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Collection of quizzes

Survey research involves _____ - the process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics, called the population.


The reporting accuracy of self-report studies is impacted by

the "missing cases" phenomenon.

Which of the following statements lends support to liberal feminist theory?

Female arrest rates are increasing.

While self-report studies can be used to examine the offense history of prison inmates and drug users, most self-report studies have focused on

youth crime.

The Uniform Crime Report is a primary source of crime data collected by the

Federal Bureau of Investigation.

A validity concern associated with the NCVS involves

victims overreporting crime.

When evaluating the three primary sources of crime data, the crime patterns and trends

are often quite similar.

Which of the following is not a key predictive factor for chronicity?

adequate parental supervision and control

The UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. How are crime rates expressed in the UCR?

rates per 100,000 total U.S. population

In Wolfgang et al.'s famous study of male juvenile delinquents, what percentage were chronic offenders?


Referring to the ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?

on July 1st with a temperature of 80 degrees

How does today's violent crime rate compare to the violent crime rate in 1991?

Today's violent crime rate as decreased by nearly 40%.

What shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?

the nonreporting issue

People living in poverty are believed to engage in disproportionate amounts of _____ crimes, such as rape and assault, as a result of their rage, anger, and frustration against society.


The UCR contains data on Part I (index) and Part II (non-index) crimes, although Part II crimes include Part I crimes. Which of the following is not a Part I offense?

hate crime

The NCVS annually samples more than 42,000 _________ and 78,000 individuals age 12 or older in order to estimate crime victimization.


Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins believe the _____ is the single most significant factor separating the crime problem in the United States from that of the rest of the developed world.

proliferation of handguns

According to the 2008 Monitoring the Future survey

the crime problem is greater than the UCR and NCVS indicate.

Some criminologists believe that the key to desistance and aging out is linked to human biology. What biological process accounts for desistance and aging out?

the level of hormone activity in the brain

UCR data associate social class with crime, indicating higher crime rates in inner-city, high-poverty areas. An alternative explanation for the association between social class and crime is ____, not actual criminal behavior patterns

law enforcement practices

Discovery of the chronic offender has forced criminologists to consider _____ in their explanations of crime.

Persistance and desistance

_____ suggests that as the African-American population increases, so does the amount of social control directed at them. This type of racism could account for the higher rates of minority crime in UCR data

Racial threat theory

Regardless of economic and marital status, which factor has the greatest influence on crime rates and trends?


Most criminologists believe that homicide data are the most accurate and valid UCR statistics. What do data indicate about homicide rates?

Between 1991 and 2008, homicide rates dropped 40%.

According to UCR data, what is known about today's property crime rate?

The property crime rate has dropped more than 10% in the past decade.

If the cost of the justice system, legal costs, and treatment costs are included, the total annual monetary loss due to crime is ___ or about ____ per U.S. citizen.

$450 billion - $1800

The most controversial element of the victims' rights movement is the

development of offender registration laws.

Why are schools the locale of a great deal of victimization?

Because schools are populated by teenage males.

The National Crime Victimization Survey is considered superior to the Uniform Crime Report because:

It provides are more accurate picture of the extent of crime in America

Some victims, especially ______ develop a persistent and paralyzing fear that they will be re-victimized.

the elderly

What discovery prompted the scientific study of victims?

the discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process

The elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that includes


Victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves. This abuse-crime phenomenon is termed

the cycle of violence.

Victim risk diminishes rapidly after age


Tom has been repeatedly victimized while wearing the home team's football jersey while sitting on the visiting team's side of the football field. What aspect of repeat victimization accounts for Tom's troubles?

target antagonism

Counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the criminal justice system, who guide victims through the justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court are called

victim advocates

Mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers that are designed to produce restitution agreements are called

victim-offender reconciliation programs

Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization?

victim precipitation theory

Being abused or neglected as a child __________ the odds of being arrested, both as a juvenile and as an adult.


Referencing the social ecology of victimization, in general, where is a violent crime more likely to take place?

in a park

_____ programs assist victims who feel isolated and vulnerable and who are in need of immediate or emergency services.

Crisis intervention

According to Cohen and Felson, why did crime rates increase between 1960 and 1980?

Because guardians decreased as a result of increased female participation in the workforce.

The long-term stress associated with crime victimization resulting in depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares is called

post-traumatic stress disorder.

People living in rural areas have a victimization rate almost __________ than that of city dwellers.

50% lower

Victim compensation is financial aid awarded to victims to repay them for lossand injury. Who ordinarily pays compensation?

the state

What category of victim precipitation occurs when the victim exhibits some personal characteristic that unknowingly either threatens or encourages the attacker?

passive precipitation

According to deviant place theory, the greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence. Which factor does not characterize a deviant/dangerous place?

a neighborhood with educational and residential properties

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presences of motivated offenders is called

routine activities theory.

