order from biosphere to organisms
Biology, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organisms (BECPO)
order from organs/organ systems to molecules
Organs, Tissue, Cells, Organelles, Molecules
Cells (structure)
highly ordered structures that carry out complicated processes
Cell Theory
1. All living things consist of cells 2. All cells come from other cells
Membrane (function?)
Encloses cells, regulates passage of materials between cell and surroundings
What do all cells contain? (At some point)
DNA (according to cells)
The heritbale material that directs cell activity
2 Major Kind of Cells
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic
Types of Prokaryotic Cells
Cells of the microorganims called archaea and bacteria
Types of Eukaryotic Cells
All other types of cells besides prokaryotic
Eukaryotic Cells possess...?
Functionally-diverse organelles
How are chromosomes formed? (Euk.)
The combination of DNA and proteins
A thick solution called cytosol
SOMEeukaryotic cells possess what type of cell wall?
External cell wall
MOST Prokaryotic cells possess what type of cell wall?
External cell wall
Where is DNA located in prokaryotic cells?
In the cytoplasm in a nucleus of a prokaryotic cell
There are ______ membrane-enclosed organelles in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells?
DNA is the substance of _____?
The unit of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
Genetic information specifically arranged (ATCGTA...)
____ forms of life employ the same _____ code
All; genetic
How is the diversity of life generated?
By different expressions of the same genetic code
What programs biological order?
The genetic code
The entire library of genetic instructions that an organims inherits
The genome of a human cell is about _______ letters long
3 billion
Solar energy to chemical energy is...?
Kinetic energy
The unordered energy of random molecular motion
Life creates order by harvesting energy from...?
How do organisms obtain energy from fuels such as sugar?
Cells break the molecules down in a series of closely regulated reactions
Special protein molecules used to catalyze reactions
What are enzymes used for when muscles are at rest?
Used to store energy in complex sugars
When muscles need more energy enzymes are used to...?
Catalyze the break down of sugar molecules, releasing energy
An output signal or product of the process regulates that process
Most biological processes are...?
Negative Feedback
Slows or stops a process
Feedback Inhibition is synonymous with...?
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Speeds a process up