The male wasp, Campsoscolia ciliata, transfers pollen from one orchid to another orchid of the same species. What "reward" does the male wasp receive from the orchid plants for helping with the orchid pollination?
no reward; the male wasp is deceived by the flower shape and odor
Which of the following plant/animal interactions is not a mutually beneficial (mutualistic) relationship?
wasps such as Campsoscolia ciliata transferring pollen in orchid flowers
Which of the following best describes the ploidy level of a fertilized embryo sac?
There are haploid, diploid, and triploid cells.
A flowering plant with a deleterious mutation in microsporogenesis would most likely
fail to produce pollen
When comparing the mature seeds of a pine tree to an apple tree, which of the following is a correct statement?
Both contain haploid and diploid tissues.
Which of the following is the correct sequence during the alternation of generations life cycle in a flowering plant?
sporophyte → meiosis → gametophyte → gametes → fertilization → diploid zygote
Which of the following is true in plants?
Mitosis occurs in gametophytes to produce gametes, meiosis occurs in sporophytes to produce spores, and the gametophyte is within the flower in angiosperms.
Which of the following are true of most angiosperms?
) They have a triploid endosperm within the seed and an ovary that becomes a fruit.
Based on studies of plant evolution and anatomy, which flower part is least likely to have evolved from a leaf?
) Which of the following is the correct order of floral organs from the outside to the inside of a complete flower?
sepals → petals → stamens → carpels
In some angiosperms, other floral parts contribute to what is commonly called the fruit. Which of the following fruits is derived mostly from an enlarged receptacle?
A perfect flower is fertile, but may be either complete or incomplete. Which of the following correctly describes a perfect flower?
It has both stamens and carpels.
Which of the following statements regarding flowering plants is false?
Female gametophytes develop from megaspores within the anthers.
Which of the following is a correct sequence of processes that takes place when a flowering plant reproduces?
meiosis → pollination → nuclear fusion → formation of embryo and endosperm
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in a pollen sac?
microsporocyte → meiosis → microspores → mitosis → two haploid cells per pollen grain
Where and by which process are sperm cells formed in plants?
mitosis in male gametophyte pollen tube
Three mitotic divisions within the female gametophyte of the megaspore produce
three antipodal cells, two polar nuclei, one egg, and two synergids.
What is the difference between pollination and fertilization in flowering plants?
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization is the fusion of haploid nuclei.
Recent research has shown that pollination requires that carpels recognize pollen grains as "self or nonself." For self-incompatibility, the system requires
the rejection of self cells
What effects would occur in a mutant of Arabidopsis that cannot synthesize GABA within its flowers?
Pollen tube growth would not be directed toward the egg, and fertilization would not occur.
As a flower develops, which transition is most likely to occur?
The microspores become pollen grains.
Which of the following events suggests there is a change in the egg cell membrane after penetration
CA2+ builds up in the cytoplasm of the egg.
Which of the following statements argues for an advantage for flowering plants to maintain an extended gametophyte generation?
The protection of female gametophytes within ovules keeps them from drying out.
What is typically the result of double fertilization in angiosperms?
Both a diploid embryo and triploid endosperm are formed.
Which of the following statements applies to the endosperm in angiosperms?
Its nutrients may be absorbed by the cotyledons in the seeds of eudicots.
Which of the following metabolic processes is most likely to still be occurring at low levels in a fully mature, viable, dry seed?
Which of the following is a potential advantage of introducing apomixis into hybrid crop species?
All of the desirable traits of the cultivar would be passed on to offspring.
Which of the following developmental processes in a seed is the most evolutionarily advantageous for the initial establishment of a viable seedling?
The emergence of the radical.
The embryo of a grass seed is enclosed by two protective sheaths, a(n) ________, which covers the young shoot, and a(n) ________, which covers the young root.
Which of the following statements is true about fruits?
Fruits form from megasporangia and integuments.
Garden beans and many other eudicots have a hooked hypocotyl during germination. Which of the following is true concerning hypocotyls and/or the hypocotyl hook?
It emerges after the successful establishment of the radicle.
Which of the following is an advantage of sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction?
increased genetic variation in progeny
Which of the following is true about vegetative reproduction?
It produces clones of the parent plant.
Which of the following is a true statement about clonal reproduction in plants?
Making cuttings of ornamental plants is a form of fragmentation
) Which of the following statements is true for a species that produces seeds by apomixis?
The seed coat is made of diploid cells derived from the ovule of a flower.
Which of the following could be considered an evolutionary advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?
increased success of progeny in a stable environment
Under which conditions would asexual plants have the greatest advantage over sexual plants?
a relatively constant environment with infrequent disturbances
Which of the following statements is true of protoplast fusion?
It can be used to form new plant varieties by combining genomes from two plants.
One major potential benefit resulting from protoplast fusion experiments in agriculturally relevant species is
species that are normally sexually incompatible can sometimes be successfully fused. producing offspring with traits of both parent species.
The most immediate potential benefits of introducing genetically modified crops include
increasing crop yield
A parent with an S1S2 genotype exhibiting sporophytic self-incompatibility can potentially fertilize which of the following plant genotypes of the same species with pollen grains?
A parent with an S1S2 genotype exhibiting gametophytic self-incompatibility could potentially fertilize which of the following plant genotypes of the same species with pollen grains?
Half of all the pollen grains could be successful.
Biofuels are mainly produced by
the breakdown of cell wall biopolymers into sugars that can be fermented.
One disadvantage of monoculture is that
genetic uniformity makes a crop more vulnerable to a new pest or disease.
Which of the following is a scientific concern related to creating genetically modified crops?
Herbicide resistance may spread to weedy species.
All of the following strategies are being pursued with the goal of preventing transgene escape from genetically modified crops except
hybridization of transgenic crop genes with related wild weeds.
Which of the following is proving to be the most difficult task for plant breeders regardless of the techniques they use for crop improvement due to the complexity of the metabolic pathways involved?
Which of the following is a successful example of the commercial use of transgenic crops?
inserting Bt toxin genes into cotton, maize, and potato
You are studying a plant from the Amazon rain forest that shows strong self-incompatibility. To characterize this reproductive mechanism, you would look for
ribonuclease (RNAase) activity in stigma cells
Regardless of where in the world a vineyard is located, in order for the winery to produce a Burgundy, it must use varietal grapes that originated in Burgundy, France. The most effective way for a
graft varietal Burgundy grape scions onto native (Californian) root stocks.
Double fertilization means that
one sperm is needed to fertilize the egg, and a second sperm is needed to fertilize the polar nuclei.
Some dioecious species have the XY genotype for male and XX for female. After double fertilization, what would be the genotypes of the embryos and endosperm nuclei?
embryo XX/endosperm XXX or embryo XY/endosperm XYY
The pollen produced by wind-pollinated plants is often smaller than the pollen produced by animal-pollinated plants. A reason for this might be that
small pollen grains can be carried farther by the wind.