1. A body of water, previously covered by a land bridge in northern Russia.
2. This strait and land bridge was how the first settlers in America came over from Asia at various times between 15,000 and 16,000 years ago, populating most of north America.
1. The capital of the Aztec empire with a population close to 250,000 people around 9,000 years ago.
2. Was one of the world's largest cities. It had a great temple, splendid royal palace and central market. Seemed like an "enchanted vision" according to the Europeans.
1. Centered in modern day Peru, its population was around 12 million around 9,000 years ago.
2. Indian civilizations in North America had not developed the scale, grandeur or centralized organization. Also had a complex system of roads and bridges which extended 2,000 miles along the Andes.
1. These are the Indians who lived along the Ohio River valley, named this by the large earthen burial mounds they created. Found and named in the 1700s.
2. They were avid traders and had traded with half of the continent for a thousand years by the time Columbus sailed.
1. Spanish explorers named them after the small villages they lived in when they first encountered them in the 16th century.
2. Perfected desert farming, complete with irrigation systems to provide water for crops of corn, beans and cotton.
Native American Social Structure
1. Shamans in power. More of a Theocracy than anything else.
2. Life's good
1. This is how the Europeans viewed some Indians in the 1500s.
2. Native Americans were either considered gentle, friendly, and superior in some ways to Europeans or as uncivilized and brutal savages. Over time, the negative image of Native Americans overshadowed the positives
1. This was a widespread legal doctrine which dictated the rules of the Christian family in the 1500s.
2. When a woman married, she lost her own identity and became covered by her husband's. She was not allowed to own property, sign contracts, control wages, write a will or seek divorce.
1. An Italian explorer who explored the coast of South America between 1499 and 1502.
2. Made it plain that a continent entirely unknown to the Europeans had been encountered. America was named after him. He also realized that the native inhabitants were distinct peoples not residents of the East Indies as Columbus had believed.
1. A Spanish explorer commonly followed by religious missionaries and carrying a cross in the early 16th century.
2. Their mission was to spread Catholicism radiating from Hispaniola.
1. The transatlantic flow of goods and people from 1490-1500s.
2. Reversed million years of evolution. Plants, animals and cultures that had evolved independently on separate continents were now thrown together.
1. A person from a Latin American country originally from European, especially Spanish decent.
2. Royal officials were being appointed from Spain instead of the Criollos from the new world.
1. Large-scale farms controlled by Spanish landlords in the late 1500s.
2. The Spanish forced the Indians to work on the farms and in gold and silver mines making African slaves completely unnecessary.
1. A person of European birth and stood at the top of the hierarchy.
2. These people never constituted more than a tiny proportion of the population of Spanish America. Indian inhabitants always outnumbered them.
1. A name for someone of mixed origin in the 1530's.
2. They made up a large part of the urban population of Spanish America. They also repopulated the Valley of Mexico when disease decimated the original inhabitants.
Bartolome de Las Casas
1. Published an account of the decimation of the Indian population in 1514. Dominican priest.
2. A Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. His father was involved in the plunder of Peru and the exploitation of Indian labor in Hispaniola and Cuba.
1. The first system the Spanish settlers used in the Caribbean in 1550.
2. Said the settlers had been granted authority over conquered Indian lands with the right to extract forced labor from the native inhabitants. This caused a huge rebellion among the natives and the Spanish were forced to change.
1. The second system the Spanish settlers used in the Caribbean. It replaced the Encomienda system of running Hispaniola in 1550.
2. This allowed Indian villages to remain legally free and entitled to wages. However, they were still forced to perform a specified amount of labor a year. They were not considered slaves and had access to land, paid wages and could not be trafficked. However, there was still room for abuse by the Spanish landlords and priests for conversion purposes.
1. The image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer during the 1530's.
2. This gave other colonizers justification for other European powers to challenge Spain's predominance in the new world by promising that the natives would be better treated in their hands.
St. Augustine, Florida
1. The oldest site in the United States continuously inhabited by European settlers and their descendants in 1562.
2. Menendez and his men massacred hundreds of people to create this colony.
1. Franciscan friars worked to convert Indians to Catholicism, often using intimidation and violence. Some opposed and some accepted. The Spanish didn't think that the Indians could unite and rise up against the colonists. In 1680 they were proven wrong.
2. Most complete victory for Native Americans, and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America.