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power of the Church that denied a person of all Church services and sacraments, prevented them from burial on consecrated ground, and prohibited association with Church memebers
power of the Church that was a "Lockout"; directed against inhabitants of an entire region, no sacraments except baptism and anointing of the sick, and no burial in consecrated ground
right claimed by the Church to release subjects of a disobedient ruler from oaths of loyalty to him
donation to church required for all Christians that is supposed to be 10% of their income; used to help the poor and support hospitals
reform in 910 AD whose goals were to return to poverty not manual labor, to emphasize prayer and liturgical ceremony, and end secular interferance
central council of great landholders, churchmen, and royal officials who advised the king on judicial and administrative matters
book that listed all castles, fields, pigpens, etc. and was used by William and his successors to establish efficient systems of tax collection
a very important document in English history that placed limits on the power of the king
representatives of three groups in French society, which were clergy, nobles, and French people
founded a monastery at Monte Cassino and created a set of regulations to govern the lives of monks
missionary sent to England by pope Gregory the Great and established mission at Canterbury
Pope Gregory VII
Pope who extended the Cluniac reforms throughout the entire institution of the Church, prohibited simony, outlawed marriage for priests, and forbade lay investiture
group of friars dedicated to preaching, teaching, missionary activity, and combating heresy
group of friars that derived from vows of poverty and humility and believed all people are brothers in Christ
group made up of women who did not have money to enter convents; they supported themselves through weaving and embroidery
group of nuns who lived in strict poverty (individual and corporate) and cared for sick and poor and provided shelter for travelers
Harold of Wessex
brother in law of Edward the Confessor, taken captive off the coast of Normandy, and died at the Battle of Hastings
William of Normandy
tough and ruthless King of England, built numerous castles strategically located in England, and took land from the Anglo-Saxon nobility
King of England who began his reign from position of strength, brought rebellious nobles to obedience, and developed common law
most of his reign was waging war in the Holy Land on the 3rd Crusade and was held captive for ransom in Europe; government functioned well during his absence
mean, suspicious, and unskilled ruler; his lands were stripped of him in France; he offended the Church and was forced to accept the "Magna Carta"
French ruler who was crafty, ambitious, shrewd, and able; strengthened the government and quadrupled royal landholdings
French ruler who made French monarchy most admired in Europe because of his religious fervor and astuteness
Holy Roman Emperor who was upset by pope's ban of lay investiture; eventually asked pope for forgiveness; returned to Germany to subdue rebellious nobles
land conquered by Pepin III given to the Church (papacy); it was controlled by the Roman Catholic Church up through the late 19th century
St. Augustine established a mission at this place where the work was dangerous and many missionaries lost their lives
battle at this place was where the Normans routed the Anglo-Saxons and was a major turning point in English history
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