Organization and Achievements of Confederation
Terms in this set (45)
Who Drafted the new plan, called the Articles of Confederation?
John Dickinson of Delaware.
When were the Articles of Confederation drafted?
In 1777, just after the victory at Saratoga.
What did the Articles of Confederation entail?
Under this plan the government had one governing body, a congress whose members were to be elected yearly.
Why did the colonists choose this form of government in the beginning?
Because of their experience with the British monarchy, Americans tended to fear a strong central government. Instead they placed their hopes in strong state governments.
How many states had to ratify the Articles before they became law?
How long did the ratification process take?
After the war many states owned land west of the Appalachians Mountains and the Mississippi River. True or False
Maryland a smaller state refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation fearing the states that owned more land would have more power than the smaller states. What did they demand before ratifying the Articles?
They refused to ratify the Articles unless Congress was given the power to dispose of the western lands.
What were two main reasons some states objected to the Congress taking control over the lands.
First, the states with western land claims did want to give them up. Second, influential land speculators were upset that they would not be able to make a profit by reselling the land.
What was the compromise?
The Congress gained control of the western lands, putting the land into the "public domain," but in return, each state, no matter how small, obtained an equal vote in the Congress. Also to satisfy the southern states, Congress based tax assessments in the slave states on the value of improved lands rather than on the population.
What state held out until 1781?
Virginia, Finally in January 1781 Virginia offered up its' claims on western land north of the Ohio River. In return Maryland ratified the Articles the same month.
When were the Articles finally ratified then?
Finally on March 1 1781 the plan was adopted by the Federation Congress.
What two groups were responsible for governing the colonies during the War for Independence?
The Continental Congress and state assemblies.
What convinced the leaders of the need for a more permanent form of government?
The need for authority to carry on a war, which was the government's responsibility.
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 provide for western lands?
The guidelines for surveying and selling them.
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provide for western lands?
A means for governing them and the process for gaining statehood.
Why do you think the Americans were so fearful of a strong central government?
They were fearful of creating a strong government like that of England, which could suppress the freedoms of the people.
What type of government did they want instead of a strong central government?
They believed the states should be more powerful instead.
Under the Confederation could Congress tax?
What powers did the Congress have under the Articles?
The Confederation Congress could raise and maintain an army, declare war, make treaties with foreign countries, manage Indian affairs, establish a postal system, and borrow and coin money.
Were these powers held exclusively by the Congress?
No, the states could, without the consent of Congress, also coin money, issues bills of credit, deal directly with foreign governments, and even declare war. It was an Albatross system.
Certain powers were held only by the states, what were they?
The states controlled both domestic and foreign trade. They had the right to act in economic matters involving debts, contracts, contracts, and family affairs. And finally the states alone had the right to tax citizens.
Under the Articles how many states did it take to ratify new laws.
Nine of the thirteen states had to approve any new laws.
How many states did it take to authorize a change to the Articles?
A unanimous consensus, all thirteen.
In what three matters did the states agree to cooperate?
First they agreed to give full faith and credit to public and civil acts of other states. Thus accepting marriage licenses, birth and death certificates, and wills. Second they agreed to return, at the request of the governor, criminals and runaway slaves who crossed the state line. Third they agreed to arbitrate disagreements between the states, using a mutually acceptable third party, rather than fight.
How long did the Articles of Confederation last?
What were some notable actions did the Articles achieved?
The Northwest Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 entail?
It provided the surveying and selling of these lands.
How did the ordinance divide these lands?
In area of six square miles called townships.
How were the townships divided up?
Each townships was subdivided up into thirty six smaller parcels (each one mile square) called sections.
What was the fifteenth section used for?
What was the size of a section?
What other requirement did the Ordinance of 1785 contain?
It required the sale of land in sections at auctions for a minimum of one dollar for 640 acres. The buyer also had to buy at least one section, but could buy more sections if he could afford it.
Why did they sell the land so cheap?
To give the less fortunate an opportunity to buy land.
Because Congress was always short of money they also sold to large land companies, which one was the best known?
The Ohio Land Company.
Congress had to own the land before they could sell it. How did they get the title to this land?
By making treaties with the Indians. They did this to prevent another Indian rebellion like that of 1763 - 1766, the Pontiac Rebellion.
Most new territories and states were surveyed according to the demands of the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 and is still visible in what areas today?
The Midwest and Plains states.
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provide?
It provided government in these large tracts of land. The ordinance divided the land into territories. Each one had a governor, three judges to handle courts and legal matters, and a secretary, Congress appointed these officers.
When could they elect there own territorial legislators?
When the population of the territory reached 5,000 free white males that were voting age.
Could the territory elect its' own governor?
No, the Congress still appointed territory governors itself.
Under the Ordinance of 1787, when could the territories apply for statehood?
When it reached a population of 60,000 and when they submitted a constitution that guaranteed a Republican form of government. They would have the same power and authority as the first original thirteen states.
How many states finally came out of the Northwest territory?
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 guarantee?
Freedom of religion and it forbade slavery. Hence, the Ohio River became the dividing line between slave states and free states.
What was the dividing line between the free states and the slave states?
The Ohio River.
What were other helps for the Nation from the Articles?
Congress published its' proceedings in an official record of what was done in its sessions. This journal developed into the Congressional journal. Congress also used the decimal system for the money it coined. This system based on ten and hundreds is still used today in our own monetary system of America today.