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Science Chapter 8 and 9
Terms in this set (44)
What is used by cells to store and release the energy needed to power cellular processes?
the amount of energy stored in a molecule of ATP compared to the amount stored in a molecule of glucose is
When a candle burns, energy is released in the form of
light and heat
How do heterotrophs and autotrophs differ in the way they obtain energy?
Heterotrophs obtain energy by consuming other organisms; Autotrophs obtain energy by consuming the foods they make.
Describe the three parts of an ATP molecule?
An ATP molecule consists of a nitrogen containing compound called adenine and three phosphate groups.
Compare the amounts of energy stored by ATP and glucose. Which compound is used by the cell as an immediate source of energy?
A Single molecule of glucose stores more than 90 times the energy stored by ATP. ATP transfers energy quickly and is used by the cell as an immediate source of energy.
Explain ATP to a student who doesn't understand the comcept
It releases energy very quickly for a single use
In addition to light and chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires
water and carbon dioxide
The leaves of a plant appear green because the chlorophyll
reflects green light
Equation for photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + water -(light) à sugars + oxygen
What role do plant pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
Which structure does light independent and light dependent occur?
the light-dependent reactions take place within the thylakoids which make up the grana; the light-independent reactions take place in the stroma.
What is an explanation for leaves changing color when the weather starts to cool down?
The chlorophyll molecules break down first as temperatures drop in the fall, leaving yellow and red light reflected by the accessory pigments
The first process in the light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis is
Which substance from the light- dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy in the calvin cycle?
The light independent reactions of photosynthesis are also known as the
ATP synthase in the chloroplast membrane makes ATP, utilizing the energy on highly concentrated
CAM plants are specialized to survive under what conditions that would harm most other kinda of plants?
hot, dry conditions
Explain the role of NADP+ as an energy carrier in photosynthesis
NADP+ molecules pick up high-energy electrons along with H+ ions in the light-dependent reactions to become NADPH. This is used in the light-independent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
Describe the role of ATP synthase and explain how it works
ATP synthase is a protein that spans the thylakoid membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through. H+ ions from the thylakoid space pass through the ATP synthase and into the stroma, the ATP synthase molecule rotates and the energy produced is used to convert ADP to ATP
Summarize the calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle uses 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a 6-cabon sugar molecule. The energy for the reactions that make this possible is supplied by ATP and NADPH, which are produced in the light-dependent reactions. The Calvin cycle removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turns out energy-rich sugars.
Discuss three factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occur
temperature, light intensity, and water
Cells use the energy available to make a final energy-rich compound called
Each gram of glucose contains approximately how much energy?
The process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen is
The first step in releasing the energy of glucose in the cell is known as
What is a calorie and explain how high calorie molecules use glucose
A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. High-calorie molecules are an energy source for cells.
Chemical equation for cellular respiration
602 + CH12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
What is the meaning of anaerobic and what part of cellular respiration is anaerobic?
A process is anaerobic if it does not directly require oxygen. Glycolysis
what is the difference between cellular respiration and fire
why are cellular respiration and photosynthesis considered different?
Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back
the net gain of energy in glycolysis from one molecule of glucose is
2 ATP molecules
In eurkaroytes, the Krebs cycle takes place in the
The electron transport chain uses the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to
Move H+ ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane
How is glucose changed during glycolysis?
During glycolysis, 1 molecule of glucose is transformed into 2 molecules or pyruvic acid
What is NAD+ and why is it so important?
NAD+ is an electron carrier. It provides high-energy electrons needed to produce ATP.
Summarize what happens during the Krebs Cycle
Pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide on a series of energy-extracting reactions. ATP is produced.
How is ATP synthase involved in making energy available to the cell?
H+ ions pass across the mitochondria membrane through ATP synthase, causing the base of the ATP synthase to spin. With each rotation, the enzyme grabs an ADP molecule and attaches a phosphate, producing ATP.
How is the function of NAD+ in cellular respiration similar to that of NADP+ in photosynthesis?
both function as electron carriers
where is the electron transport chain found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell?
the process carried out by yeast that causes bread dough to rise is
during heavy exercise the buildup lactic acid in muscle cells results in
How are fermentation and cellular respiration similar?
Both processes begin with glycolysis and produce ATP
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Section 9.1- Energy and Life
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