All Digital Media I Terms

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Terms in this set (...)

alternative text
word or phrase that can be inserted as an attribute in an HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) document to tell Web site viewers the nature or contents of an image
content
information made available by a website or other electronic medium.
CSS
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a markup language.
Flash
allows Web developers to incorporate animations and interactive content into their websites.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer computer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet
Graphics Optimization
compressing the graphics to the smallest size possible w/o losing quality
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language, a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, color, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages.
Hyperlink
a link from a hypertext file or document to another location or file, typically activated by clicking on a highlighted word or image on the screen.
image map
a list of coordinates relating to a specific image, created in order to hyperlink areas of the image to different destinations
Internet Browser
A program that accesses and displays files and other data available on the Internet and other networks
JavaScript
an object-oriented computer programming language commonly used to create interactive effects within web browsers.
Navigation
the science and skill which you apply to a web site that helps visitors move from one page to another.
Page Layout
the arrangement of text, images, and other objects on a page.
PHP
a script language and interpreter that is freely available and used primarily on Linux Web servers.
Rollover
a facility on an electronic keyboard enabling one or several keystrokes to be registered correctly while another key is depressed.
root folder
In hierarchical file systems, the starting point in the hierarchy. When the computer is first started, the root directory, also called the "root folder," is the current directory.
search engine
a program that searches for and identifies items in a database that correspond to keywords or characters specified by the user, used especially for finding particular sites on the World Wide Web.
Template
a preset format for a document or file, used so that the format does not have to be recreated each time it is used.
Text Editor
a system or program that allows a user to edit text.
URL
A URL is one type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); the generic term for all types of names and addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web. The term "Web address" is a synonym for a URL that uses the HTTP / HTTPS protocol.
Web Design
encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine optimization.
Web Forms
pages that your users request using their browser. These pages can be written using a combination of HTML, client-script, server controls, and server code.
Web Languages
languages used for Web programming
Wireframe
an image or set of images which displays the functional elements of a website or page, typically used for planning a site's structure and functionality.
WYSIWYG
denoting the representation of text on screen in a form exactly corresponding to its appearance on a printout.
Digital Video
Moving images that have been captured, created, or edited electronically. Analog (non-digital) video signals transmit information continuously in the form of a wave. Digital video signals transmit information in the dorm of individual bits of data.
Aspect Ratio
Ratio of a video screen's height dimension and width dimension; common ratios are standard (4:3) and widescreen (16:9)
Frame Rate
Speed at which video frames appears on a screen; measured by F.P.S. (frames per second)
Scanning Method
Method by which video picture appears on a screen (720p. 1080i. etc.)
Interlaced
Displays half of the video picture at a time (odd lines, then even); alternates too quickly for human eye to notice.
Progressive
Displays the entire video picture at all times; greatly reduces any flickering of the picture; better quality image than interlaced.
Broadcasting Systems
Different parts of the world use a variety of video broadcasting systems.
NTSC
National Television System Committee. Used in North America and many other parts of the western hemisphere.
SECAM
Sequential Color with Memory. Used primarily by France, Northern Africa, and Russia.
PAL
Phase Alternating Line. Used by Europe, China, and many other parts the of the Eastern Hemisphere.
Streaming Video
Transmitting video files that can begin playing over the internet as the remaining data is still being downloaded. Creates little to no wait time to begin viewing the video file. Example websites that use streaming video technology include YouTube, Netflix, Vimeo, UStream, etc.
Pre-Production
Determines overall purpose of the project, and intended target audience. Uses a storyboard to determine sequence of events in the video and provide client with a visual representation of ideas. Consult with the client to write a script that effectively conveys the intended message. Also determines the hardware needs such as: Computer, video camera(s), Microphone to capture audio, tripod to steady camera shots, and if needed, lighting. Also determines specific software needs such as the video editing software.
Video Editing Software
Captures video from the camera media and imports into the editing software. Manipulates video footage and adds the desired effects to convey the intended message.
