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Bio Chapter 11 Test
Terms in this set (36)
What are sex chromosomes and how many does an egg cell contain?
a single X chromsome
What types of sperm sex chromosomes are there and how many, on average, would a male have in his body?
X chromosome and Y chromosome. A male would have 50% of each
Why are some deleterious genes maintained in the human population?
protection against fatal disease and heterozygous
What do females inherit that make them less likely to exhibit sex-linked diseases?
Two X chromosomes.
Where are sex-linked genes located?
the x and y chromosome
Why is color blindness more common in males than in females?
recessive and located on the X chromosome.
Where are Barr bodies formed?
female cells on the inactive part of the X chromosome
What sex, most likely, is a multicolored cat?
Know how to read the different blood type phenotypes.
IA, IB, ii
Be able to make a Punnett Square so you can determine offspring genotype.
What are the symbols in a pedigree chart.
square- male, circle- female
Know the causes of sickle cell anemia and Huntington's disease and when they occur
Sickle cell is caused by a defective allele for beta-globin and receive in at birth. Huntington's is caused by a dominant allele for a protein found in brain cells and occurs in middle age
What does the misreading of a polypeptide gene cause in CF?
the protein does not form so it'll fold improperly
Know how genetic traits are passed.
genetically through family
How can an alteration of gene sequence in an organism with a genetic disease be demonstrated?
gene cloning and DNA sequencing
Which is less deleterious to an organism? Deletion of a gene, a mutation or a reduced level of gene expression?
A couple comes to your genetic counseling clinic concerned that they might have a second child affected with the same X-linked recessive disease displayed by their son. Neither of the parents displays the trait. What do you tell them?
if the child is a boy there is a ¼ chance the child will get it, but if it's a girl she won't. if the child is a boy, he has a 50/50 chance
Why are males more likely to show sex-linked recessive disorders than females
most genes in X chromosomes are not shared by the Y
What is true about most sex chromosome abnormalities?
usually mild effects and rarely fatal
How can karyotype analysis be used?
important medical tool to predict the likelihood that the child will be normal.
How does a trisomy occur?
non-disjunction of the gametes in the sperm
Why is carrying a dominant lethal allele less common than carrying recessive ones?
carrying one dominant lethal allele causes death. carrying one recessive allele does not.
Know how to read a karyotype.
klinefelter- 2XX and 1Y, down syndrome-21 chromosomes, turner's syndrome 1X
Know the basic trisomy disorders.
down syndrome, trisomy 13, and klinefelter's syndrome.
Know the symptoms for genetic diseases.
some harmful, some harmless
Know the relationship between genotype and phenotype.
genotype gives the DNA codes for the phenotype to give physical.
What type of bacterial enzyme cuts DNA into small pieces that can be sequenced?
What is the process called when short pieces of DNA are overlapped for computer reading?
What was the goal of the human genome project?
to provide a complete and accurate sequence of the 3 billion DNA base pairs that make up the human genome
What does having a large number of genes mean about an organism?
may or may not be complex
What are sources of genetic variation?
mutation, frameshift, substitution, insertion, deletion, nondisjunction
If a disease is caused by a dominant allele, it means that a person with the disease only needs
one copy of the allele to have the disease
What can a mutation involving a change in a single DNA base pair do
may have an affect on their phenotype
Name the mode of inheritance cystic fibrosis
A karyotype reveals that a woman is carrying a fetus with 46 chromosomes
the male had a nondisjunction
Patient age 41 presents with jerky uncontrollable movements, difficulty chewing, swallowing, and speaking, what disease does the patient probably have?
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