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exam 2


Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's nonspecific lines of defense against disease?

the movement of cells towards or away from chemical stimulus

Chemotaxis is...


Which of the following cells increase in number during a helminth infection?


Which of the following is a type of phagocytic cell?

the end result of both the classical and alternative complement system

MACs (membrane attack complex) are...

production of antibodies

The complement system is involved in all of the following EXCEPT:


The classical complement pathway is activated by?


Pyrogens stimulate which of the following processes?

wandering macrophages

Diapedesis is an activity associated with?

antiviral proteins

The result of alpha and beta interferon activity is production of?


Which complement protein is the key to the activation of the alternative pathway of complement activation?

specific molecules that the body recognizes as foreign

Antigens are...

exogenous antigens

An invading bacterial cell would be a source of which of the following?

small intestine

Peyer's patches are found in the?


The type of immunoglobulin produced during the initial stages of an immune response is?

B lymphocytes

The humeral immune response is attributed to the action of?

NK cells

Which of the following is not an example of the cytokine activated by macrophages?


The most prevalent type of antibody in the blood is?

glycoproteins found on the surface of most vertebrate animals

Major histocompatibility antigens are...

it takes a long time to respond whenever it encounters a pathogen

Which of the following statements concerning adaptive immunity is incorrect?


Which of the following recognizes and binds to MHC II antigens and helps stabilize the binding of antigenic determinants to T cell receptors?

memory cells

Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as...


Which of the following immunoglobulins is produced by plasma cells in response to an allergen?

reproduce and evolve more rapidly than the host can eliminate them

One reason that pathogenic microorganisma have an advantage int he host they infect is because they:

All of the above are examples of pathogens that cause human disease

Examples of pathogens that cause human disease include:

inactivation of macrophages

Which of the following is not a characteristic of inflammation?


The most abundant type of leukocytes in human peripheral blood is:

prior exposure to an infectious agent is an attenuated or weakened form

Vaccination is best described as prevention of severe disease by:

made by the spleen

Which of the following does not accurately describe complement components?

mannose-binding lectin

The lectin pathway of complement activation is induced by:


Which of the following complement components is an opsonin that binds to complement receptor 1 (CR1) on macrophages?

enhancement of dissemination of microbes into lymphatics and bloodstream

Which of the following does not describe the actions of the coagulation system?

synthesized by spleen

Which of the following is not a characteristic of C-reactive proteins?

highly conserved with few variants

Which of the following does not describe defensins?

ability to phagocytose

Which of the following properties is common to macrophages and neutrophils?

mannose-bing lectin

Which of the following is an acute-phase protein that enhances complement fixation?

variable; constant

The _________ regions of the α and β chains of the T-cell receptor forms the pathogen-specific binding site, whereas the ______ region anchors the molecule on the cell surface:

clonal selection

The process of _______ results in the amplification of particular T cells and B cells with specificity for antigens:

They transport antigen from epithelia to draining lymph nodes

Which of the following characteristics distinguishes dendritic cells from macrophages?

T cells

In most cases adaptive immune responses rely on the initial activation of ______ in secondary lymphoid tissue.

When activated, CD8 T cells in turn activate B cells

Which of the following statements regarding CD8 T cells is incorrect?

heavy-chain constant regions

The five isotypes of immunoglobulin differ from each other in their ________.

isotype switching

The process of ______ results in change in the constant region of the heavy-chain of antibodies, causing a change in the effector function and transport properties of anitbodies.

permit certain innate immune system cells to recognize certain molecules that are pathogens

Toll-like receptors:

the ability of antibodies to function as opsonins

Which of the following is a good example of how innate and adaptive immunity depend on each other?


Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by phagocytic cells?

attack virus-infected cells in a nonspecific way

A major function of natural killer cells is to ________.


Which of the following is a response of our innate defense system?


A substance that can elicit an immune response from a lymphocyte is called a(n) __________.


The study of the physiological mechanisms that humans and other animals use to defend their bodies from invasion by other organisms is known as _____________.

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