Biology Chapter 10 - Cell Growth and Division
Terms in this set (39)
* What problems does growth cause for cells?
* The larger a cell becomes:
- the more demands the cell places on its DNA
- the cell has more trouble moving enough nutrients and wastes across its cell membrane
The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
As a cell increases in size, which increases more rapidly, its surface area or its volume? 10.1
Equation to determine ratio of surface area in cells
length x width x 6
1cm cubed = 1cm x 1cm x 6 = 6cm2 (6cm squared)
Equation to determine ratio of volume in cells 10.1
length x width x height
1cm cubed = 1cm x 1cm x 1cm = 1cm3 (1cm cubed)
Equation to determine ratio of surface area to volume in cells 10.1
1cm cubed -- 6/1 = 6:1
2cm cubed -- 24/8 = 3:1
3cm cubed -- 54/27 = 2:1
* As the length of a cell increases, its volume increases (faster or slower) than its surface area 10.1
* A decrease in the cell's ratio of surface area to volume makes is (easier or more difficult) for the cell to move needed materials in and waste products out. 10.1
Calculate the surface area, volume, and ratio of surface area to volume of an imaginary cubic cell measuring 4cm on each side 10.1
surface area = 96 cm squared
volume = 64 cm cubed
ratio of surface area to volume = 96/64 = 3:2
The first stage of cell division in eukaryotes where the cell nucleus divides
Second stage of cell division in eukaryotes where the cytoplasm divides
two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material; known as "sister chromatids"
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached usually at the center of the 'X'
A period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins
Series of events that cells go through as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells
* What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
- prophase - metaphase
- anaphase - telophase
First and longest phase of mitosis
- the chromosomes become visible
- the centrioles separate
- a spindle begins to form
- the nuclear envelope breaks down
two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes during mitosis
What is the function of the spindle?
During prophase, the condensed chromosomes become attached to fibers int he spindle at a point near the centromere of each chromatid.
Second phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere
Third phase of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes have arrived at each of the two poles of the cell
Fourth phase of mitosis, where the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes. Then 2 new nuclear envelopes will form.
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
Name the main events of the cell cycle
1. A cell grows
2. it prepares for division
3. it divides
4. and forms two daughter cells.
Name and describe what happens during interphase
G1 phase - cell growth: cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles
S phase - DNA replication: chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA takes place
G2 phase - preparation for mitosis: shortest of the 3 phases of interphase, many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
cell growth: cells increase in size and synthesize new proteins and organelles
DNA replication: chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of DNA takes place.
preparation for mitosis: shortest of the 3 phases of interphase, many of the organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced
What are chromosomes made of?
DNA, which carries the cell's coded genetic information, and proteins
How do prokaryotic cells divide?
A prokaryotic cell first replicates its genetic information before cell division begins. In most prokaryotes, the rest of the process of cell division is a simple matter of separating the contents of the cell into two parts.
How is cytokinesis in plant cells similar to cytokinesis in animal cells? How is it different?
Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm in both types of cells. The difference is that in plant cells a cell plate forms midway between the divided nuclei.
* Cyclins regulate the ______________ in eukaryotic cells
the timing of the cell cycle
the protein during mitosis that causes a mitotic spindle to form and trigger cell division
a disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
* Cancer cells (respond or do not respond) to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells 10.3
do not respond
What happens when cells do not respond to the signals that normally regulate their growth?
Cancer cells divide uncontrollably and form masses of cells called tumors that can damage the surrounding tissues.
How do cells respond in contact with other cells? 10.3
Normal cells respond by not growing.
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