In her study of rape survivors, Courtney Aherns found that the treatment survivors receive from legal, medical, and mental health services is so destructive that victims cannot help feeling


Gender affects victimization risk. Which of the following is a significant gender difference?

Women are more likely to be victimized by someone they know.

At the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the classical approach began to decline as _____ criminologists focused their attentions on internal and external factors - such as poverty, IQ, and education - rather than personal choice and decision making.


Rational choice theory has roots in the __________ school of criminology developed by the Italian social thinker, Cesare Beccaria.


Research on the immediate impact of well-publicized executions

failed to find evidence that an execution produces an immediate decline in the murder rate.

A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings is referred to as

situational crime prevention

Sociologist Jack Katz argues that there are situational inducements to criminality that directly precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations. Katz termed these inducements the

seductions of crime.

The concept of situational crime prevention suggests that desperate people may contemplate crime, but only the truly ____ will attack a well-defended, inaccessible target and risk strict punishment.


According to the rational choice approach, the decision to commit crime is structured by

where the crime occurs and the characteristics of the target.

Situational crime prevention tactics generally fall into one of four categories. Which of the following is not one of those categories?

increasing the use of probation for committing crime

The "high" or the excitement/exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations is referred to as


Which statement reflects structuring criminality based on economic need?

Offenders commit crime because they may know people who have made "big scores"

"Awareness space" indicates that which crime is rational?


Specific deterrence suggests that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts. What do we know about harsh (powerful) sanctions and deterrence?

All these things are known about harsh sanctions.

What is known about police and certainty of punishment?

The manner in which police approach their tasks may have more deterrence power than simply adding more police.

The rationale for using "three strikes" sentencing policies relies on

general deterrence and incapacitation

Closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras and improved street lighting are mechanical forms of

crime discouragers

According to Nobel Prize-winning economist Gary Becker, criminals engage in a(n) __________ of crime.

cost-benefit analysis

That thieves select German cars indicates that auto theft is rational because

German cars usually have high-quality audio equipment.

Crime is ________ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act.


Which of the following is a reason why some critics say it is premature to embrace three strikes policies?

Most three-time losers are on the verge of aging out of crime anyway.

Jacob's and Wright's research on robbers indicates that target selection can be a rational choice made to ____ rather than to generate capital.

send a message

Economist Steven Levitt concludes that each person put behind prison bars results in a decrease of ___ serious crimes per year.


Why is drug dealing considered a rational crime?

Because drug dealers approach their "profession" in a businesslike fashion.

Which aspect of deterrence theory do theorists believe to have the greatest effect on deterring crime?

certainty of punishment

When video cameras set up in a mall to reduce shoplifting also reduce property damage due to vandalism, this situational crime prevention benefit is termed


Which of the following circumstances would prompt an offender to decide to forgo crime?

The offender would stand a good chance of being caught and punished.

Evidence exists that indicates abnormally low levels of brain chemical compounds called __________ are associated with violent behavior.


Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) developed ________ psychology that has remained a prominent segment of psychological theory ever since.


According to ___________, for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli.

arousal theory

Biological explanations of crime reemerged in the early _______ with the publication of Sociobiology by Edmond O. Wilson.


Biosocial research has found that abnormal levels of male sex hormones, known as __________, do in fact produce aggressive behavior.


Genetic theory holds that criminality-producing traits are


According to the psychoanalytic perspective, the __________ develops as a result of incorporating within the personality the moral standards and values of parents, community, and significant others.


Many ADHD children also suffer from ____and continually engage in aggressive and antisocial behavior early in childhood.

conduct disorder.

What is known about mental disorders and crime?

It is possible that the link between mental illness and crime is spurious and caused by some other factor.

Which perspective bests supports the fact that human history has been marked by war, violence and aggression?


Which of the following is NOT considered to contribute to a healthy diet and, thus, good mental health and well-adjusted behavior patterns?

heavy metals such as lead and mercury

Brain structure, brain damage, and brain chemicals are the causes of behavior in the __________ perspective.


Locations with the highest concentrations of lead also report the highest levels of


__________ reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.

Trait theory

What research finding counters criminologists who claim that only low-IQ criminals get caught?

There is little difference in the IQ scores of self-reported and official criminals.

A significant criticism of biosocial theory has been

IT has not been subjected to sufficiently vigorous empirical testing

__________ was the forerunner of modern learning theorists who believed that people learn from one another through imitation.

Albert Bandura

Diet, hormones, and contaminants are the causes of behavior in the ________ perspective.


Socio-biologists view all EXCEPT which one of the following factors as being mutually interdependent?


In adoption studies, which of the following strongly predicted a child's criminal behavior?

a criminal biological father

Brain scanning techniques using electronic images suggest which of the following statements is true?

Both violent criminals and substance abusers have impairment in the pre-frontal lobe.

Social learning theory holds that

people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences.

