AP Euro Unit 11

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Terms in this set (...)

Cold War
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
Decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Containment
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Cominform
Soviet organization whose purpose was to denounce Marshall Plan aid and spread communism worldwide
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under Franc, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
COMECON
the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; Soviet dominated group that provided resources to Soviet bloc countries; ends in 1991
U.N. Resolution on Israel
replace the British Mandate for Palestine with "Independent Arab and Jewish States" and a "Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem" administered by the United Nations
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Gen. MacArthur
During the Korean War, he was commander of Allied Forces in the South Pacific during World War II and of UN forces in Korea. He lead the American, British, and South Korean forces. MacArthur fought up until the Yalu River by the Chinese border. Truman told him to only use Korean forces in case China got involved. However MacArthur did not follow orders and sent US, British and Korean forces to fight. The Chinese responded heavily and the troops were pushed back to the 38th parallel. Truman was extremely upset and dismissed MacArthur. Some believe that MacArthur was the reason that the US failed to "liberate" North Korea.
Destalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
Hungarian Uprising
Hungarian nationalists staged huge demonstrations demanding non-communist parties be legalized; turned into armed rebellion and spread throughout the country, November 1, 1956, Nagy declared Hungary a free nation, three days after Red Army invaded Budapest and Soviets regained control with Kadar replacing Nagy
Imre Nagy
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR (withdraw from the Warsaw Pact) which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt. He was killed by a firing squad once the USSR took control of Hungary via military force
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Cuban Missle Crisis
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
Leonid Brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
Alexander Dubcek
The First Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, who tried to lessen the Soviet Union's control over Czechoslovak. His attempts led to the "Prague Spring." He was later replaced when the Soviet Union sent troops to force a return of Communist control.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.
Détente
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Lech Walsea
The leader of the Polish anti-soviet resistance, and in 1990 he won the presidency in Poland's first free election in half a century. As an organizer of shipyard strikes in the mid-1970s, he lost his job in 1976 over his anti-communist political views, along with many others who dared to resist the Soviet influence.
Polish Solidarity
is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. Solidarity was the first non-communist party controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. In the 1980s it constituted a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to start negotiating with the union.
Ronald Reagan
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Ghandi
spiritual leader of India who used civil disobedience to expose the British mistreatment and to seek equality for Indians in India
Salt March
passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
Explain how Vietnam War is connected to Decolonization
The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. The North Vietnamese government and Viet Cong viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the U.S., and later against South Vietnam, which it regarded as a U.S. puppet state
How did U.S. become involved in The Vietnam War
They saw it as an opportunity to prevent the spread of communism into South Vietnam
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Velvet Revolution
Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989.
August 1991 Coup
Coup in russia that kidnapped Gorbachev and tried to seize the government. Led by conservatice communists. Ended with Yeltsin denouncing the rebels and gaining the army's support.
Boris Yeltsin
First leader of the Russian Republic. HIs pro-democracy reaction when Gorbachev's push for reform was held off by the Communist establishment was a rallying point for Russian democratic supporters.
Chechnya
one of the republics that remains a part of Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union despite independence movements and violent upheaval.
Radical Islamism
Term scholars use to describe the interpretation of Islam that became important to the Muslims during Decolonization.
Iranian Revolution
leader was Khomeini. people were upset because their leader (the shah) was not chosen by them and back up by Europe and the US. they believed their resources were being abused and wanted change. revolution was intended to turn Iran into a purely Islamic state. new government followed the sharia and all western culture was banned.
Taliban
a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Al Qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
Madrasas
a school or college attached to a mosque where young men study theology
Iraq Invasion
U.S. & others invade and defeat Iraq troops (1993)
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States