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caused by a slight misalignment between the Earth's rotational axis and the global magnetic field
formed when a tributary cannot breach a river's levee, and flows parallel to the river
created when the water velocity decreases dramatically, such as when entering a lake, ocean or dry basin
channel pattern that occurs where rocks are fractured or faulted in two main directions that are perpendicular
the direction of a line formed by the intersection of the surface of an inclined rock layer and a horizontal plane
fault that results from the hanging wall moving down with respect to the footwall (footwall doesn't move)
-caused by tension
fault which results from the hanging wall moving up with respect to the footwall (footwall doesn't move)
-caused by compression (rock shortening)
fault that results from the horizontal movement along the fault plane (vertical fault plane)
-caused by shear and involve motions of rocks
a combination of the geologic map and two cross sections; small 3D model of a portion of earth's crust
limbs dip away from center (hinge); oldest rocks are in the middle, youngest on the outside
limps dip toward the hinge (center); oldest rocks are on the outside, youngest on the inside
S - P time interval
the time it takes for the secondary waves of an earthquake to hit after the primary waves hit
the movement of sedimentary materials along the coast created by swash and backwash
-flow parallel to the coastline and move vast amounts of sedimentary material
the most significant supply of new material entering the beach budget
-sediments from land surface carried by river to the coast
a continuous project, seawalls can damage beaches and hurt the turtles because they try to clim up the walls when laying eggs and fall over and get stuck on their backs
parts of a coastline
barrier island, estuary, headland, longshore current, marine terrace, sea stack, spit, hook, wave-cut cliff
a long, narrow deposit of sand, parallel to the coast and raised above sea level, by the action of waves
-formed by either sand dunes drowned by rising sea level, or spits and bars formed by the refraction of waves
projection into the sea, usually by land underlain by rock resistant to erosion (generally associated with uplifted coasts)
a flat surface eroded by the action of waves that is often uplifted and exposed above sea level on coasts that have been tectonically uplifted
a long, narrow stretch of sand deposited by longshore drift and longshore currents when the land ends at a bay
a structure built to protect an offshore area, such as a harbor, from the action of waves
a structure erected to retain current velocity in channels and entrances to harbors in order to diminish siltation of the filling in of the channel by sediments
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