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a process of constructing meaning from written texts, based on complex coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information. Simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language

Literal comprehension

information printed in text.

Inferential comprehension

requires reader to move beyond the literal information to infer meaning from the text.

Critical comprehension

requires reader to analyze and evaluate the information that has been read, typically to develop new perspectives relative to the content.

Creative comprehension

refers to refining what was read to a level where the student produces new insights and thoughts that spin off the content read.

Narrative text

storytelling includes beginning, middle, and end. Includes clear story elements.

Expository text

relates to text that is factual. Examples include textbooks, biographies, newspapers, magazines, etc.

Explicit instruction

skills and strategies are taught to students using a form of direct instruction.

Intensive instruction

sufficient time is allocated to comprehension; includes a broad scope and sequence, incorporating active participation in lessons.

Persistent instruction

instruction planned in such a way that is a systematic set of lessons developed and presented overtime.

Science based or empirically validated approaches

National Reading Panel suggested approaches.

Basal Reading Approach

exposes students to a basic vocabulary the provides for repetition

Language Experience Approach

encourages students to verbalize their thoughts and experiences, which are written down by the teacher or the student and can be read.

Whole language

a philosophy in which children learn naturally and holistically through the integration of reading and writing with good literature, emphasizing meaning and the use of real texts. All aspects of language are taught across content areas.

Teacher-directed questioning strategies

questioning by teachers used in teaching comprehension. Questioning to enhance connection of material read to prior knowledge.

Directed reading/ thinking activity (DRTA)

teacher directed strategy to develop metacognition and enhance comprehension. Students make predictions about what they are going to read before they read the text. While reading, students refine their predictions.

Student Directed Questioning Strategies-

students ask themselves questions in order to become more effective and independent readers.

Peer-Mediated Strategies

involves participation of other students in the reading comprehension process.

Reciprocal teaching

student generated questions and peer mediation; based on assumption that comprehension is enhanced when students read a text and then take turns leading small- group discussions to help their peers also understand what was read.

Graphic-aid strategies

visual formats to assist students in organizing information for better comprehension.

Story frames

graphic aid constructed by the teacher that helps students organize and summarize information. Guides comprehension by helping students sort out the important concepts and ideas of the material.

Semantic mapping

based on schema theory, understanding new information learned by integrating it with prior knowledge.


ability to read effectively with respect to speed, word recognition, and prosody.


expressive reading in terms of phrasing, intonation, and rhythm

Repeated readings (multiple oral readings)

used to enhance fluency; students receive a selection approximately 200 words in length with instructions to practice reading it orally while listening to a tape of the same material.

High-interest, low difficulty books (HILD)

books designed for students who read at reading levels well below their interest level.

Strategy instruction

critical element of instruction. Provides ways for students to monitor their comprehension as they are learning new words and concepts presented in text.

Reciprocal teaching

way for students to get more involved in the reading experience and to understand the big ideas better. Shared reading models which involves stopping often to share thinking.

Text generation

transfer of ideas into representations in language


the translation of language representations into the format of written language, through handwriting and spelling.

Informal measures of handwriting assessment

help identify the many factors that affect writing performance as well as the skills and abilities involved in the process.

Hoyle gripper

a three-sided plastic device that requires the child to place two fingers and the thumb in the proper position.

Mixed scripts

writing with an element of manuscript and cursive merged.


enhancement of activities learned


retaining accuracy and fluency of activities learned.

Precommunicative spelling

randomly stringing together letters of the alphabet without regard to letter-sound correspondence

Semi phonetic spelling

letters represent sound, but only some of the letters are represented

Phonetic spelling

words are spelled like they sound, all the phonemes are represented in a word, although the spelling may be unconventional

Transitional spelling

a visual memory of spelling patterns is apparent; spellings exhibit conventions of English orthography

Error analysis

careful scrutiny of patterns in a student's misspellings

Mnemonic strategies

strategies to help a student memorize a task or information

Invented spelling

students' creations of spelling which often reflect a direct application of phonology to words

Narrative writing

writing stories and personal essays

Informative writing

sharing knowledge and communicating instructions, ideas, and messages

Persuasive writing

influencing the reader's action and bringing about change


what the writer considers prior to the act of writing itself. Basic intent to write

Drafting stage

handwriting and spelling and other craft aspects and content of written language

Postwriting stage

editing of the craft aspects of writing and the revision of content, with emphasis on improving the written product (proofreading)


sharing the written work with an audience


examples of writing samples to compare over time and allow students and teachers to evaluate progress.