Production
Setup equipment such as tripods, cameras, and lighting. Record the footage according to storyboard. Save and organize recorded video.
Rule of Thirds
Mentally dividing the frame into both horizontally and vertically (similar to a tic-tac-toe board) subject should occupy two-thirds of the frame.
Wide Shot
Shows subject and location/environment in its entirety
Medium Shot
Shows a part of the subject with more detail while still giving an impression of the location/environment
Close-Up Shot
Shows a particular part of a subject with more detail.
High Angle Shot
When camera location is above normal eye-level compared to the subject.
Low Angle Shot
When camera location is below normal eye-level compared to the subject.
Zoom
Uses the mechanics of the camera's lens to make the subject appear closer or further away; physical location of the camera does not change.
Pan
Horizontally pivoting the camera left or right; physical location of the camera does not change.
Tilt
Vertically pivoting the camera up or down; physical location of the camera does not change.
Dolly
The camera physically moves toward or away from the subject to make it appear closer of further away.
Truck
The camera physically moves horizontally (left or right)
Crane
The camera physically moves vertically (up or down)
Focus
Adjusting the camera's lens settings to make the footage of the subject clear and not blurry.
White Balance
Adjusting the camera's color settings to match true white; results in all other colors becoming balanced.
Iris
Adjust the camera's lens settings to allow the appropriate amount of light into the camera.
Post-Production
Import recorded footage into the video editing software or gather existing footage from outside sources. Select, edit, and assemble the video clips according to storyboard. Adjust audio levels, add titles, and add transitions to the video clips to convey the intended message to the audience.Optimize and export the video output file for specific client needs, including: Primary use of video production, file size requirements, and file format requirements.
FLV
Uses the Adobe© Flash Player for video playback.
Commonly used for embedding videos on the internet.
MPEG2
Format used for DVDs.
MPEG4
Format used for Blu-Ray Discs.
Standard fo streaming videos over the internet.
MOV
Uses the Quicktime© player for video playback.
Standard video format for Apple© computers.
AVI
Standard video format for Microsoft© PCs
WMV
Uses the Windows© Media Player for video playback.
Microsoft© file format used for streaming the internet.
Digital Animation
creating movement of graphics and/or text
Frame-based animation
A series of individual still frames that create the
illusion of animation when viewed continuously; stop-motion
Vector Animation
Uses computer generated formulas to make
objects in the animation move along a path; has a smaller file size and smoother movement
2D Animation
uses two dimensions and has a flat appearance
3D Animation
uses three dimensions and has a more realistic appearance
Pre-Production
define parameters of the project and make preliminary decisions; find purpose, target audience and use a storyboard
Production
work in an animation software to create a digital animation; determine hardware needs
Post-Production
optimize the animation output file for specific client needs
Frame
still image that creates animation when viewed in succession
Keyframe
specified place in the animation where change occurs
Tween
animation process that occurs between keyframes
Library
collection of graphics, audio, and video files utilized in a particular animation project
Symbol
an object stored in the library of a project that can be quickly accessed and used repeatedly throughout an animation
Shape
a simple object drawn on the stage of an animation
FPS
(Frames Per Second) unit of playback speed of an animation
Alpha
transparency value of an object in animation; normally used to make an object gradually fade in or fade out
Anchor Point
rotation axis of an animated spinning object
Scene
a division of frames used to separate different parts of an animation to make editing and playback easier to organize
Animated GIF
framed-based; simplest way to display short animation clips; cannot play audio
SWF
supports either frame-based or vector for use on the internet
MOV
converts animation to a video file; used for television broadcasting
FLV
Adobe Flash Player video format standard for the internet
FLA
Adobe Flash format the preserves the projects layers, scenes, and library for future editing
Digital Graphics
Any image or design created or edited by a computer. This can be drawings, logos, photos, icons, diagrams, charts, buttons, or advertising.
Bitmap Graphics
Uses square pixels, loses clarity when viewed up close or zoomed in, & is also referred to as Raster Graphics.
Vector Graphics
Uses mathematic formulas to define lines, points, curves, and other attributes, does not lose clarity,& is best for printing large scale.
