P&H Social structure, men, women, freedmen, slaves

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Men were seen as
Leaders of society
Freeborn men were
Wealthy landowners and traders who dominated local government
Middle class were
All freeborn males that were artisans, shopkeepers and business men
Women could not marry unless
They had consent from their father (paterfamilias)
Upon their fathers death
A daughter could inherit their share of the estate with equals terms with sons, therefore upperclass women could become rich and emancipated
Women could not
Dispose of their property
Education for women
20% could read and write. E.g. the Poet Sappho
Women became rich due to
inheriting property from family members e.g. Julia Felix or from marrying into a rich family e.g. Eumachia
Often women were sold as slaves to
earn some money and avoid dowries
Libertini
slaves who had been manumitted
Libertini maintained a connection to their original owners
to maintain a patron-client relationship E.g. Umbricius Abascantus
Libertini could not become senators or be involved in politics however
Their children could e.g. Reconstruction of the temple of Isis
Meny libertini became wealthy. An example of this is
The House of Vetti
Slaves were made through
capture and auction. Their children would then be slaves to their parents masters
40% of the population
were slaves
slaves had to be
paid otherwise they would not be able to buy their freedom. The vast majority could not afford to do this
jobs for slaves included
child carers, tutors, wet-nurses and administration duties if they were educated
Temple of Isis
Bears a dedicatory inscription to its reconstructor, Celsinus. It was his father the libertini Numerius who financed this reconstruction. This demonstrates social flexibility
Statue of Eumachia
Indicator of the prominence of women in society
Ampitheatre
different sections indicated the social structure according to where you sat. lower central for dignitaries, behind libertini, average male citizens, then seats high up for women and slaves