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The people living in Africa south of the Congo River who speak a Bantu language


The African region surrounded by the Sahara, the Gulf of Guinea, the Atlantic Ocean, and the mountains of Ethiopia


North African peoples who were the first to develop saddles for use on the camel


A muslim port city founded between the eighth and tenth centuries; today it is the capital of Somalia

stateless societies

African societies bound together by ethnic or blood ties rather than being political states


The name of a great African kingdom inhabited by the Soninke people


The name used by the Soninke people for their ruler


The city where the king of Ghana held his court


Originally a campsite for desert nomads, it grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa


The first black African society that can be studied from written records; it was the site of the kingdom of Aksum


A kingdom in northwestern Ethiopia that was a sizable trading state and the center of Christian culture


The East African coastal culture, named after a Bantu language whose vocabulary and poetic forms exhibit strong Arabic influences


The most powerful city on the coast of Africa by the late thirteenth century

Great Zimbabwe

A ruined African city discovered by a German explorer in 1871; it is considered the most powerful monument south of the Nile Valley and Ethiopian highlands

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