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Sociology2

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Race
people share physical characteristics (skin color, features)
Ethnic Group
common natural origin or cultural heritage (language, customs)
Racial-Ethnic Group
people who have both distinctive physical and cultural characteristics
Dominant Group
group with the most economic and political power; privileges, highest social status
Apartheid
formal system of racial segregation
Minority Group
people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characeristics
Genocide
systematic efforts to destroy minorities
Segregation
physical separation of groups
Assimilation
no dominant group; absorbs minorites
Pluralism
no dominant group; all equal
Racism
belief that one racial group is better
Prejudice
an attitude toward people because of their groups membership
Stereotype
a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing
Scapegoats
someone who is punished for the errors of others
Discrimination
any act that threats people unfairly because of their groups membership
Economy
the wealth and resources of a country or region especially in terms of the production and consumption or goods and services
Works
activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve a purpose or result
Capitalism
wealth is in private hands, encourages competition, generate profits
Monolopy
the exclusive possession of the supply or trade in the commodity or service
Oligopoly
a state of limited competition, in which a market is shared by a small numbner or producers or sellers
Socialism
community ownership of the production
Communism
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
Corporation
a social entity that has legal rights, privileges, and liabilities apart from those of its members
Conglomerate
giant corporation that owns a collection of companies in different industries
Offshoring
sending works or jobs to another country to cut costs
Downsizing
firing large numbers of employers at once
Underemployment
have part-time but want full time work or have jobs that below their experience and education levels
Government
formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce
Politics
social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority
Power
the ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance
Authority
legitimate use of power
Democracy
citizens have control
Totalitarianism
government controls every aspect of people's lives
Authoritarianism
state controls the lives of citizens but permits some individual freedom
Political Party
try to influence and control government
Special Interest Group
people that attempt to influence policy on 1 particular issue
Lobbyist
tries to influence political decisions
Political action committee
groups the raises money to elect candidate to office
Collective Behavior
behavior of a large group of people
Social Movement
large and organized activity to promote or resist some particular social change
Nuclear Family
a couple and their dependent children, regarded as a basic social unit
Endogamy
the custom of marrying only within limits of a local community, clan, or tribe
Exogamy
the custom of marrying outside a community, clan, or tribe
Cohabitation
the act of living together and having a sexual relationship
Patriarchal family system
family where the father in the head of the family
Matriarchal family system
family here the mother is the head of the family
Monogamy
the practice or state of being married to one person at a time
Polygamy
the practice of custom of being married to more than one person at a time
Demography
the study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, of the incidence of disease, which illustrates the changing structure of human populations
Deviance
behavior that voilates rules or norms
Crime
violation of societal norms and rules that have a punishment specified by law
Stigma
a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstances, quality, or person
Sanctions
punishments or rewards
Social group
people sharing some social relation
Primary group
small, face to face, extended time
Secondary group
large, formal, impersonal, temporary, highly structured
In group
a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, due to membership in the group
Out group
Social group towards which an individuals feel contempt, opposition, or desire to complete
Bureaucracy
designed to accomplish goals through efforts of a lot of people