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Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's nonspecific lines of defense against disease?
the end result of both the classical and alternative complement system
MACs (membrane attack complex) are...
Which complement protein is the key to the activation of the alternative pathway of complement activation?
glycoproteins found on the surface of most vertebrate animals
Major histocompatibility antigens are...
it takes a long time to respond whenever it encounters a pathogen
Which of the following statements concerning adaptive immunity is incorrect?
Which of the following recognizes and binds to MHC II antigens and helps stabilize the binding of antigenic determinants to T cell receptors?
Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as...
reproduce and evolve more rapidly than the host can eliminate them
One reason that pathogenic microorganisma have an advantage int he host they infect is because they:
All of the above are examples of pathogens that cause human disease
Examples of pathogens that cause human disease include:
prior exposure to an infectious agent is an attenuated or weakened form
Vaccination is best described as prevention of severe disease by:
Which of the following complement components is an opsonin that binds to complement receptor 1 (CR1) on macrophages?
enhancement of dissemination of microbes into lymphatics and bloodstream
Which of the following does not describe the actions of the coagulation system?
Which of the following is an acute-phase protein that enhances complement fixation?
The _________ regions of the α and β chains of the T-cell receptor forms the pathogen-specific binding site, whereas the ______ region anchors the molecule on the cell surface:
The process of _______ results in the amplification of particular T cells and B cells with specificity for antigens:
They transport antigen from epithelia to draining lymph nodes
Which of the following characteristics distinguishes dendritic cells from macrophages?
In most cases adaptive immune responses rely on the initial activation of ______ in secondary lymphoid tissue.
When activated, CD8 T cells in turn activate B cells
Which of the following statements regarding CD8 T cells is incorrect?
heavy-chain constant regions
The five isotypes of immunoglobulin differ from each other in their ________.
The process of ______ results in change in the constant region of the heavy-chain of antibodies, causing a change in the effector function and transport properties of anitbodies.
permit certain innate immune system cells to recognize certain molecules that are pathogens
the ability of antibodies to function as opsonins
Which of the following is a good example of how innate and adaptive immunity depend on each other?
Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by phagocytic cells?
attack virus-infected cells in a nonspecific way
A major function of natural killer cells is to ________.
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