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51 terms

History Chapter 12 Sections 3 & 4 Terms, People, Places

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Canon Law
Church law that covered religious teaching, behavior of clergy, and morals and marriage
Excommunication
power of the Church that denied a person of all Church services and sacraments, prevented them from burial on consecrated ground, and prohibited association with Church memebers
Interdict
power of the Church that was a "Lockout"; directed against inhabitants of an entire region, no sacraments except baptism and anointing of the sick, and no burial in consecrated ground
Deposition
right claimed by the Church to release subjects of a disobedient ruler from oaths of loyalty to him
Tithe
donation to church required for all Christians that is supposed to be 10% of their income; used to help the poor and support hospitals
Monasticism
service to God through prayer, fasting, and self-denial
Abbot
the title for the head of a monastery
Scriptorium
"Writing Room""; place where monks copied manuscripts
Cluniac Reform
reform in 910 AD whose goals were to return to poverty not manual labor, to emphasize prayer and liturgical ceremony, and end secular interferance
Simony
the buying and selling of Church offices
Usury
an exorbitant or unlawful rate of interest
Lay Investiture
the appointment of Church officials by secular rulers
Mendicants
name given to people who begged for alms
Shire
an administrative district in England
Hundred
subdivision of a shire
Witan
central council of great landholders, churchmen, and royal officials who advised the king on judicial and administrative matters
Domesday Book
book that listed all castles, fields, pigpens, etc. and was used by William and his successors to establish efficient systems of tax collection
Exchequer
a treasury used for collection for taxes
Magna Carta
a very important document in English history that placed limits on the power of the king
Estates-General
representatives of three groups in French society, which were clergy, nobles, and French people
St. Benedict
founded a monastery at Monte Cassino and created a set of regulations to govern the lives of monks
St. Patrick
missionary in Ireland who risked his life to spread Christianity
St. Augustine
missionary sent to England by pope Gregory the Great and established mission at Canterbury
St. Scholastica
established convent near Monte Cassino and encouraged prayer, worship, and work
Duke of Aquitaine
founded the Cluniac Reform
Abbot Berno
initiated the reforms of the Cluniac Reform
Pope Gregory VII
Pope who extended the Cluniac reforms throughout the entire institution of the Church, prohibited simony, outlawed marriage for priests, and forbade lay investiture
St. Dominic
founded the Order of Friar Preachers
Dominicans
group of friars dedicated to preaching, teaching, missionary activity, and combating heresy
St. Francis of Assisi
established the Order of Friars Minor
Franciscans
group of friars that derived from vows of poverty and humility and believed all people are brothers in Christ
Beguines
group made up of women who did not have money to enter convents; they supported themselves through weaving and embroidery
Poor Claires
group of nuns who lived in strict poverty (individual and corporate) and cared for sick and poor and provided shelter for travelers
Sephardim
Mediterranean Jews who flourished in Spain
Ashkenazim
German Jews in northern Europe
Edward the Confessor
King of England who died without an heir
Harold of Wessex
brother in law of Edward the Confessor, taken captive off the coast of Normandy, and died at the Battle of Hastings
William of Normandy
tough and ruthless King of England, built numerous castles strategically located in England, and took land from the Anglo-Saxon nobility
Henry II
King of England who began his reign from position of strength, brought rebellious nobles to obedience, and developed common law
Eleanor of Aquitaine
rich Duchy from southwestern France and wife of Henry II
Richard I
most of his reign was waging war in the Holy Land on the 3rd Crusade and was held captive for ransom in Europe; government functioned well during his absence
King John
mean, suspicious, and unskilled ruler; his lands were stripped of him in France; he offended the Church and was forced to accept the "Magna Carta"
Hugh Capet
feudal nobles elected this person as the Count of Paris
Philip II
French ruler who was crafty, ambitious, shrewd, and able; strengthened the government and quadrupled royal landholdings
Louis IX
French ruler who made French monarchy most admired in Europe because of his religious fervor and astuteness
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor who was upset by pope's ban of lay investiture; eventually asked pope for forgiveness; returned to Germany to subdue rebellious nobles
Papal States
land conquered by Pepin III given to the Church (papacy); it was controlled by the Roman Catholic Church up through the late 19th century
Monte Cassino
St. Benedict founded a monastery at this location
Canterbury
St. Augustine established a mission at this place where the work was dangerous and many missionaries lost their lives
Hastings
battle at this place was where the Normans routed the Anglo-Saxons and was a major turning point in English history
Ile-de-France
very small domain of Hugh Capet, which posted no threat to nobles