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NYCPM MBG Chapter 13
Terms in this set (27)
DNA synthesis in __________ starts by binding 30DnaA to oriC, where DNA coils around ______.
Helicase, gyrase, and single stranded bind protein _______ DNA and both strands are ________ at the same time
occurs at 2 _________ ________ that move away from oriC bidirectionally.
1 round takes about ____ _____; but a new round can start before the first is completed.
Replication is _____________; parents strands are conserved but no longer together
________ (_____) separate strands and unwinds the duplex.
______-_______ ________ proteins prevent reassociation; protects the DNA
single strand binding
_____________ break phosphodiester bonds and rejoin them. Type __ breaks one strand, type __ breaks both strands. Both relieve the stress from _________ caused by unwinding.
_______ _______ is the major topoisomerase of bacterial cells.
_____ ___________ catalyzes DNA synthesis. E. Coli has three versions; ____ I, II, and III
Pol _____ is the major version
All catalyze from __' to __' template to create in the __' to __' direction
3' to 5'
5' to 3'
Substrates of Pol III are _______________ _________; dATP, dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP, which forms base pairs with the template and an _____ bond with the 3'-OH at the end.
___________ will be released from the substrates.
____________ means that the new strand remains bound to the parental template.
E.Coli Pol III preforms proofreading via __'-__'-________ activity
When incorrect base pair is placed -> _____ ____ removes it.Only about 1 bp in __________ is mismatched; error rate is ~ ____
When proofreading activity is removed the error rate increases to ______
Other mechanisms are used to replace mismatched based-> overall eror rate is ______ (1 in ________)
3' to 5'
DNA polymerase cannot initiate new strands (requires a free __'-____ group)
A ________ is a RNA oligonucleotide
Made in the __'-__' direction by an ____ ________ (_______) that copies DNA template
5' to 3'
RNA Polymerase (Primase)
A primase is a _______ dependant ______ polymerase; which means what?
What well known enzyme does the exact opposite?
Needs a DNA remplate in order to make a RNA product
The reverse transcriptase (associated with HIV) uses an RNA template to make a DNA product that is inserted into the human genome
Since DNA ________ can only produce chains in the 5' to 3' direction synthesis should occur going toward the _______ in one template and away in the other.
_________ strand is continuous
_________ strand is synthesized discontinuously in _________ fragments in the 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork
As replication progresses, RNA primers are removed from Okazaki fragments by ______ ________ __ and ________ __
DNA pol I fills the gap
DNA _________ joins the two strands.
DNA polymerase I
In the Eukaryotic cell cycle Interphase includes ___, __, and ___.
During which there is mostly normal __________ activities
What happens during:
G1:gap, recovery from last division, cell growth
S: DNA replicates, histone synthesis increases, chromosome replicated
G2; Tubulin for spindle appartus
After: some renter G1, some never divide again, others enter extended G1
___________ have multiple origins (replication bubbles)
Each bubble has __ forks which eventually merge
A large chromosome is replicated within a ______ ______.
there is about 9 (15 actually) DNA Polymerases; _____ _____ is the major one.
Before Pol sigma acts, ________ associated with pol _____ produce RNA primer.
Pol _____ adds 20 deoxyribonucleotides and dissociates
_________ _________ are initiated by Pol alpha and primase, then pol sigma builds the strand until it reaches the next start
DNA Pol ___ adds continuously to the leading strand.
______ ________ _ (_____ __) and ________ ___ remove primers.
Okazaki fragments are smaller in eukaryotes about 200 vs ______
Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN 1)
_________; end of linear chromosomes
There is a problem in the ________ strand: either primase cannot lay a primer at end of strand or RNA at end is degraded.
->new strand is ________ at __' end with a __' overhang
3' Overhang is lengthened by addition of ___________ by __________, which allows _______ to bind
A Telomere is _______________ thousands of times
Telomerase acts as a _______-dependant _____ Polymerase with a complementary sequence that can bind __ ____________.
3' overhang forms a complicated structure that protects the ends from _______ and _________ activity.
DNA Damage and Repair:
Some _________ bases persist; additional damage can be done by _________ (_____________ cause normal cells to become cancer cells)
DNA damage produces _________ in each cell each day. Caused by ________ and chemicals
___-______ create hydroxyl radical which react with DNA ______ or ______ bases
_______________ in cigarettes can form bulky adducts in Guanosine
____ rays can form pyrimidine covalent dimers, especially _________ dimers.
When repairing DNA first the ________ DNA in the helix is __________.
The region is __________ (by ____ and ____ _______), and finally _______ seals
exo and endo nucleases
Exchange of segments between DNA molecules is quite _______.
Maybe _________ or totally _________; a few nucleotides or __________.
Enzymes included are: (5)
________ ______ can occur during meiosis; lymphocyte rearrange for making ___________.
____________ occur when chromosomes break and portions join randomly
Human genome can change during a ______ infection.
During __________ ____________; 2 homologous alighn. 1 strand in 1 duplex nicks invades, and displaces (________-___-_____)
D-loop nicked-> base pairs with former partner of invading strand
Ligation occurs-> _______ structure is formed. Branch point can move __________ of bases; then is finally _________.
Breaks in chromosomes by __-______ or _______ ________ can result in gross chromosomal rearrangements.
If free end of different broken chromosome reseal-> _________ occurs
Frequent in cancer cells (i.e. __________ __________)
Movable (_________) genetic elements aka ________ genes wee observed by Barbara _________ in the 19____s
Which she won a Nobel peace prize for in 19___
They are found in _____ organisms. They contain the _________ gene
_________ __________ uses single-stranded RNA template and makes a DNA copy known as _______
____________ contain RT and double stranded cDNA become integrated into the genome
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