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Canon Law

Church law that covered religious teaching, behavior of clergy, and morals and marriage


power of the Church that denied a person of all Church services and sacraments, prevented them from burial on consecrated ground, and prohibited association with Church memebers


power of the Church that was a "Lockout"; directed against inhabitants of an entire region, no sacraments except baptism and anointing of the sick, and no burial in consecrated ground


right claimed by the Church to release subjects of a disobedient ruler from oaths of loyalty to him


donation to church required for all Christians that is supposed to be 10% of their income; used to help the poor and support hospitals


service to God through prayer, fasting, and self-denial


the title for the head of a monastery


"Writing Room""; place where monks copied manuscripts

Cluniac Reform

reform in 910 AD whose goals were to return to poverty not manual labor, to emphasize prayer and liturgical ceremony, and end secular interferance


the buying and selling of Church offices


an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest

Lay Investiture

the appointment of Church officials by secular rulers


name given to people who begged for alms


an administrative district in England


subdivision of a shire


central council of great landholders, churchmen, and royal officials who advised the king on judicial and administrative matters

Domesday Book

book that listed all castles, fields, pigpens, etc. and was used by William and his successors to establish efficient systems of tax collection


a treasury used for collection for taxes

Magna Carta

a very important document in English history that placed limits on the power of the king


representatives of three groups in French society, which were clergy, nobles, and French people

St. Benedict

founded a monastery at Monte Cassino and created a set of regulations to govern the lives of monks

St. Patrick

missionary in Ireland who risked his life to spread Christianity

St. Augustine

missionary sent to England by pope Gregory the Great and established mission at Canterbury

St. Scholastica

established convent near Monte Cassino and encouraged prayer, worship, and work

Duke of Aquitaine

founded the Cluniac Reform

Abbot Berno

initiated the reforms of the Cluniac Reform

Pope Gregory VII

Pope who extended the Cluniac reforms throughout the entire institution of the Church, prohibited simony, outlawed marriage for priests, and forbade lay investiture

St. Dominic

founded the Order of Friar Preachers


group of friars dedicated to preaching, teaching, missionary activity, and combating heresy

St. Francis of Assisi

established the Order of Friars Minor


group of friars that derived from vows of poverty and humility and believed all people are brothers in Christ


group made up of women who did not have money to enter convents; they supported themselves through weaving and embroidery

Poor Claires

group of nuns who lived in strict poverty (individual and corporate) and cared for sick and poor and provided shelter for travelers


Mediterranean Jews who flourished in Spain


German Jews in northern Europe

Edward the Confessor

King of England who died without an heir

Harold of Wessex

brother in law of Edward the Confessor, taken captive off the coast of Normandy, and died at the Battle of Hastings

William of Normandy

tough and ruthless King of England, built numerous castles strategically located in England, and took land from the Anglo-Saxon nobility

Henry II

King of England who began his reign from position of strength, brought rebellious nobles to obedience, and developed common law

Eleanor of Aquitaine

rich Duchy from southwestern France and wife of Henry II

Richard I

most of his reign was waging war in the Holy Land on the 3rd Crusade and was held captive for ransom in Europe; government functioned well during his absence

King John

mean, suspicious, and unskilled ruler; his lands were stripped of him in France; he offended the Church and was forced to accept the "Magna Carta"

Hugh Capet

feudal nobles elected this person as the Count of Paris

Philip II

French ruler who was crafty, ambitious, shrewd, and able; strengthened the government and quadrupled royal landholdings

Louis IX

French ruler who made French monarchy most admired in Europe because of his religious fervor and astuteness

Henry IV

Holy Roman Emperor who was upset by pope's ban of lay investiture; eventually asked pope for forgiveness; returned to Germany to subdue rebellious nobles

Papal States

land conquered by Pepin III given to the Church (papacy); it was controlled by the Roman Catholic Church up through the late 19th century

Monte Cassino

St. Benedict founded a monastery at this location


St. Augustine established a mission at this place where the work was dangerous and many missionaries lost their lives


battle at this place was where the Normans routed the Anglo-Saxons and was a major turning point in English history


very small domain of Hugh Capet, which posted no threat to nobles

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