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Ap Human: Agriculture
Terms in this set (57)
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
first agricultural revolution
dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
second agricultural revolution
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm products.
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
any grain like barley, oats, or wheat that is grown for food
Large scale production of crops
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Seed of a cereal grass
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
cultivation of crops carried out with simple hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes
intensive subsistence agriculture
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
prime agricultural land
Most productive farmland.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas
poor nutrition that results from an insufficient or poorly balanced diet.
Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
von Thunen's model
Transportation costs are most important with agriculture. The closest to the city/market spoil faster while those farther away spoil slower.
the raising of crops for market sale rather than domestic consumption
major agricultural system in developing economies. Based on highly diverse plant-animal combinations tailored to specific geography, crops. Multi-functional agriculture. Major current problems= high labor inputs, high information costs, doesn't easily scale.
Farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year.
The science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
Destruction of forests
When wetlands are drained and filled so the land can be used for buildings and other development
genetically modified organisms (GMO)
Foods that are mostly products or organisms that have their genes altered in a laboratory for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability, and efficiency.
Damage to soil - for example, as a result of deforestation or the removal of topsoil from bare land by water and wind erosion.
Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover
reduction in the number or quantity of something
A method of farming that does not use artificial means such as synthetic pesticides and herbicides, antibiotics, and bioengineering
Value added specialty foods
the process of changing or transforming a product from its original state to a more valuable state
Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
a word or words by which something called and classified/distinguished from others
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is then exchanged on the world market
The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves.
a raised level with a vertical or sloping front or sides faced with masonry, turf, or the like, especially one of a series of levels rising one above another; the flat roof of a house.
Supplying land with water through a network of canals
Corn; Cultivated in present-day Mexico and spread to the SW portion of the US. Native American societies were built around maize.
A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
a substance used to destroy plants, especially weeds
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