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The revisionist powers in the interwar period were not content with the status quo after World War I. They included

• Italy, Japan, and the U.S.S.R.

With the rise of Hitler in 1933, the Soviets changed their foreign policy and

• Became interested in collective security against Hitler

The western European democracies supported policies of appeasement because of

• The interesting belief that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair

In March 1936, Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles Treaty and moved troops into the demilitarized Rhineland. Despite the weakness of the German army, the former Allies did nothing. Why?

• The divided French government was unwilling to act without Britain, and the British would not risk war to keep German troops from occupying German soil.

Mussolini's war against Ethiopia succeeded because

• France and Britain feared a general war if effective measures such as an oil embargo or the closure of the Suez Canal were implemented

The Spanish Civil War was caused by

• The electoral victory of the Popular Front followed by an anti-government insurrection of the Spanish army

During the Spanish Civil War all of the following occurred except

• France and England forbade the shipment of war materials to the Spanish republic
• Germany and Italy sent military equipment and troops to support Franco
• The Soviet Union sent military equipment to support the republicans
• Except: The United States supported the democratically-elected government of Spain, allowing it to import arms of self-defense

Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany because the Sudetenland

• Was almost all German speaking

During the 1938 Munich Crisis, the Soviet Union

• Urged a firm stand against Hitler's demand

All of the following help to explain why Britain and France caved in to Hitler's demands during the 1938 Munich Crisis except

• They had little confidence in Soviet military strength and its ability to assist Czechoslovakia
• Except: British Prime Minister Chamberlain was a coward
• The British and French lagged behind Germany in military preparedness
• According to the principle of national self-determination, Germans inside Czechoslovakia had the right to join Germany

One of the reasons for the failure of the negotiations between the U.S.S.R. and Britain to form an anti-German alliance was

• Russia wished to annex Hungarian and Bulgarian territory, which the British refused to condone
• Poland and the Baltic states were unwilling to allow Soviet armies within their borders, even for the purpose of defending themselves against the Germans. The Anglo-French negotiators refused to put pressure on them.

Germany's military success in France rested on

• Superior strategy and tactics
• French armies unprepared for mechanized warfare
• An openly defeatist group of leaders in France
• All of the above

After France's defeat in 1940, it was divided/occupied in what way?

• Occupied in the north by Germany and in the south by a collaborationist French regime

After the Fall of France, Hitler controlled almost exactly the same geographical area in Europe as

• Napoleon

With Great Britain standing alone against Hitler, the United States offered Great Britain

• Lend-Lease

An important factor in the success of the Royal Air Force against the Germans in the 1940 Battle of Britain

• Radar

Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in 1941 for all of the following reasons except

• He was irritated by the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states
• He disliked Russian moves to expand toward the Balkans
• He wanted to gain wheat harvests of the Ukraine and the oil wells of Caucasus
• Except: Germans spies in the Kremlin informed him that Russia was unprepared for the war

After the German failure to capture Moscow in 1941, Hitler

• Fully mobilized the German economy
• Shifted the main attack to the Caucasus

The Battle or "Siege" of Leningrad involved all of the following except

• Sept 9, 1941 to Jan 19, 1943, second most fatal battle, attacked on June 22, 1941, Germans struck by "Blitz", Germans underestimated numbers and winter, ice road truckers.
• Except:

All of the following countries joined the Axis powers except

• Romania
• Except: Yugoslavia
• Hungary
• Bulgaria

In 1942, the Axis powers accomplished all of the following except

• Penetrated Egypt to within 70 miles of Alexandria
• Penetrated the U.S.S.R. to within 100 miles of the Caspian Sea
• Conquered the Philippines, Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies
• Except: Conquered Spain

An immediate repercussion of the Allied conquest of Sicily in July-August 1943 was

• Mussolini fell from power, and Italy soon joined the Allies

Allied planning for the invasion of Nazi-occupied France (did not) included

• Assuring air superiority over the land beaches
• Planting false intelligence reports
• Landing simultaneously at Calais and Normandy
• Did not: Use of a multinational landing force

