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35 terms

Chapter 17 Vocab

Words for Chapter 17 Earth Science
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Troposphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs
Stratosphere
the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer
Mesosphere
the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases
Thermosphere
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases
Ionosphere
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night
Ozone
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
Greenhouse Effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Radiation
energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles
Conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
Convection
the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
Isotherm
line on a map connecting points equal temperature values
Isobar
a line drawn to connect points of equal atmospheric pressure
Summer Solstice
Day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness
Winter Solstice
Day with the fewest hours of sunlight
Autumnal Equinox
The day of the year that marks the beginning of fall in the Northern hemisphere
Spring Equinox
the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both
Relative Humidity
the percentage of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold
Dew Point
the temperature at which condensation begins
Condensation Level
the atmospheric level at which condensation occurs
Hygrometer
measuring instrument for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere
Air Pressure
The measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
Jet Stream
narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere
Trade Winds
prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30 degrees latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
Monsoon
a strong wind that blows across east Asia at certain times of the year
Anemometer
a gauge for recording the speed and direction of wind
Air Mass
a large body of air with uniform characteristics horizontally
Front
the atmospheric phenomenon created at the boundary between two different air masses
Cold Front
the front of an advancing mass of colder air
Warm Front
the front of an advancing mass of warmer air
Occluded Front
a composite front when colder air surrounds a mass of warm air and forces it aloft
Stationary Front
when a warm air mass and a cold air mass meet and no movement occurs
Typhoon
a tropical cyclone occurring in the western Pacific or Indian oceans
Hurricane
tropical storm with violent wind and heavy rain
Saffir-Simpson Scale
Classifies hurricanes according to wind speed, air pressure in the center, and potential for property damage
Meteorology
the earth science dealing with phenomena of the atmosphere