Resolution
describes the clarity of bitmap graphics, & is determined and defined by the number of pixels per inch (PPI).
Low Resolution
Blurry in appearance and has a relatively small file size.
High Resolution
Very clear in appearance and has a relatively large file size.
Black & White
A color mode that uses only true black & true white.
Grayscale
A color mode that uses true black, true white, & all shades of gray in between.
True Color
A color mode that uses all possible color combinations.
RGB (Red, Green, Blue)
A color mode that is optimized for viewing on a screen.
CYMK (Cyan,Yellow, Magenta, Black)
A color mode that is optimized for printing purposes.
Color Depth
The number of distinct colors a graphic is capable of displaying, it is related to color mode.
1-Bit
A type of color depth that only uses Black and White
8-Bit
A type of color depth that uses Indexed Color (256 colors)
24-Bit
A type of color depth that uses True Color (16.7 million colors)
Pre-Production
Consists of the purpose, target audience, sketch, layout, color scheme, hardware needs & software needs of a project.
Production
Working in a design software to create an original digital graphic; this consists of the importing or existing graphics, drawing or creating an original graphic, adding text, and finally editing arranging & editing the design and its components.
Post-Production
Optimize the graphic design for client needs including; primary use for the graphic design, file size requirements, and file format requirements.
Hardware
these are usually a scanner, computer, still photo camera, and/or graphic tablet.
Paint Program
digital graphic editing program that creates and/or edits bitmap graphics, like Adobe Photoshop
Draw Program
digital graphic editing program that creates and/or edits vector graphics, like Adobe Illustrator.
Cropping
Eliminating unwanted parts of a graphic.
Selection
Surrounding specific part(s) of a graphic to make individual adjustments.
Scaling
Changing a graphic's size dimensions (height & width)
Layering
Separating components of a design individually or into groups in order to make specific adjustments.
Opacity
An adjustable feature of a layer that determines how little or how much you can see through a design component; transparency.
Filters
Preset effects used to quickly adjust a graphic's appearance.
Grids and Rulers
Measuring tools used to assist in the sealing, arranging, & spacing of design components.
Gradient
A gradual change of color within a design component.
Layer Styles
Preset effects applied to graphics and/or text within a design that add depth and dimension, these include things like stroke, bevel, emboss, and drop shadow.
JPEG
The most common graphic file type, has full color graphic format, and has a relatively small file size.
GIF
Has indexed color format and supports simple transparency layer.
PNG
This supports advanced transparency, has a relatively average file size, and can be interlaced, optimizing for internet use.
TIFF
Is a versatile graphic file type that can use a variety of color formats, and this format works best for desktop publishing or print work.
TGA
This format is most commonly used by digital scanners, has a full color format, and has a relatively large file size.
PSD
This is the native file type used by Adobe Photoshop; it does not compress layers of a design, allowing for future editing, and can only be opened and edited by Photoshop.
Color
Helps identify objects in a design, communicates feelings and moods
Complementary Colors
Colors that are across from each other on the color wheel and work well together
Hue
the name given to a color
Saturation
the amount of hue used in a particular color
Brightness
how light or dark a color appears
Lines
give direction and movement to a design
Vertical Lines
Carry the eye up and down the page
Diagonal Lines
slanted and adds interest to a design
Horizontal Lines
Carry the eye left and right
Curved Lines
Gently bent and gives a soft relaxed feel to a design
Shape
The form of an object
Texture
Combination of dots, lines, and colors used to create the illusion of a surface appearance
Proportion
the size relationship between components of a design
Formal Balance
design is exactly equal on both sides
Balance
How design elements are arranged either horizontally or vertically on the canvas
Informal Balance
Both sides of the design are not equal but are still balanced
Rhythm
generated through he repetition of lines, colors, shapes, and textures
Emphasis
Center of interest in a design
Unity/Harmony
When all components of a design look as if they belong together
Traditional Media
communication that was well established before the internet age: books, newspapers, magazines, etc...
