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22 terms

CH.11 Myers Exploring Psychology: Emotions, Stress, and Health

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Emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 513)
James-Lange Theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 514)
Cannon-Bard Theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 514)
Two-Factor Theory
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 514)
Polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes). (Myers Psychology 8e p. 520)
Catharsis
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 536)
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 537)
Subjective Well-Being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 538)
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 542)
Relative Deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 343)
Stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 550)
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages—alarm, resistance, exhaustion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 552)
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 555)
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 555)
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people. (Myers Psychology 9e p. 532)
Psychophysiological Illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Note: This is distinct from hypochondriasis—misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 556)
Lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 557)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice. (Myers Psychology 9e p. 546)
Coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 562)
Problem-Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 562)
Emotion-Focused Coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 562)
Aerobic Exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 567)