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The study of how things change over time


Billions of years long


Hundreds of millions of years long


Tens of millions of years long


Millions of years long

Natural Selection

Organisms that best adapt to their environment will most likely survive


Organisms produce more offspring than can survive


When organisms compete for resources


A trait that improves an organism's chance of survival


Change over time


The imprints or remains of organisms that were once alive

Mass Extinction

When many organisms become extinct at once

Absolute dating

It tells the actual age of a fossil or rock or how long ago an event happened

Relative dating

It tells the actual age of something by comparing it to something else

Law of Superposition

In undisturbed rock layers, older layers of rock lie beneath the younger rock layers

Global Warming

An increase in global temperatures due to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

Ice Cores

Layers recording the amounts of gas in the atmosphere during the time the ice formed

Transform Boundary

When plate move side by side creating most earthquakes


When one tectonicplate is pushed under another

Theory of Continental Drift

Theory that all the continents were one continent. The big continent (called Pangaea) slowly moved to apart to the continents' present locations

Mechanical Weathering

Breaks rocks apart without changing the rocks' chemical composition

Theory of plate Tectonics

The earth's lithosphere( land) is broken into big chunks that move and change position over time

Divergent Boundaries

When plates move apart creating sea floors

Convergent Boundaries

When plates move together creating earthquakes or cause the formation of mountains or volcanoes

Chemical Weathering

When their are changes in the chemical composition of rocks. Because of this the rock is weaker and may break and dissolve

Topographic Maps

Maps that show the location and elevation ( how high or low things are). They tell ou whether areas are steep or level


The study of earth's surface by making maps

Remote Sensing

A way of collecting information about an area without visiting the area

Ground Truthing

Visiting an area so one can check the map made by remote sensing

Contour Lines

Lines on a topographic map that connect areas with the same elevation.

Urban sprawl

The spreading out of city features such as neighborhoods and shopping districts into areas that were once rural or open country.

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