Biology Bacteria and Viruses
Terms in this set (49)
make you sick when they are where they don't belong GROW more rapidly than normal
live in your mouth, nose and throat
are necessary for normal body functions like digestion
are one of the oldest living things on earth
What are bacteria? Where do they live?
Get food from an outside source
Make their own food
What are the two types of bacteria and what do they do?
small one celled monerans- prokaryotic cells
What are the 4 major types of microorganisms?
-Rod-shaped (bacilli, bacillus)
What are the 3 shapes of Bacteria?
2. Cell wall
What are the 7 major structures of bacteria?
keeps the cell from drying out helps it stick to food or other cells
Made of peptidoglycan; that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell
Define Cell Wall
a ring made up of DNA
a whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion
hollow hair-like structures made of protein and allows bacteria to attach to other cells.
the process of one organism dividing into two organisms (asexual reproduction)
Define Binary Fission
reproduction of a living thing from only one parent
Define Asexual Reproduction
a thick celled structure that forms inside
-they can withstand boiling, freezing, and extremely, dry conditions
How do bacteria survive?
-a process found only in some bacteria which removes N2 from the atmosphere and converts it to ammonia (NH3), for use by plants and animals.
-Nitrogen fixation also replenishes nitrogen in soil used for agriculture
Define Nitrogen Fixation
Disease passed from one organism to another
What is a Communicable Disease?
-touching./sharing clothing, food, silverware, or toothbrush
-Drinking water that contains bacteria
-Swimming in contaminated water
How can Bacteria and Diseases be moved from one thing to another?
-Are small DNA fragments
-Each fragment carries between 2 and 30 genes
-Some plasmids have the ability to move in and out of the bacterial chromosome
-Plasmids are not needed for the cell's growth or reproduction, but can cause disease or can protect the bacterium from things like antibiotics
Blue- Green Toxins can be toxic to _______ and _______
occur when the bacteria multiplies in great numbers and form scum on the top of the water
thicker wall, but no outer membrane (appears purple/violet)
Define Gram Positive
thinner wall, have outer membrane (appears pink/reddish)
Define Gram Negative
-Decomposers (saprophytes) help recycle nutrients into the soil for other organisms to grow
-Bacteria (methanogens) grow in the stomach of hoofed animals (a cow) to break down grass and hay
-Most are used to make antibiotics
-Some bacteria help make insulin
-Used to make industrial chemicals
Describe Helpful Bacteria
1) Canning- the process of sealing food in airtight cans or jars after killing bacteria
2) Pasteurization- process of heating milk to kill harmful bacteria
3) Dehydration- removing water from food
What are the three ways to control bacteria and describe each.
chemicals that kill bacteria on living things
stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects or nonliving things
Robert Koch- 1843 - 1910
-A specific a specific microorganism causes specific disease
Describe the Germ Theory
-honored for bringing sterile procedures to surgery
-Worked to sanitize tools, bedding and other hospital equipment to stop infections
Who was Barron Lister?
The scientific study of disease
-bacteria or other organisms that cause disease
-Bacteria can cause poisons within our body
-toxins that are secreted into the enviroment by bacteria
-located on the outer membrane of the bacteria and is released when the bacteria dies
What are exotoxins?
-Powerful medicines with one very important job: to fight disease- causing bacteria
-When used properly, antibiotics can save lives
-They do not work on viruses!!
What are antibiotics?
1. Antibiotics become less effective and may not work the next tie you use them
2. Improper use of antibiotics leads to more antibiotic resistant bacteria
3. Antibiotic resistant bacteria can be spread throughout the community and from person to person
Why is Antibiotic Misuse a problem?
the smallest known particles that are able to replicate; only infect plants
(mad cow disease) infectious protein particles that don't have nucleic acids; causes degenerative brain diseases
-Prions attack and disfigure the animal's protein structure
-The nerve cells are damaged
-The animal begins to fall or act "funny"
-This type of prion is not transmitted to people
Define Mad Cow Disease
-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)
-Researchers believe that people who eat beef from cows that have BSE are at risk of developing a form of vCJD
-This disease is caused by a type of prion and affects the human brain in a similar way
What is vCJD?
1. Nucleic Acid - RNA or DNA (never both)
2. Capsid - protein coat that surrounds the DNA or RNA in a virus
What are the Parts of a Virion?
affects the liver cells - altering the cell so that it cannot replicate or repair
What does Hep D affect?
the virus enters the cell, replicates itself hundreds of times, and the bursts out of the cell, destroying it.
Describe the Lytic Cycle
- the virus DNA integrates with the host DNA and the host's cell helps create more virus DNA.
Describe the Lysogenic Cycle
-Viruses are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria
-Viruses need a living host; bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces
-Antibiotics don't work on viruses, because antibiotics interfere with cellular processes that viruses do not perform
Differences Between Bacteria and Viruses are:
-cause most common respiratory illnesses, such as colds and coughs
-cause a variety of infections from diarrhea to meningitis
-may take 2-3 weeks to resolve completely
-some viruses can be prevented by vaccines and immunizations
-antibiotics do not work for viruses
-varicella (chicken pox)
-rubella (German measles)
-the common cold
Example of contagious viruses:
1. Immune cells in the body attacking the liver and causing autoimmune hepatitis
2. Infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A, B, or C), bacteria, or parasites
3. Liver damage from alcohol, poisonous mushrooms, or other poisons
Hepatitis can be caused by:
-is a virus that attacks bacteria
-Injects its DNA and takes over the bacteria cell.
-Phage: means to eat or destroy
-Most bronchitis/chest colds
-Green/yellow nasal discharge
-Most sore throats
-Minor ear aches and some sinusitis
-Bacteria carry all the machinery needed for their growth and multiplication
-Viruses have DNA or RNA and a protein coat; nothing else
-Viruses are not "living," and need a host in order to reproduce its DNA
-The body identifies the virus as a nonliving antigen and makes antibodies to fight them
Similarities and Differences between bacteria and viruses are:
-Polyhedral capsid attached to a helical tail.
-Helical: Rodlike with capsid proteins winding around the core in a spiral
What are the Viral Shapes?
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