__________ is the branch of behavior theory most relevant to criminology.

Social learning theory

What do we know about psychopaths and crime?

Psychopaths tend to continue their criminal careers long after other offenders age out of crime.

________ is a psychological perspective that focuses on mental processes - how people perceive and mentally represent the world around them.

Cognitive theory

Failure to complete high school greatly impacts one's social and economic opportunities. What percent of inner-city, black males do not complete high school?

over 50%

According to institutional anomie theorists, the _________ is both a goal and process to accumulate goods and wealth.

American Dream

Cultural deviance theory combines elements of _____ and social disorganization theories.


Social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth. While the upper-class is exceptionally well-to-do, ______ people live in poverty in America.


__________ reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to criminality.

General strain theory

General strain theory is not purely a structural theory because it focuses on how _____ influence behavior.

life events

Cohen's theory of delinquent subcultures focuses on social conditions that prevent lower-class youths from achieving success legitimately. Cohen labels this form of culture conflict

status frustration

When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as


Walter Miller identified the unique conduct norms that define the lower-class culture and that often clash with conventional values. Which of the following is not one of those norms?


Which of Merton's social adaptations is most closely associated with criminal behavior?


According to social structure theory, the root cause of crime can be directly traced to

socioeconomic disadvantages that have become embedded in American society.

Shaw and McKay explained crime and delinquency within the context of

the changing urban environment and ecological development of the city.

What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?

culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them

Why are personal relationships, including establishing communication and common goals, strained in socially disorganized neighborhoods?

Because residents are constantly moving in and out of the neighborhood.

________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.

Social classes

Agnew suggests that criminality is the direct result of __________ - the anger, frustration and adverse emotions associated with destructive social relationships.

negative affective states

Strain theory holds that crime is a function of

conflict between people's goals and means.

What is the result of ineffective community social control efforts?

Crime rates increase.

As working and middle-class families flee inner-city poverty areas, the most disadvantaged population is consolidated in urban ghettos. This phenomenon results in a poverty

concentration effect

Social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to

community deterioration.

Cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where people develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop

collective efficacy.

Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ________ that is passed on from one generation to the next.

a culture of poverty

Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called

cultural transmission.

According to the author, the most important of Shaw and McKay's findings was that

crime rates correspond to neighborhood structure.

Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of __________, the idea that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.

relative deprivation

Social process theories share one basic concept. Which is it?

All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals.

Social control theory suggests that

crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken.

Social reaction theory suggests that

people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such.

_________ refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a non-coercive way.

Parental efficacy

Adolescents who do not receive affection from their parents during childhood are

more likely to use illicit drugs and be more aggressive as they mature.

Children who fail in school offend more frequently than those who graduate. According to research on national dropout rates, which of the following group sets has "little more than a fifty-fifty chance" of graduating high school?

Hispanic Americans and African Americans

According to the author, which of the following is accurate regarding why troubled kids choose delinquent peers?

Troubled kids do so out of necessity rather than desire.

When examining the relationship between delinquent peers and fear of punishment, ____ delinquent peers may outweigh the fear of punishment.

loyalty to

Religion and belief impact criminal behavior. Even children in high crime areas are better able to resist drug use if they

attend religious services.

Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that

criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior.

Which of the following research findings supports the core principles of differential association theory?

Crime appears to be intergenerational.

The process of _____ refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values.


Neutralization theory points out that

even the most committed criminals and delinquents are not involved in criminality all the time.

Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by maintaining that the crime victim "had it coming." This is an example of which technique of neutralization?

denial of the victim

Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by "appealing to higher loyalties." Which of the following would be an example of that technique?

Attacking someone who is arguing with a friend.

Do criminals really neutralize? What does Topalli's research on street criminals indicate?

Street criminals do not experience guilt that requires neutralization.

Pioneering social control theorist, Walter Reckless argued that a _______ insulates a youth from the pressures of crimogenic influences in the environment.

strong self-image

Travis Hirschi tested the principal hypotheses of social control theory. While evidence was strong and supportive, what is the most controversial aspect of Hirschi's conclusions?

Any form of social attachment is beneficial, even to deviant peers and parents.

Which of the following issues has been raised regarding the validity of social control theory?

Delinquency may lead to weakened social bonds, not vice versa.

In its purest form, __________ theory argues that even crimes such as murder, rape, and assault are only bad or evil because people label them as such.

social reaction

According to Lemert, __________ involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten.

primary deviance

The boyhood friend of a convicted murderer is interviewed by the media and reports that the offender was withdrawn, suspicious, and negativistic as a youth. This is an example of

retrospective reading

__________ is a process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of the mainstream of society and offenders begin their escalating cycle of deviance.

Deviance amplification

A competency hearing in which a person is declared "mentally ill," or a trial where someone in found to be a "rapist" are forms of __________ according to Harold Garfinkle.

successful degradation ceremonies

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