Terms in this set (51)
- poet- Constantly criticized his audience, the bourgeoisie--devoted to shocking them. Hated George Sand--from his point of view she was part of the bourgeoisie (the richer upper class), and not against them. Wrote Les Fleurs du mal (Flowers of Evil) and was taken to trial concerning them. He lost, was fined, and had to remove six poems concerning lesbianism and vampirism. Friends with Manet.
- novelist- Emphasized literary realism termed, "Naturalism" which in Zola's own words it is "nature seen through a temperament". Understood that the author's bias affected their art. Wrote Edouard Manet (a defense of Manet's works); The Moment in Art; Germinal. Thought that people were a product of heredity and environmental facts over which they had no control.
- Believed that Opera should be dramatically realistic; his operas came to symbolize Italian nationalism. Politicized opera--nationalist themes. Had to censor his plays in Paris.
- made the orchestra carry melody instead of opera singer. Too new to be fully appreciated in France, and the plot was too foreign (German folklore). Music drama- acted out instrumental drama. Leitmotif-leading motif.
French Impressionism - painted en plein air [meaning out of doors], term "impression" initially derogatory, a lot of color, about seeing things that are not so carefully looked at, what things look like through an emotional filter. Often focused on light. Paint outdoors to capture the natural effects of light, paints could be transported outside without drying.
Fyodor Dostoevsky -Crime and Punishment; psychological realism ← internal struggle of his characters. Crime and Punishment raised the question: can immoral means justify worthy ends? This was higher realism style b/c it was infused with anxieties, conflicts, and tensions that compromise modern consciousness. Inward realism to psychology of tormented heros. -these two known as the "prophets" of Russia
Pre-Raphaelites in Great Britain
-focused on Gothic architecture and bringing back medieval art, pottery, etc. (Think Rossetti and Burne-Jones) The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art. Denounced art after the earlier work of Raphael including work by Leonardo and Michelangelo. Liked Jan Van Eyck for his texture and clarity, also liked Sandro Botticelli's work.
Fin de siècle
Fin de siècle - French for "end of the century", refers to end of 19th century Europe; boredom, cynicism, saw civilization in a massive crisis that required a total solution, Last decade of 19th century - movement toward modern art (symbolisms and post-impressionism) in France. Paris was the center of it. Shift from naturalism to symbolism.
- 19th century Norwegian playwright, father of prose drama, one of the founders of Modernism in theatre, wrote Peer Gynt and "A Doll's House" about oppression of women and cruelty of man, several of his plays were considered scandalous at the time: women would pursue their own interests, even at leaving house, home, and family.
- symbolist French poet, work inspired many revolutionary artistic schools of early 20th century (ex. Dadaism, Surrealism, futurism, etc.) Inspiration for many composers, including Debussy. feelings evoked by poems=more important than the words. Wrote in metaphors and shadows: to name a thing was to destroy it. To suggest it only was to bring it to life. Believed words and syntax hindered poems - feelings are most important
- French composer, crucial to transition to modern era in Western music, music noted for sensory component (not formed around one key/pitch). music's ability to bring forth images. Symbolist (NOT IMPRESSIONIST). Made music to illustrate Mallarme's poems - brings images to mind without words; used chromatic scales.
- Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.
-pointillism--using additive colors to create the subtractive qualities of light, tiny dots together to make picture--paintings suggest more then they portray, experimented with blending of primary colors to make other colors.
wrote critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science; substantial influence in existentialism and postmodernism. He wrote critical texts displaying a fondness for metaphor, irony and aphorism. We skipped these readings.
- Colonization of Africa by European powers (France, England, etc.)
- The central idea of social Darwinism is that of the struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves. The most prominent form of such views stressed competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism; but it is also connected to the ideas of eugenics, scientific racism, imperialism, fascism, Nazism and struggle between national or racial groups. Europeans were the "fitter" race.
- Examined European imperialism in Africa. Wrote about the negative consequences of Social Darwinism in the Heart of Darkness.
- US poet/writer who lived in France, friends with Matisse and Picasso, art collector, salon organizer. The portrait of her done by Picasso is his transitional piece from classic realism to modern art. Painted not his view of her but his idea of her.
- Art style developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, noted for geometry of forms, its fragmentation of object, and increasing abstraction. Showing different perspectives on top of each other.
french for "wild beast". Color as a way of accessing deep emotion (vibrant warm colors that normally don't go together) A radical application of arbitrary or unnatural color. Something to do with spatial ambiguity?
-modernist music composer, defined art as antagonist to public opinion, violent rhythmic.. wrote music to accompany Ballets Russes (Russian ballets). Public disliked his performance b/c music was angular and jarring - unconventional. Ballet was polytonal - 2 keys, different instruments, same time.