Language experience approach ( LEA)

natural approach that combines attention to listening, speaking, reading, and writing; students dictate stories and teachers transcribe for subsequent readings

Sentence extension

analyzes sentences to a series of WH-- questions (who, what, when, where) instead of initially labeling nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions.

Sentence combining

an effective way to increase syntactic maturity and improve quality of writing; encourages students to expand and develop their own creation.


paraphrasing strategy that involves Read a paragraph, Ask yourself the main ideas and details, and Put the mains ideas and details in your own words.

Story grammar

students focus the setting of the story to be written, the main supporting characters, the problem in the story and the plan to solve it, and the ending resolution

Procedural facilitators and elaborated dialogue

writing strategies that encourage students to think about, and talk to themselves, their teachers, and their peers about the writing process.


National Reading Panel

NRP identified 5 essential ares of reading instruction

phonemic awareness instruction
phonics instruction
fluency instruction
vocabulary instruction
text comprehension instruction

LEA ( language experience approach ) formal strategies

provide an experience , talk about the experience , record the dictation , read the text

story grammar strategies

enhance reading and writing skills of students with special needs ; the concept of building on former strategies

NRP's 8 evidence supported instructional techniques for classroom use

comprehension monitoring , cooperative learning , graphic and semantic organizers , story structure ,questioning answering , questioning generation , summarization , multiple strategy techniques

error- monitoring strategy COPS

Capitilization : have i capitalized the first word and proper nouns?
Overall appearance : have i made handwriting , margin , messy or spacing errors?
Punctuation : have i used end punctuation , commas , and semicolons correctly ?
Spelling : do the words appear to be spelled correctly?

why use graphic organizers?

helps understand how things go together, helps to remember information , assists with writing a final draft , helps organize any type of writing

chain of events

describes the stages of events ( beginning , middle , end)


non-linear activity to generate ideas around a stimulus word

spider map

topic in center with main ideas coming off and details off main ideas

short story analysis

table format that fills in information about characters , setting , theme , and plot

4 square method

visual frame work to asset in getting ideas , consist of topic sentence , opening supportive sentence , two supportive sentences and a summary sentence

steps to 4 square organizers

pre-4 activities : think of subtopic ideas
step 1: brainstorm 3 supporting details and writing a concluding sentence
step 2: 3 supporting details and a concluding sentence using an expository or perusaive type prompt
step 3: take writing off the organizer and put it in paragraph form

preliterate stage

drawing to stand for writing - purposeful communication , reads draws and scribbles as if they were writing , beings to mimic holding pencil like adult , toddlers use the term drawing and writing interchangably

early emergent stage

writing in strains of connected forms - some shapes actually resumable letters , unique crations that can look like poorly formed letters , children understand difference between drawing and writing


use letter sequences perhaps learned from writing their own name , write the same letters in a random order without spacing , research also show that children scribble and emergent writing take on the characteristics of printed language

semi phonetic stage

children create a mental image of a particular letter they wish to write , adults should provide a rich environment with print

phonetic stage

student become more aware that letters are written across a page and they read them as a sentence or series of sentences , the letters may appear on drawing a childs signature or description of the drawing

initial middle and final sounds

ages 4-5 at the stage beginning sound are used first , ending sounds , second , middle sounds followed by short vowels and sound come last , once children become comfortable writing congenital letter they begin to cluster letters together to make new words forms ( not real words)

transitional phases

6-7 , creates own spelling when conventional spelling is not know , one letter may represent the entire syllable , proper spacing may be used , only one or two letters may be invented or omitted

standard spelling / conventional spelling

ages 5-7 - the childs own name is usually written first followed by words such as mom , dad or love , initially children may copy words incorrectly eventually words will be written correctly , adults can support the childs move to conventional spelling by being patient