The D-Day invasion of France in June 1944 was also known as:

• Operation Overload/ Battle of Normandy

General Eisenhower's decision to halt the Anglo-American drive toward Berlin at the Elbe River was due to all of the following except

• The need for a clear line of demarcation with the Russians
• A desire to show good toward the Russians
• His overextended supply lines
• Except: British desires

What was the nature of the demand for the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers

• Was adopted at Casablanca at American initiative and without much thought to possible political implications

At Yalta, the Big Three agreed that

• The Soviet Union would gain territory at the expense of Poland
• Poland would gain territory at the expense of Germany
• Germany would pay reparations to the Allies
• All of the above

The most difficult issue at Yalta was

• Poland and eastern Europe

June 1940 the combined French-Brit forces were forced to evacuate European continent here:

• The beaches of Dunkirk,France

The Yalta agreement of February 1945

• Provided that the countries liberated from the Nazis were to be permitted provisional governments "broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population"

Of the following statements, which was not a factor influencing FDR's policy toward Stalin at Yalta?

• FDR needed Stalin's support in the war with Japan
• He was committed to "diplomacy by friendship"
• Not a factor: He preferred a specific definition of spheres of influence
• He sought to preserve Allied unity until final victory was guaranteed

Which of the following statements, which was NOT one of Roosevelt's "Four Freedoms"?

• Freedom of speech and expression
• Freedom of want
• Freedom from fear
• Freedom of religion/worship

Regarding the Far East, which of the following agreements was concluded at Yalta?

• Russia was to attack Japan the day Germany surrendered

At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies agreed on all of the following (except)

• "Denazification" of Germany
• The Oder-Neisse line as the new German-Polish border
• The punishment of Nazi war criminals
• Except: The terms of the final peace treaty with Germany

Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as G.B.'s representative at Potsdam because Churchill

• Lost his position as prime minister when the Labour party defeated (victory of the Labour Party) Churchill's Conservative party at the polls
• End threat

This was the objective of the British/Allies in the African campaign of 1940-1943:

• To win control over the Suez and the Mediterranean (keep it out of the hands of the Axis Powers)

These German units swept behind the advancing German army to carry out the first massive wave of racial and political murder in Eastern Europe:

• Nazis
• Nazi murder squads
• Einsatzgruppen
Widerstand(the resistance)

This Frenchman headed the Vichy government after France fell to Nazi control:

• Marshal Petin and Pierre Laval

"Anschluss" refers to:

• The union of Austria and Germany

Place where the Germans met and determined the "Final Solution" to the "Jewish problem":

• Wannsee

Place where mass graves of Polish officers and prisoners had been found by the Germans:

• Katyn Forest

Firebombing by aircraft of this city by British aircraft in February 1945 killed over 50,000 civilians:

• Dresden

All of the following are true about the Battle of Stalingrad except:

• German army assaulted Stalingrad in August 1942
• Invaded city in September
• Germans occupied most of the city when the Red Army counterattacked (Gen. Zhukov)
• Less than 100,000 Germans left to surrender in 1943
• New counteroffensive
• Stalingrad -> Volgograd

Which of the following Allied conferences is in the correct order chronologically occurring first to last:

• 1941: Atlantic Charter
• 1943: Casablanca, Cairo, Teheran
• February 1945: Yalta
• July 1945: Potsdam

Two days after the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945:

• The Soviet Union declared war on Japan and invaded Manchuria

German machine used to send messages in code and was subsequently captured by the Allies:

• Enigma Machine

High Nazi official who secretly flew to Scotland allegedly on a peace mission and remained in GB as a prisoner of war:

• Rudolph Hess

"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few" is attributed to:

• Winston Churchill

El Alamein is primarily known as this type of military engagement:

• Defense and (Counter)attack?
• British is fighting off Axis powers in Africa

During the Spanish civil war this city was bombed in 1937 and Picasso created a painting about it:

• Guernica

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