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Terms in this set (58)
How could doctors now easily pass their ideas on to others?
invention of the printing press
How did artists help the development of medicine?
they painted realistic 3-D images, so more could be learnt about the human body
How did he learn about the human body?
By cutting down the bodies of dead criminals, and then dissecting them
Vesalius proved the ideas of which ancient doctor wrong?
What was the name of Vesalius' book?
'THE FABRIC OF THE HUMAN BODY' (1543)
How did the Renaissance artists help Vesalius?
Artists from the studio of Titian drew incredibly life-like pictures to illustrate his book.
How did Vesalius encourage doctors to make further discoveries?
By studying and dissecting dead bodies he knew that people would be able to prove Galen wrong.
What was Paré's job?
How had people treated wounds before Paré?
CAUTERISING: pouring boiling oil on wounds,or sealing them with a red-hot iron
How did chance help Paré's discovery?
He ran out of oil!
How did Paré decide to treat wounds instead?
He made an ointment of egg yolks, oil of roses and turpentine and used it on wounds. He also tied silk thread round each of theblood vessels - LIGATURES.
Name Pare's book
'WORKS ON SURGERY' (1575)
Why did many of Paré's patients still die?
Infection- they still didn't know about germs,so many wounds got very infected.
What did people believe about blood before Harvey?
That blood was made in the liver to replace the blood that was burnt up in the body.
What did Harvey discover?
CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD - the heart pumps blood around the body
How did dissection help Harvey's discovery?
He dissected live, cold-blooded animals so he could see their hearts pumping.
What was the name of Harvey's book?
'ON THE MOTION OF THE HEART' (1628)
In time Harvey's discovery led to the end of which popular medical treatment?
BLEEDING or BLOOD-LETTING
For which two modern medical practices can we thank Harvey for his discovery?
VACCINATIONS, BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS
What were two reasons why progress took place in the Renaissance?
The spirit of enquiry. Decline in religious objection to human dissection
What was Vesalius' book of 1538?
What was Vesalius' book of 1543?
Fabric of the human body
What was the new style of dissection encouraged by Vesalius?
What 2 reasons were there for short term opposition to Vesalius?
Criticism of 'Galen the Divine'. The method of bleeding (same side as illness)
Give 2 examples of Vesalius' long term importance
He influenced early 19th century internal surgery. He broke 1500 years of depending on Galen
What did Pare suggest instead of cauterisation?
Ligatures (silk thread)
What did Pare advocate using instead of boiling oil?
Lotions and bandages
What supernatural surgical approach was proved to be ineffective by Pare?
Bezoar stone (tested on condemned criminal)
Give 2 reasons why Pare was accepted in the short term?
His ideas were external (so visible/practical). He wrote in French not Latin
What are 2 examples of Pare's long term influence?
Prosthetics (leading to plastic surgery). He influenced Lister in overcoming infection from ligatures
How did Harvey prove blood circulation?
Dissected live cold blooded animals. Dissected corpses. Measured blood capacity.
Why was Harvey opposed?
Criticism of 'Galen the Divine'. People couldn't see capillaries
What examples are there of Harvey's long term impact?
Blood groups (Karl Landsteiner 1901). Blood transfusions. Heart transplants (1st one in 1967).
Rebirth of these ideas encouraged people to think for themselves.
Sold and mixed medicines prescribed by a physician, often treated poor.
Developed by Pare to aid wounded soldiers.
Trained through a 6 year apprenticeship to treat wounds and injuries, looked down on by physicians.
Pare proved through experimentation this herbal remedy was not a cure for poison.
Traditional method of cauterizing (sealing) wounds using heat either boiling oil or hot metal.
Increasingly people were willing to question traditional ideas.
Chirurgery / Chirurgeons
Alternative spellings for surgery / surgeons respectively.
Circulation of blood
Harvey's discovery that the heart pumps blood round the body in one direction.
Increasingly encouraged to investigate the body.
Many of his ideas began to be questioned.
Great Plague 1665
Epidemic with some improvements on how to prevent its spread compared to 14th Century (plague in 1348) but many treatments still the same.
Specialized in circulation of blood, proved Galen wrong.
Method developed by Pare to stop bleeding by tying off blood vessels using silk thread.
A true Renaissance man. Questioned established ideas in many aspects of medicine.
Barber surgeon who developed new surgical techniques.
Alternative to cauterization: egg yolks, oil of roses and turpentine.
A doctor of medicine who trained at university.
Communication factor - Allowed medical knowledge to be spread accurately.
Person who falsely claims to have medical ability or qualifications.
Time period when rebirth of Ancient Greek/Roman's approach to the world i.e. own observation and experimentation = new ideas.
Developments in this field used to illustrate new medical findings.
Specialized in anatomy, proved Galen wrong.
Person believed to have knowledge of herbal remedies and treatments.
Fabric of the Human Body
Vesalius's book on anatomy and physiology
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