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Scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of NW Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal etc.) acquired lesser amounts.

Indian Rebellion

British insensitivity to the religious practices of Indian soldiers working for them triggered this resistance to British rule (1857-1858). As a result, the British government asserted direct control over India, and British attitudes toward and tolerance for the Indians under thier rule changed for the worst.

Congo Free State/Leopold II

Territory of King Leopold II of Belgium, but is an independent country, not subject to the Belgian government, but to Leopold. He brings in Belgians and other foreigners to squeeze wealth out of the territory in the form of rubber, copper, etc.

cultivation system

A Dutch government policy in the mid-nineteenth century for its Dutch East Indies colony requiring a portion of agricultural production to be devoted to export crops.

cash-crop agriculture

Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves

Western-educated elite

In many cases, meant an escape from the harsh treatments imposed by Europe on its colonial laborers. Western-educated Bengalis, for examples, claimed to dream in English and eat beef, to show their acceptance of European ideas. These educated elites saw themselves as the regenerators of their societies, though Europe in many cases kept them subjugated.

Africanization of Christianity

Similar to the syncretic religions of the caribbean (Vodou, Santeria, etc.), converts to Christianity began to use protective charms and the advice of local medicine men; old spirits began to be seen as evil.

Swami Vivekananda

A religious teacher who lived between 1863 and 1902 and established the Ramakrishna Mission to spread Hindu teachings in America.

European racism

The belief that Europeans are/were superior to other racial communities, including Africans. Some historians believe that Europeans inherited their racist ideas from Muslims, who had been practicing slavery for centuries. African scholars such as C.A. Diop believed that Europeans would be interested in the complex political ideas of great African empires like Egypt, Mali, Ghana, and Songhay.

Edward Blyden

Educated black who moves back to Africa, becomes a powerful member of elite educated group. Regarded as the father of Pan-Africanism

colonial tribalism

A European tendency, especially in African colonies, to identify and sometimes invent distinct "tribes" that had often not existed before, reinforcing European notions that African societies were primitive.

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