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chemical equations, chemical reactions, describing chemical reactions

an alternative way of representing a substance in a gaseous state

Read "yields or produces". Used to separate reactants (on the left) from products (on the right). The arrow points in the direction of change (we will always point the arrow toward the RIGHT)

used for reversible reactions


used to separate two reactants or two products

∆ (over the reaction arrow),

indicates the application of heat to the reactants

indicates a precipitate formed by a reaction


designates an aqueous solution; the substance is dissolved H₂O; placed after the chemical formula

(s) or (c)

means the substance is in a solid state


means the substance is in a liquid state


means the substance is in a gaseous state


means no reaction will take place.

chemical equation

an expression representing a chemical reaction

skeleton chemical equation

does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products. (frame)

Law of Conservation of Mass

in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved. Mass can be neither created nor destroyed, simply rearranged.


substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier

balanced chemical equation

a chemical equation in which the mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element


In a chemical formula, it represents the number of atoms or ions. and used to indicate the relative proportions of the elements.


a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation.

chemical reaction

a change in which one or more reactants change into one or more products; characterized by the breaking of bonds in reactants and the formation of bonds in products.

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