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Symbols used in Chemical Equations
chemical equations, chemical reactions, describing chemical reactions
an alternative way of representing a substance in a gaseous state
Read "yields or produces". Used to separate reactants (on the left) from products (on the right). The arrow points in the direction of change (we will always point the arrow toward the RIGHT)
used for reversible reactions
used to separate two reactants or two products
∆ (over the reaction arrow),
indicates the application of heat to the reactants
indicates a precipitate formed by a reaction
designates an aqueous solution; the substance is dissolved H₂O; placed after the chemical formula
(s) or (c)
means the substance is in a solid state
means the substance is in a liquid state
means the substance is in a gaseous state
means no reaction will take place.
an expression representing a chemical reaction
skeleton chemical equation
does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products. (frame)
Law of Conservation of Mass
in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved. Mass can be neither created nor destroyed, simply rearranged.
substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier
balanced chemical equation
a chemical equation in which the mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
In a chemical formula, it represents the number of atoms or ions. and used to indicate the relative proportions of the elements.
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation.
a change in which one or more reactants change into one or more products; characterized by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in products.