6 processes to write

1- pre-writing 2-drafting 3-editing 4- revising 5- poofreading 6- publishing


brainstorming , purpose , charts , story webs , graphic organizers


writing ideas on paper or in a word document , student should write and not worry about conventions or neatness , students may add additional facts later

editing , proofreading ,revising

blend together , to create writing from a draft to a final draft


making decision about what needs to be clarified


final copy , withers use a word processor or write as neat as possible

how do we learn to write

writing : modeled writing , shared writing , interactive writing , guided writing , and independent writing
writing : knowing age appropriate levels of reading comprehension , fluency , vocabulary , phonics and phonemic awareness

graphic organizers

chart sandwiching

prompt fading

chaing prompt giving less information each time

how do we learn handwriting

printed letters , top and print the letter and work you way down , practice wiring important letters ex you name , cursive writing


in order to spell correctly one must be able to convey phonemes to graphemes and have lexical knowledge

how is writing assessed

authentic writing assessments
assemsnt should be directed at objective
sharpiro tables
pssa assessments

authentic writing

real writing as the basis of writing assessment , the asim is to asses many different kinds of literacy abilities in meaningful usages

types of writing

descriptive , expository , narrative , persuasive , poetry , technical


assisnged a sore to a product that focuses on quality in writing , they have categories of measurement with descriptions of various levels

spelling assessments

formal assessment in dictation form
formal assessment in which students chose from a list of a word

6 traits for good writing

ideas , organizations , voice , word choices , sentence fluency , conventions , presentations


the main message , the content , main theme , together with the supporting details that enrich and develop that theme


structure can be based on comparison- contrast , deductive logic , point by point analysis , development of a central theme , chronological history of an event , identifiable patterns


coming through words , the sense that a real person is speaking to us and cares about the message , personal tone or flavor from the author

word choice

colorful , percise languages , vocabulary , senmatics , literal v. figurative

sentence fluency

fluency has been cadence , power , rhythm and movement , free of akward word patterns that slow the readers progress , sentences can vary in length , beginnings , structure and style


spelling , punctuation , captilization , grammar / usage , paragraphing , syntax


balance of white spaces and texts , graphics , neatness , handwriting , font selection , borders , overall appearance

what six things should be included in writing curriculum

1- previous linguistic experiences ( listening , speaking , reading )
2- ideation as a content / technical skills as a craft
3- process and product
4- personal experience
5- demonstrating cultural sensitivity
6- you own roots as a writer

what types of children struggle with handwriting and why

children with deficits/ attention or visual memory - are the strongest in the area suffer from physiological problems ( fine motor skills inhibited ) , kids who are susceptive to poor teaching

all children struggle with one aspect of the writing process

describe one formal assessment to assess spelling

test of written spelling 4 ( TWS-4) the ability to phonetically spell regular and phonetically irregular words ( standardized tests )

describe one informal assessment to assess spelling

consider progression through the 5 stages of spelling proficiency - 1 - pre-communicatiove , semi phonetic , phonetic , transitional
2- error analysis
3- diagnostic

how do teaching spelling strategies emphasize rules ? why is it important to emphasize rules when teaching spelling

look at a word , say the word , close your eyes , visualize the word , cover the word , write the word , check the spelling , if misspelled repeat

english contains relationships between sound and symbols to generate applying generalizations

explain invented spelling . has this method been evaluated empirically ? how should a teacher use invented spelling ?

invented spelling - children create the spelling of words based on the phonology of the word heard - cannot be evaluated empirically - teachers should only use as an experimental tool and id used carefully monitor its usage

what are the purposes of writing ? what are the three stages in the writing model ?

purpose : to bold on language domains to use for narrative , informative and persuasive method of expressions

stages: pre-writing , writing , post writing

describe three different way to assess writing ?

1- test of written languages ( TOWL-3 assessing the students ability to write , spell and other various components )
2- testing for quality such as ideas , content , word choices , fluency and conventions
3- portfolio writing , a collection of students writing samples student selected pieces and longitudinal reach of standard age writing goals

what is the difference between a teach - write and write teach approach to writing accord to the author which is better

the author says the write-teach is more affective because the teach-write lacks validation for learners with and without special needs

instructional strategies for motivating students when writing

motivation : encourage students to focus initially on ideation rather than mechanics of writing to make them feel comfortable , expose them to a variety of experiences to build basic knowledge, record thoughts using tapes , keep journals daily/ weekly, composition revisions

sentence extension

analysis sentence into wh?'s - who what when where how
label nouns, verbs , adj, adverbs , prepositions to keep instruction meaningful and relevent

sentence combining

to increase syntactic maturity and improve the overall quality of writing
- cluster sentences
encourage students to expand and develop their own individual creations

4 units of sentence extension

sentence writing
expanding sentences into paragraphs
paragraph writing for a purpose
theme writing

instructional strategies for students when writing

brainstorming , mapping/story webs , goals

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