42 terms

PSY 2012 - Chapter 12 Quiz

Psychology in Action Professor Davis Edison State College Spring 2012
Motivation is BEST defined as _____.
the set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior toward a goal
Emotion is BEST defined as _____.
a subjective feeling that includes arousal, cognitions, and behavioral expressions
According to your textbook, motivation _____ behavior and emotion _____.
energizes; is the feeling response
A behavior pattern that is unlearned, and found in almost all members of a species is called _____.
an instinct
Sociobiologists believe that _____ (is)are genetically transmitted from one generation to the next.
aggression and competit
In the _____ theory of motivation a lack or a deficiency of something creates a state of tension which motivates us to reduce the deficiency.
drive-reduction theory
_____ is the body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable state for internal processes.
_____ theory suggests that organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an ideal or optimal level of stimulation that maximizes their performance.
Performance is BEST for most tasks when you are experiencing _____ levels of arousal.
Zuckerman's test for sensation seeking measures which of the following characteristics?

A. dangerousness, antisocial traits, "letting loose," and intolerance for boredom
B. thrill seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom
C. adventurousness, physical prowess, creative morality, and charisma
D. dangerousness, adventurousness, creativity, and thrill seeking
thrill seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and susceptibility to boredom
Low levels of arousal lead to _____ and high levels of arousal lead to _____.
reduced behavior efficiency; reduced behavior efficiency
According to the cognitive theory of motivation, _____ influence our goal-directed behavior.
attributions and expectancies
The theory that some motives have to be satisfied before a person can advance to fulfilling higher motives is based on _____.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Hunger, arousal, and achievement are three basic _____.
What role does the stomach play in feelings of hunger?
Pressure receptors in the stomach walls signal fullness or emptiness.
The feeling of fullness you get once you have ingested enough food is called _____.
The heat generated in response to food ingestion is called _____.
When the lateral hypothalamus is destroyed, animals will _____.
stop eating, and must be force-fed
_____ is one of the MOST important external factors related to when, what, where, and why we eat.
Cultural conditioning
There are approximately _____ genes that contribute to a person's weight.
_____ involves extreme weight loss due to an obsessive fear of obesity and self-imposed starvation.
Anorexia nervosa
_____ involves consuming large quantities of food followed by self-induced vomiting, the use of laxatives, or extreme exercise.
Bulimia nervosa
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of bulimia nervosa?

A. People with bulimia are underweight.
B. People with bulimia are often impulsive in other areas of their lives.
C. Bulimia can cause tooth erosion, tooth loss, damage to the throat and stomach, serious digestive disorders, and even death.
D. All of these options are characteristic of bulimia
People with bulimia are underweight.
Which of the following has been linked to the origin of eating disorders?

A. genetic, hormonal, neurotransmitter, or hypothalamus abnormalities
B. a desire for perfection or control, or a distorted body image
C. a dysfunctional family, and/or sexual abuse
D. all of these options
D. all of these options
The three components of emotion are _____.
cognitive, physiological, and behavioral
Two parts of the brain that play an important role in emotion are the _____.
limbic system and cerebral cortex
The _____ nervous system produces obvious signs of emotional arousal.
In a Duchenne smile, the cheek muscles are pulled back, and the muscles around the _____ also contract.
This theory says that emotion results from physiological arousal and behavioral expression, and that each emotion is physiologically distinct.
Which of the following is the CORRECT order of events in the James-Lange theory of emotion?
A. perception of stimulus → emotion → body response
B. perception of stimulus and emotion simultaneously → body response
C. perception of stimulus and body response simultaneously → emotion
D. perception of stimulus → perception of body response → emotion
D. perception of stimulus → perception of body response → emotion
Which of the following is INCORRECTLY matched?
A. Cannon-Bard theory: emotions occur before a body response
B. James-Lange theory: emotions occur after a body response
C. facial feedback hypothesis: emotional intensity is affected by facial expressions
D. Schachter's two-factor theory: emotions are the result of a cognitive label for arousal
A. Cannon-Bard theory: emotions occur before a body response
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, expressing an emotion should ______.
intensify it
A therapist advises his depressed client to make himself smile for at least a few seconds every hour. This therapist may _____.
believe in the facial feedback hypothesis regarding emotions
According to _____, bodily arousal must be labeled or interpreted for an emotional experience to occur.
Schachter's two-factor theory
In contrast to other theories of emotion, Schachter's two-factor theory explains the origins of emotion based on _____.
cognitive interpretation
The two factors in Schachter's theory of emotion are _____.
physical arousal and cognitive labeling
Intrinsic motivation comes from _____.
personal enjoyment
Extrinsic motivation is based on _____.
the desire for rewards or threats of punishment
_____ refers to the desire to perform an act for its own sake whereas _____ refers to the desire to perform an act because of external rewards or the avoidance of punishment.
Intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation
A person with emotional intelligence knows and manages the ______ component of his emotions.
cognitive, behavioral, & physiological
Knowing and managing one's emotions, empathizing with others, and maintaining satisfying relationships are the key factors in _____.
emotional intelligence
According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, if you haven't eaten all day, your thoughts will be MOST focused on your____________
physiological needs