Social Media
created and controlled by a community of users that interact using the internet
Digital Media
the use of creative design and computers to combine media to reach an audience
Pre-production
defining the parameters of the project and making preliminary decisions about the project
Production
the active process of creating an original piece of digital media
Post-production
modifying and finalizing a project to accomplish the intended purpose, optimizing the output file types to meet the clients needs
Commercial
intended to persuade the audience to use or buy a product
Entertainment
intended to captivate an audience and keep them engaged
News/Informational
informs the audience about recent evens and/or provides information about a topic
Public Service Announcement
conveys an important message to the public to instigate the public to take action
Educatioal
uses digital media to interactively teach content or demonstrate a process
Industry Certifications
standardized assessments that use software and terminology commonly found in the industry
Physical Safety Issues
Physical hazards associated with digital media production that can harm people.
Digital Safety Issues
Computer and technology-related dangers to an individual's personal, financial, emotional or physical well-being.
Electrical Hazard
A dangerous condition that can pose a threat of injury or death through contact with electrical current.
Tripping Hazards
Examples include: cords in walkways, open drawers, and cluttered work areas
Ergonomics
The science of designing the workplace to fit the worker. This science is used to decrease the possibility and severity of injury.
Identity Theft
The stealing of an individual's personal data in order to steal money from bank accounts, use the person's credit cards, or otherwise misuse the person's information.
Cyberbullying
Tormenting, harassing or otherwise targeting another person using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones. This safety threat can be a direct attack or can enlist others to take part in the harassment.
Virus/Malware
Programs that are specifically designed to damage a computer when installed; can access personal information, corrupt files, and even erase the hard drive completely
Spam
Unwanted e-mail sent to a large number or people.
Online Hoax
A false claim that is commonly spread via email or social media. They can be malicious, or mischievous.
Internet Addiction
An obsession with spending time online. The obsession can include gambling, cybersex, compulsive online gaming, or shopping.
JPEG
Most common graphic file format, full color graphic format (16.7 million colors), relatively small file size.
GIF
Indexed color format images (256 colors), supports simple transparency layer and simple frame-based animation that cannot play audio.
PNG
Supports advanced transparency, relatively average file size and can be interlaced, optimizing for internet use.
TIFF
Versatile graphic file type that can use a variety of color formats but has very large file size. Format works best for publishing or print work.
TGA
Format most commonly used by digital scanners - full color format (16.7 million colors) relatively large file size.
PSD
Native file type used by Adobe® Photoshop. Does not compress layers of a design, allowing for future editing - can only be opened and edited by Photoshop.
SWF
Standard animation format exported from Flash for use on the Internet can support frame-based or vector animation. Supports ActionScript coding, allowing for user interactivity/games - relatively small file size.
MOV
Converts an animation by exporting to a video file. File can then be imported and edited by a video editing software - used for television broadcasting. Universal format for all computers and uses the Quicktime® player for video playback. It is also the standard video format for Apple® computers.
FLV
Video format that uses the Adobe® Flash Player for animation playback - standard format for embedded video on the Internet. Used for moving advertisements. Not interactive, just playback.
FLA
Native (original) project file used by Adobe® Flash
that preserves the project's layers, scenes, and library for future editing - can only be opened or edited by Flash. Files are exported as a .SWF or FLV for viewing on the web.
MP3
Most popular audio file format. Standard for downloading and storing music files - commonly used for streaming over the Internet. Compatible on all devices (computers, phones, etc.)
WAV
Standard audio creation file format for PCs, native sound format within the Windows® environment. Does not work on Apple products, Linux, most phones, etc.
WMA
Uses Windows® Media Player for audio playback - Microsoft® format used for streaming audio files. This is an exported file that is not editable.
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface that is the standard file format used by digital instruments (keyboards, guitars, etc.). It contains information about musical notes
AAC and M4A
Standard file format used by mobile devices and Apple® Computers. Higher quality sound than .MP3
and can be played on PC/MAC or other platforms.
