AP Human Geography unit 7

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Agglomeration
the action or process of regions or areas collecting in mass usually for certain advantages
Barriadas
another name for squatter settlements that are residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned nor is rented by its occupants
Bid-rent theory
a geographical economic theory to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the CBD increases
Blockbusting
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
CBD (central business district)
The area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
Census tract
An area delineated by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published
Centrality
The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
Centralization
Is the process by which the activities of an organization
Central-place theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
Christaller, Walter
created the central place theory which displayed the ideas that central places would provide services and goods to the surrounding areas
City
conglomeration of people and buildingd clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics.
Colonial city
compared to older cities , colonial cities typically contain wider streets and public squares, lager houses, surrounded by gardens, and much lower density
Commercialization
the transfermation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
Commuter zone
the fifth ring in the concentric zone model that is beyond the continuous built-up area of the city
Concentric zone model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
Counterurbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Decenteralization
the process of dispersing desicion-making closer to the point of service or action
Deindustrialization
a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industry in a country or region
Early city
cities of the ancient world
Economic Base (basic/nonbasic)
a commutity's collection of basic industries
Edge city
a large node of office and retail activities on teh edge of an urban area
Emerging city
city currantly without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
Employment structure
how the workforce is divided up between the three main employment sectors - primary, secondary, and tertiary
Ethnic neighborhood
a neighborhood in which the people who live in there and share physical, mental, and cultural traits
Favela
the brazilian equivalent of a shanty-town, which are generally found on the edge of the city
Female-headed household
a household in which the most powerful person is a female
Festival landscape
a landscape of cultural festivities
Gateway city
serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.
Gender
the social differences between men and women
Gentrification
the invations of older, centrally located working class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences
Ghetto
durning the middle ages, a nieghborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Great cities
a city with a population of more then 1 million
High-tech corridors
made up of thousands of high tech businesses and industries
Hinterland
the area surrounding a cental place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services
Hydraulic civilization
any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks
Indigenous city
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
In-filling
the use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development
Informal sector
it is the economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that governments GNP
Infrastructure
the fundenmental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, such as transprotation and communication systems, power plants, and schools
Inner city
residental neighborhoods that surround the CBD
Invasion and succession
a model of change used in urban ecology to represent the effects of immigration on the social structure of an urban area
Lateral commuting
commuting between two suburbs
Medieval cities
cities that existed during the time frame of the middle ages
Megacities
a recognized metropolitan area with a total population in excess of 10 million people
Megalopolis/conurbation
an area of an adjacent metropolitan ares that overlap
Metropolitan area
the couny within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city
Multiple nuclei model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Multiplier effect
the expansion of the money supply that results from a Federal Reserve System member bank's ability to lend significantly in excess of its reserves
Neighborhood
the area or region around or near some place or thing
Office Park
is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together
Peak land value intersection
is the land within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce
Planned communities
any community that was carfully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undevelped area
Postindustrial city
a city in which an economic transition has occured from a manufacturing based economy to a servicebased economy
Postmodern urban landscape
Attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments
Primate city
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
Racial steering
refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
Rank-size rule
a pattern of settlement in a country
Redlining
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to perchase or improve property within boundries
Restrictive covenants
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
Sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Segregation
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Settlement form (nucleated, dispersed, elongated)
nucleated: a compact, closely packed settlement sharply decorated from adjoining farmlands; dispersed: characterized by a much lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads; elongated: a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape
Shopping mall
mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
Site/situation
Site = the physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant, Situation = the location of a place relative to other places
Slum
a heavily populated urban area characterized by substandard housing and squalor
Social structure
social organization based on established patterns of social interaction between different relationships
Specialization
separation of tasks within a system
Squatter settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Street pattern (grid, dendritic, access, control)
the way in which streets are designed;
grid: streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion; dendritic: characterized by fewer streets organized based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry; access: provides access to a subdivision, housing project, or highway; control: allows highways or housing projects to be supervised
Suburb
residential areas on the outskirts of a city or large town
Suburbanization
a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities
Symbolic landscape
landscape that depicts symbols
Tenement
An apartment building, especially one meeting minimum standards of sanitation, safety or maintenance up keep.
Threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service.
Significance: Many service companies when thinking of a location will consider the threshold or hte number of people that are needed fro them to stay in business.
Town
an urban area with a fixed boundary that is smaller than a city
Underclass
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Significance: Many of the underclass live in the inner cities which face tough issues making it hard for them.
Underemployment
Employed at a job that does not fully use one's skills or abilities.
Significance: Since there is a competition for jobs in some areas especially those that are highly urbanized means that there might be a fraction of people who are underemployed.
Urban growth rate
The rate at which an urban area grows.
Significance: It lets geographers know the fastest growing urban areas and analyze their growth.
Urban Function
Services that are provided in a certain urban area
Urban hearth area
An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile Valley, where large cities first existed.
Urban heat island
Is a metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas.
Urban hierarchy
A ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions.
Urban hydrology
Study of water in Urban areas and how to treat it. (Pollution)
Urban morphology
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
Urbanization
The process by which the population of cities grow.
Significance: More and more areas have become urban over the course of history. Now the United States is fairly split between rural and urban areas dividing the land mas of the nation.
Urbanized population
Population that lives in Urban areas. (Cities)
World city
Most important centers of economic power and wealth.
Zone in transition
area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD; mixture of growth, change, and decline
Zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
Range
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
Significance: This is one of the most prominent factors that a service company would take into consideration when deciding where to locate.
Cityscapes
the urban equivalent of a landscape