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Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

STUDY
PLAY
the medical model applied to abnormal behavior
Proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
diagnosis
Involves distinguishing one illness from another
etiology
Refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
prognosis
A forecast about the probably course of an illness
diagnosis
deviance, maladaptive behavior, personal distress
epidemiology
The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders within a population
prevalence
Refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a certain time period
generalized anxiety disorders
Marked by a chronic, high-level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific situation or threat
phobic disorder
Marked by a persistent and irrational fear or an object or situation that poses no real threat
(People only qualify if their fears seriously interfere with their everyday behavior)
panic disorder
Characterized by recurring attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
agoraphobia
A fear of going out into public places
OCD
Persistent, uncontrollable occurrences of unwanted thoughts, and urges to engage in senseless rituals
OCD
four possible manifestations:
1. Obsessions and checking
2. Symmetry and order
3. Cleanliness and washing
4. hoarding
concordance rates
Indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder
evolved module for fear learning
(Martin Seligman)
Suggests that people are biologically prepared by evolutionary history to acquire some fears more easily than others
(Proven by how much faster people develop stronger phobias to ancient threats (spiders, snakes) than modern threats (electrical outlets, busy streets)
psychosomatic diseases
Involve genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological factors, especially related to stress
somatoform disorders
Physical ailments which cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors
somatization disorders
(somatoform disorder)
Marked by a history of DIVERSE physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
conversion disorders
(somatoform disorder)
Marked by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic cause, usually in a single organ system
hypochondriasis
(somatoform disorder)
Excessive obsession with health concerns and developing an illness
(tend to overreact to any sign of physical ailment)
dissociative disorders
Disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
dissociative amnesia
Sudden loss of memory of important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
(May occur for a single event or an extended period of time surrounding the event.)
dissociative fugue
People lose their memory of their entire lives, along with their sense of personal identity
(still remember everything unrelated to their identity, such as how to drive a car and walk etc.)
dissociative identity disorder
Involves the coexistence in one person of two or more personalities
dissociative identity disorder
multiple personality disorder
unipolar mood disorder
Experience emotional extremes at only one end of the mood scale (depression)
bipolar mood disorder
experience emotional extremes at both ends of the mood scale (depression and mania)
major depressive disorder
People show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure
(diagnosis depends on duration)
dysthymic disorder
consists of chronic depression that is not severe enough to qualify as a major depressive episode
mania
judgment impaired, self esteem extremely elevated, disruption of sleep patters
cyclothymic disorder
A diagnosis of chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance
Seasonal Affective Disorder
A type of depression which follows a seasonal pattern
(related to melatonin production and circadian rhythms)
post-partum depression
Depression which specifically occurs after giving birth
(usually develops before 4 weeks after birth)
developed Model of Perfectionism
(Hewitt and Flitt)
1. Self-oriented perfectionism
2. other-oriented perfectionism
3. socially prescribed perfectionism
self-oriented perfectionism
high standards for oneself
other-oriented perfectionism
high standards for others
socially prescribed perfectionism
Tendency to perceive that others are setting high standards for you
Model of Personality Styles
(Beck)
1. sociotropy
2. autonomy
sociotropy
investment in interpersonal relations; over-concerned with avoiding problems and pleasing others
autonomy
orientation towards one's own independence or achievement
Model of Personality
(Blatt)
1. Introjective personality orientation
2. Anaclitic orientation
introjective personality orientation
excessive self-criticism
anaclitic orientation
over-dependence on others
negative cognitive triad
Reflects an individual's tendency to have negative views of themselves, their world, and their future
learned helplessness model
(Seligman)
Behavior that involves giving up on a situation; these people typically attribute setbacks to their personal flaws instead of situational factors
the hopelessness theory
high stress, low self- esteem etc. may lead to further feelings of helplessness and depression
retrospective design
Studies which look backward in time according to known outcomes
prospective designs
Makes hypotheses about what results will occur in the future according to test results
schizophrenic disorders
A class of disorders marked by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and deterioration of adaptive behavior.
delusions of grandeur
people maintain that they are famous or important
delusions
False beliefs that are maintained even though they are clearly out of touch with reality
(believe their thoughts are being broadcast aloud, or are being injected into their minds against their will)
hallucinations
Sensory perceptions that occur in the absence of a real, external stimulus or are gross distortions of perceptual input.
(hearing voices)
catatonic schizophrenia
Patients exhibit striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity
catatonic schizophrenia
Some patients go into withdrawal known as stupor in which they remain motionless or into states of catatonic excitement
disorganized-type schizophrenia
Particularly severe behavioral deterioration is seen
(Emotional indifference, incoherence, withdrawal, babbling, delusions begin to center on bodily functions)
paranoid-type schizophrenia
Marked by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur
- Essentially you think that you're awesome and that everyone is after you...
- Patients may become suspicious even of friends and family
undifferentiated-type schizophrenia
Marked by idiosyncratic mixtures of schizophrenic symptoms- this diagnosis describes those who cannot fit into the other 3 categories of the illness
("leftovers")
negative symptoms
Involve behavioral deficits such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention, and speech deterioration
positive symptoms
Involve behavioral excesses or peculiarities such as hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and erratic thought patterns
(These patients respond better to treatment)
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis
States that schizophrenia is caused by various disruptions in the natural maturation processes of the brain before or at the time of birth
expressed emotion
The degree to which a relative of a schizophrenic patient displays highly critical or emotionally overinvolved attitudes towards the patient
personality disorders
Disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
(Certain traits expressed excessively)
personality disorders
1. anxious/ fearful
2. odd/eccentric
3. dramatic/ impulsive
antisocial personality disorder
Marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms
(LACK A CONSCIENCE)
relativistic view
Argues that the criteria of mental illness varies greatly across cultures and there are no universal standards for normality or abnormality
(...DSM is highly Westernized, and centered towards white, urban, middle and higher classes...)
pancultural view
Argues that the criteria of mental illness is much the same across the world and that basic standards of normalcy exist internationally and believe that the Westernized view also applies to other cultures
culture-bound disorders
Abnormal syndromes found only in a few cultural groups
the stress-vulnerability model
Disorders emerge when high vulnerability intersects with high stress
- If stress is low, the disorder may not emerge
- If vulnerability is low, high stress may not be enough to cause the disorder to emerge
multifactorial causation
the interplay of heredity and environmental factors, sociohistorical context of psychology, and the influence of culture on psychological phenomena.