- (Ballets Russes) subject drawn from psychological make-up. Ballet Russes was a ballet company under the direction of Diaghilev and it premiered the ballet "Le Sacre de Printemps" (The Rite of Spring) which was composed by Stravinsky.
- Wrote music which abandoned tonality. Tonality to atonality but preferred the term pantonal. Tonality is organization around a home key. Atonality of his music reflects anguish with explosive force.
- made up of 4 artists. Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. goal= free imagination from chains of contrasted color that enslave it. deliberately crude art
Der Blaue Reiter
- obsessed with color. No common style. influenced by Matisse=spiritual harmony
- poems drew immediate attention to horrifying descriptions. wanted reader to share his horrific dreams. Wrote about the pity of war and bitterly ironic poetry.Killed in combat a week before the war ended.
Erich Maria Remarque
- german soldier who witnessed war first hand. Tells of a generation destroyed by war. Horrors of trench warfare - "All quiet on the Western Front" about how everyone was destroyed by the war.
T.S. Eliot -The Wasteland-
considered to be one of the most important literary works of its time, comprised of four sections: Burial of the Dead, A Game of Chess, Fire Sermon, Death By Water. A poem about devastating effects of the war.
cultural movement started in Zurich, peaking in 1916, concentrated anti-war politics through rejection of standards in art, ridiculed meaninglessness of modern world, anarchist group
Carl Jung -
Swiss psychiatrist, founder of analytical psychology, first to view psyche as "by nature religious", best known researcher in dream analysis-collective unconscious. posited the existence of archetypes which reappear throughout history in various cultures
features element of surprise, confusing humor, primarily a revolutionary movement, developed out of Dadaism, centered in Paris. Often attempts to depict the artist's subconscious, or dreams
James Joyce -
Irish novelist/poet, best known for Ulysses, perfected the s-o-c technique
argued that for women to reach full potential they had to be financially and psychologically independent from men
name given to federal republic in 1919 in Germany to replace imperial gov't, named after city where the constitutional assembly took place
German author. Kafka's writing attracted little attention until after his death. Kafka left his published and unpublished work to his friend with explicit instructions that it should be burned at his (Kafka's) death-wrote Metamorphosis and The Trial- looked at paranoia and the bureaucracy.
German poet/playwright, influential theatre practitioner, made significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, operated Berliner Ensemble with his wife post-war, socialist. wanted his readers to feel critical of and alienated from his characters.
Hitler and Anti-Semitism
Suspicion of/hatred toward/discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage, Hitler played a large part-blamed them for the stock market crash. Nuremberg Laws enforced anti-semitism.
Propaganda and Leni Riefenstahl-
German film director/actress/dancer, noted for her aesthetics and innovations in film, most famous for propaganda movies for the Third Reich ("Triumph of Will"), friends with Hitler which destroyed her career after the end of the war
Premier of Soviet Union, Bolshevik revolutionary, brought about the October Revolution, introduced the concept of socialism in one country, sent millions of people to penal labor camps/deported/exiled them to remote areas of the country, blamed peasants for economic downturn.
movement to create a classless, moneyless, stateless social order
Social Realism in art
all other abstract styles were banned by Stalin
Klucis (Russian art); he was a Constructivist - communicate with peasant class. Examples: The Development of Transportation, The Five-Year Plan
Italian politician who led the Fascist Party-terrorized socialists and communists
Spanish general, dictator, leader of Nationalist military rebellion (Right-Wing Fascist Falange)
Shoah means "catastrophe" in Hebrew. Claude Lanzmann's 9.5 hr documentary called Shoah = series of deeply moving testimonies about the Holocaust drawn from survivors, those who stood by without doing anything and the perpetrators themselves (usually taped without their knowledge).
The Belief that it is impossible to truly know if God exists, but that shouldn't matter. People should be morally good just because that is the right thing to do. (The Invisible Man)
Danish philosopher and theologian, critic of Idealist intellectuals, critical of Christianity, first existentialist philosopher
French existentialist philosopher, playwright, leading figure in French philosophy, Marxism and the philosophy of atheistic existentialism. Wrote the Black Orpheus.
Simone de Beauvoir
Argued that women had passively allowed men to define them rather then define themselves. Wrote The Second Sex.
Theater of the Absurd and Samuel Beckett
designation for plays of absurdist fiction written by playwrights (including Samuel Beckett) in the 1960s, expressed the belief that life has no meaning or purpose and therefore all communication breaks down (logic gives way to irrational thoughts- silence) Samuel Beckett wrote a bleak, tragic outlook on human nature, using black comedy and gallows humor, considered one of the last modernists-wrote Waiting for Godot
leading figure in US Women's Movement, wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963 which created a second feminist movement, elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW)
a working definition of the spirit of Postmodernism, including in breaking down racial identity barriers. "I don't expect you to remember the dizzying number of examples the book throws at you far too quickly." Prof. Parry