AVI
Standard video format for Microsoft® PCs
WMV
Uses the Windows® Media Player for video playback and is the Microsoft® file format used for streaming on the Internet.
W
If it starts with this, it will probably only work on a PC.
Playback
These file types can only be viewed. They are exported already and are not editable.
Native
These file types are the original files, like a .PSD or .FLA that are editable and preserve layers, hidden tracks, etc.
Exported File Types
These files are optimized for small file size and quick playback on the web and other devices.
MPEG2
Format used for DVDs
MPEG4
Format used for Blu-Ray Discs (better quality than MPEG-2), standard for streaming videos over the Internet.
HTML
Basic framework for all web design, written using "tags" that a web browser uses to interpret the code and generate the content on the webpage - tags denote structured elements like headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.
CSS
separates layout and design features (color scheme, fonts, menu styles, etc.) from the actual content of the website to make it easy to make site-wide design changes to fonts, headlines, etc. It is the most common format of downloadable templates found on the Internet.
JavaScript
client-side web development, creates standalone computer programs that run entirely on the user's machine, which is quicker and more secure. For online sales, forms and buttons that require user input.
PHP
Connects to an HTML file to a database of information on a external server and created dynamic websites with enhanced user interactivity.
Audio panning
when audio is recorded through seperate channels
Codec
Compression/Decompression or Coder/Decoder. Videoconferencing standard, included in hardware and/or software, used to compress or code video, audio, and data signals for transmission and decompress or decode the signal at the other end of the transmission.
Crossfade
gradual volume transition from one clip to another
Digital Audio
sound that has been captured or created electronically
Looping
used to make section of audio repeat
Master Level
Used to control the overall output volume of a recording
MIDI
file format for musical instrument digital interference
Monaural
all audio sources play out of a single channel
MP3
most popular audio file format
Sampling
reproduces a sound wave by recording many fragments of it
Stereophonic
sound coming from multiple channels
Surround sound
multiple audio channels
V.U. meter
A visual representation fo the audio volume level; used to control overall output of sound
Streaming
audio files that can begin playing over the internet while they are still being downloaded
Track
separate layers of audio used to record sources individually
Over-Modulation
sound interference that occurs during recording when audio levels are too high and causes the signal to distort or lose clarity
Clip
a section of recorded sound
Trim/Splice
starting and stopping audio clips at a defined point in the recording
Fade Up
Gradually increasing the volume of an audio clip
Fade Down
Gradually decreasing the volume of an audio clip
Background Audio
Music and/or sounds used with a voiceover to add interest and depth
Voiceover
a voice recording used to convey a message
WAV
standard file format for PC and native sounds for Windows
WMA
file format uses Windows Media play for playback and Microsoft streams this
AAC/M4A
standard Apple file format and used for mobile devices
Copyright
A form of intellectual property that gives the author of an original work exclusive rights related to that work for a specified time period.
Rights Protected by Copyright
Reproduction, Adaptation, Distribution, Public Performance, Public Display
Copyright Qualifications
Originality, Minimal creativity, and Fixation
Things that can be Copyrighted
Photos, stories, illustrations, cartoons, advertisements, novels, Internet publications, marketing campaigns, films
Difficult or Impossible to Copyright
Ideas, facts, government records, slogans, titles, short phrases, names, familiar symbols, lists of ingredients, basic instructions
Purpose of Copyright
Encourage progress through advancements of arts and sciences, Reward creative efforts, Promote societal knowledge
Patent
A set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor for a limited period of time in exchange for public disclosure.
Trademark
Type of intellectual property typically associated with a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or combination of these elements.
Plagiarism
Taking someone else's work or ideas passing them off as your own
Fair Use
a legal allowance of using copyrighted material without permission from the owner, provided the circumstances are reasonable and do not make the material less profitable
False Light
Making a statement about someone else when that statement bares no truth.
Libel
A published (written or printed) false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation or success
Slander
An oral (spoken) false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation or success
Invasion of Privacy
Intruding into someone's personal space, using their image or likeness, or revealing information about them without their permission